Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - C

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Calamintha grandiflora 'Variegata'

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Variegated Green and Cream, aromatic

Pink in
June-August

"Large-flowered Calamint". From damp woodland and scrub, mostly on chalky soils, in Iran, Turkey, southern and central Europe. Clump-forming
Full Sun or Part Shade
Zone 5-9
Moist,
Excellent on well-drained chalky soil
Full Sun for best leaf colour, will revert, pinch out green leaves.

Calamintha Companions - Sedum, aster, perovskia, x solidaster, solidago, coreopsis, scabiosa. Cut down dead foliage in the autumn.
Use as filler in the front of the border.

Calamintha nepeta
(Calamintha nepetoides)

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 30
(45 x 75)

Aromatic peppermint-scented Green

Mauve in
June-August

"Lesser Calamint". Grows on dry, exposed sites on chalky soils in North Africa, western Asia and much of southern and central Europe as far north as the east of England.
Full Sun or Part Shade
Zone 5-9
Moist
Well-drained soil. Suitable for dry soils. Flowers most profusely in a warm, open position in full sun.

Callistemon citrinus 'Austraflora Firebrand'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 144
(150 x 360)

Dark Green

Bright Crimson in
April-July

"Scarlet Bottlebrush, Lemon Bottlebrush". Attracts birds.
Full Sun, marginally frost-tolerant
Zones 8-11
Moist soil

Callistemon pityoides

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Dark Green

Yellow in
July-August

 

Callistemon rigidus

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 84
(210 x 210)

Matt Dark Green

Deep Red in
May-June

 

Calluna vulgaris 'Annemarie'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 20
(50 x 50)

Green

Rose-Pink in
September-October

"Scotch Heather". Good for cutting.

Zones 4-9

"The common heather or ling - Calluna vulgaris, is found growing on mountains and moorlands throughout the British Isles, and encompasses a vast range of foliage colours, flower colours and plant sizes. All Callunas grow well in light, lime-free soil, in an open sunny position. Avoid planting in shade. We recommend the removal of dead flower spikes to keep the plants compact." from Ashwood Nurseries
Best in exposed positions, where dead leaves do not congregate; lime-free soil with humus. All Calluna vulgaris varieties except the very dwarf varieties need clipping in spring to keep them compact. Plant 12 inches (30 cms) apart and use a mulch to control weeds until the cover is established.

More Details can be had from Heather World as linked to in the last row in this table.

Calluna vulgaris 'Blazeaway'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 24
(35 x 60)

Gold in Spring and Summer, Orange in Autumn, Fiery-Red in Winter

Lavender in
August-September

Compact variety with valuable winter foliage colour.

Calluna vulgaris 'Boskoop'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 22
(30 x 55)

Rich Gold in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Orange with Red in Winter

Lavender in
August-September

See 'Boskoop' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris
'Con Brio'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 18
(35 x 45)

Yellowish-Green in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Bronze-Red in Winter

Ruby in
August-September

There are further culivation details from Heaths and Heathers in America, who specialize in the new, the rare and the unusual in heaths and heathers. We have more varieties available than anyone in the United States and one of the largest collections in the world. Our display garden has over 2,000 plants in the ground.

Calluna vulgaris
'County Wicklow'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 14
(25 x 35)

Mid Green

Shell Pink in
August-October

Compact variety
See 'County Wicklow' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris 'Cuprea'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 10
(25 x 25)

Copper in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Bronze Red in Winter

Lavender in
August-October

See 'Cuprea' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris 'Darkness'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 14
(25 x 35)

Dark Green

Crimson in
August-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Firefly'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 22
(45 x 65)

Terracotta Red in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Brick Red in Winter

Deep Mauve in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris 'Flamingo'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 22 (30 x 55)

Dark Green

Lavender in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Golden Carpet'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12 (10 x 30)

Gold in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Orange and Red in Winter

Mauve in
September-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Gold Haze'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Pale Yellow

White in
August-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Grey Carpet'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 14 (10 x 35)

Silver-Grey

Mauve in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris
'H.E. Beale'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 22 (30 x 55)

Dark Green

Shell Pink in
August-November

 

Calluna vulgaris
'J.H. Hamilton'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 10 (10 x 25)

Dark Green

Deep Pink in
July-September

Compact variety.

Calluna vulgaris
'John F. Letts'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 10 (10 x 25)

Gold in Spring and Summer, Bronze in Autumn, Red and Orange in Winter

Lavender in
September-October

See 'John F. Letts' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris 'Kinlochruel'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 16 (25 x 40)

Bright Green in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Bronze in Winter

White in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Red Carpet'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)

Gold in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Orange/Red in Winter

Mauve in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Red Haze'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 28 (45 x 70)

Dull Gold in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Reddish-Bronze in Winter

 

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Robert Chapman'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 14 (25 x 35)

Red in Spring, Gold in Summer, Orange in Autumn and Red in Winter

Lavender in
August-October

Compact variety with valuable winter foliage colour.

Calluna vulgaris
'Ruby Slinger'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 14 (25 x 35)

Green with Yellow tips in Spring, Bright Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

White in
August-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Sir John Charrington'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 16 (25 x 40)

Bronze in Spring, Gold in Summer, Gold with Scarlet tips in Autumn, Red in Winter

Deep Lilac Pink in
August-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Spring Cream'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 16 (35 x 40)

Mid Green, Cream tinted in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Mid Green, Yellow tinted in Autumn and Winter

White in
August-November

The low-growing Calluna heathers are useful as borders and edging plants as well as ground covers. Their deep roots help prevent soil erosion on steep slopes. Heathers can withstand salt-laden air and exposed, windy locations and are therefore well suited to coastal locations. Like heaths, they require little maintanance once established.

Calluna vulgaris
'Spring Torch'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 24 (40 x 60)

Green, Pink/Red tips in Spring, Green, Cream/Pink tips in Summer, Mid Green in Autumn, Green, Pink/Red tips in Winter

Mauve in
August-October

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Sunset'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)

Gold and Bronze in Spring, Gold in Summer, Red in Autumn and Winter

Lilac Pink in
August-October

Compact variety with valuable winter foliage colour.

See 'Sunset' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris 'Tricolorifolia'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 16 (25 x 40)

Green, Pink/Cream tinted in Spring, Green in Summer and Autumn, Chocolate Brown in Winter

Lavender in
August-September

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Velvet Fascination'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 28 (45 x 70)

Silver Green

White in
August-September

See 'Velvet Fascination' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris
'White Lawn'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 16 (5 x 40)

Clear Green

White in
August-September

See 'White Lawn' plant description page

Calluna vulgaris
'Wickwar Flame'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 26 (45 x 65)

Gold in Spring and Summer, Orange in Autumn, Red in Winter

Lavender in
August-November

 

Calluna vulgaris
'Winter Chocolate'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 17 (25 x 42)

Salmon in Spring, Gold with Pink tips in Summer and Autumn, Bronze in Winter

Lavender in
August-October

See 'Winter Chocolate' plant description page

Calycanthus floridus

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 120 (240 x 300)

Dark Green

Dark Red in
June-August

"Carolina Allspice, Sweet Shrub". From southeastern USA. Grown for its flowers
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Fertile, humus-rich, moist soil.

Camellia japonica

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

Glossy Dark Green

... in
March-May

Small scraggy tree in natural habitats in Japan, Korea and China
Part Shade
Zones 5-10
Well-drained, slightly acidic soil enriched with organic matter.

Camellia reticulata

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

600 x 180 (1500 x 450)

Dark Green above, paler beneath

Rose-Red in
April

More upright than Camellia japonica.
Part Shade
Zones 8-10
Well-drained, slightly acidic soil enriched with organic matter.

Camellia sasanqua

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 120 (600 x 300)

Dark Green above, paler beneath

White in
October-November

From southern Japan with small leaves. Being densely leafed, they can be grown as hedges and even as street trees. Suited to espaliering against a house wall, since it is tender
Part Shade
Zones 9-11
Well-drained, slightly acidic soil enriched with organic matter.

Campanula
'Birch Hybrid'

Details of smaller Campanulas and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • Why not use Dwarf Campanulas by Graham Nicholls

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Bright Green

Mauve-blue
in June-August

Herbaceous Campanulas "Bellflower" prefer full sun and well-drained soil and to be used in rock gardens or borders.
Prostrate
Zone 4-9
"Open sunny area to Part Shade
Moist
Well-drained soil
Use in Alpine, rock garden conditions." is
Group 1

Campanula companions - Polygonatum, hosta, coreopsis, eryngium, roses, achillea, verbascum, papaver, dicentra, geranium.
If you have a lonely perennial, there is probably 1 from 300 species of campanula for it.

Campanula glomerata 'Superba'

Campanula garganica is a better ground cover at only 6 inches (15 cms) with its pale blue flowers, than the Superba' which its relatively closed cover of leaves develops after several years of growth.

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 36 (75 x 90)

Dark Green

Violet-Purple in
June-August

"Clustered Bellflower".
Suitable for cutting.
Invasive spreader.
Zone 3-8
"Open sunny area to Part Shade
Moist
Well-drained neutral to alkaline soil
Cut back after flowering to prevent self-sowing and encourage a second bloom" is Group 2

Blue and purple companions by backing this plant with Iris 'Braithwaite' flowers of deep blue and pale blue.

Campanula lactiflora 'Pritchard's Variety'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

54 x 24 (135 x 60)

Mid-Green

Violet-Blue in
June-September

"Milky Bellflower".
Full Sun , but prefers light Shade
Zone 4-8
Well-drained, moist soil
Suitable for cutting.
Clump-forming.
Group 1
Comes from open forests, scrub and mountain meadows in the Caucasus and western Asia.

Campanula latifolia

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid-Green

Violet in
June-August

Suitable for cutting.
Great bell flower, self-sows, vigorous.
Part Shade
Zone 4-8
Well-drained, moist soil
Group 1
Use in back of border, or for a wild garden, where it may be allowed to seed.

Campanula persicifolia

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Bright Green

Lilac-Blue in
June-July
campanulaflopersicifolia1a

Excellent Cut Flower. Self-sows.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Zone 3-8
Moist, well-drained soil
Group 1.

Campanula persicifolia 'Telham Beauty'

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Bright Green

Light Blue in
June-August

Excellent Cut Flower.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-8
Moist, Well-drained soil
Group 1

Campanula portenschlagiana

Evergreen Alpine 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 24 (180 x 60)

Mid-Green

Deep Blue
in June-September

"Dalmation Bellflower, Wall Bellflower". From rocky places in the mountains of Croatia.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Rocky soil
Group 2
It makes a surface as well as underground runners and so forms a lovely carpet or hangs in a decorative curtain over the edge of a low wall.

Campsis grandiflora

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360
(900 cms)

Mid to Dark Green

Dark Orange to Red in
August-November

 

Campsis radicans

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360
(900 cms)

Dark Green

Orange to Red in
August-November

Use on sunny walls and fences, for covering large pergolas, gazebos and for climbing large, high-canopied trees
Full Sun
Zone 7
Deep, well fed, well-drained soil with a high organic content. Support with trellis, since support by its tendrils may not be strong enough due to the weight of the branches.

Campsis x tagliabuana 'Madam Galen'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360
(900 cms)

Dark Green

Orange-Pink in
August-November

 

Cardamine raphanifolia

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Dark Green

Lilac or White in
June

Bittercress, Cuckooflower.
Full Shade to Part Shade - tolerates sun if kept moist. Grow in a woodland or part shade location
Zone 5-8
Humus-rich, moisture-retentive, moist soil.

Top dress with leaf mould or other organic material. Cut back as foliage begins to fade.

Cardamine companions - Corydalis, Pacific Coast iris, primula, pulmonaria, viola, brunnera, helleborus, narcissus.

Cardiocrinum giganteum

Bulb above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 18
(240 x 45)

Glossy Dark Green

Strongly Scented White in
July-September

"Giant Lily".

Carex comans

Grass below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 30
(30 x 75)

Yellow-Green in Spring, Pale Grey or Reddish Brown in Summer and Autumn

Brown Spikes in
July-August

Native to damp grassland, river flats, or the sides of forest tracks in New Zealand.
Part Shade
Zone 7
Grow in a moist cleft on a rock garden where the foliage can tumble downwards or in a contrasting-coloured or metal container.

Companion with Persicaria affinis for the bronze form of Carex comans

Carex elata 'Aurea'

Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

28 x 18
(70 x 45)

Arching, sharp-edged, Rich Yellow, Narrowly margined Green leaves

Brown and Green spikes in
May-June

"Bowles Golden Sedge".
Full Sun
Zone 5
Grow in damp soil, or with its toes in water and it looks striking with blue water iris and other blue and variegated water plants.
Carex elata comes from swamps and still freshwater in northern Europe, including Britain.

Carex hachijoensis 'Evergold'
(Carex oshimensis 'Evergold') contrast with
Carex morrowii 'Ice Dance' and
Carex ornithopoda 'Variegata'

Evergreen Grass below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 14
(30 x 35)

Dark Green with a broad cream yellow central stripe

Brown spikes in
April-May

Variegated form of Japanese Sedge.
Light shade
Zone 6
Moisture-retentive soil with good drainage.
Originally from dry and rocky slopes in Japan and can be used as edging or underplanting for spring bulbs or summer bedding.

Carex pendula

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

54 x 60
(135 x 150)

Shiny Mid-Green leaves, which are 36 inches long and Blue-Green beneath

Dark Brown spikes in
May-June

"Weeping Sedge"
Part Shade
Zone 5
Best in large areas of wild garden or by big ponds.
Clump-forming large-size woodland rush, arching and graceful in leaf and flyer in lime-free soil.
Found in deciduous woods and streamsides throughout Europe, Asia and North Africa.

Carex siderosticha 'Variegata'

Grass below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16
(30 x 40)

Pale Green, margined and narrowly striped White, and pink flushed at the bases

Pale Brown spikes in
May

Part Shade
Zone 6
Creeping slowly to make dense masses in moist woodland, which can be especially effective when combined with early small spring bulbs.

Carpinus betulus

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 840 (2400 x 2100)

Mid-Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow to Orange in Autumn

Yellow and Green catkins in
March-May

"Common Hornbeam, European Hornbeam"
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 6-9
Well-drained, moderately fertile soil

Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 180 (900 x 450)

Mid-Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow and Orange in Autumn

Yellow and Green catkins in
March-May


Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 6-9
Well-drained, moderately fertile soil

Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Heavenly Blue'

Deciduous Sub-Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Grey-Green

Blue to Purplish-Blue in
August-October

"Hybrid Bluebeard, Blue-mist Shrub". Native to eastern Asia. Prized for its masses of delicate flowers from late summer to autumn.
Full Sun
Zones 5-9
Well-drained, humus-rich soil

Catananche caerulea

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Light Green

Lilac-Blue in
July-September

"Blue Cupidone, Cupid's Dart".
Full Sun
Zone 7
Well-drained soil.
Makes a good cut flower, either fresh or dried. From dry meadows in southwest Europe.

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 6
(75 x 15)

Mid-Green

Green or Yellow-Brown in
April-May

"Blue Cohosh". A dense, clump-forming plant that is ideal for late-season interest in a woodland garden.
Part Shade or Full Shade
Zone 3
Moist, humus-rich, acid or neutral soil. From Eastern North America

Ceanothus
'A.T. Johnson"

Details of smaller Ceanothus and which container to grow the plant in:-

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Light Green

Rich Blue in
August-October

Many of the larger growing Ceanothus species are suitable for high cover on warm sunny banks in maritime and sheltered districts. Best on acid or neutral soils; short-lived on chalk. They can develop root rot from receiving more summer waterings than they would in the wild. Two deep waterings a month in hot-summer areas are plenty after the plants are established.
"California Lilac, Wild Lilac, Redroot".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus
'Autumnal Blue'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 96
(300 x 240)

Bright Green

Blue in
May-October

"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus
'Gloire de Versaille'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dark Green

Pale Blue in
July-September

"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus
'Italian Skies'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 120
(150 x 300)

Mid-Green

Bright Blue in
May

"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus 'Marie Simon'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Mid-Green

Pink in
July-September

"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus 'Southmead'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dark Green

Rich Blue in
May-June

"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus divergens

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Dark Green

Purple-Blue in
April-May

Quite hardy and easy, but poorly coloured.
"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus repens

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 96
(90 x 240)

Mid-Green

Blue in
May-June

It is hardy and makes a large spreading bush, and is thoroughly to be recommended.
"California Lilac".
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind.

Cedrus deodara 'Aurea'

Evergreen Upright Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Golden-Yellow in Spring, Yellowish Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

...

"Golden Deodar" with golden branch tips. From western himalayas
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Well-drained, chalky soil

Celmisia walkeri

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Grey-Green above and densely White woollly beneath

White
in June

From New Zealand.

Centaurea cineraria
(Centaurea gymnocarpa)

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 18
(80 x 45)

Grey-White

Purple in
July-August

"Knapweed". The Knapweed plants are for poor, well-drained soils in meadows and borders, and are attractive to bees and butterflies.
Full sun
Zone 9
Use as bedding plant in mixed planting towards the front of beds or borders.

Centaurea macrocephala

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Mid-Green

Yellow in
July-August

Incredible flower buds, on noxious weed list in some USA States. Do not let it escape your garden
Full Sun
Zone 4-8
Bachelor's Button, or Cornflower.

Centaurea companions - Echinacea, cosmos, nepeta, beared irises, geranium, papaver orientale, iris sibirica; the wild seashore garden

Centaurea montana

Details of smaller Centaurea and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Mid-Green, woolly beneath and densely wooly stems

Blue in
May-July
centaureaflotmontana1a

"Perennial Cornflower, Mountain Bluet".
Full Sun
Zone 4-8
Well-drained chalk.
Spreads slowly to make a large clump. Traditional cottage garden plant popular for cutting and is a useful plant for bridging the "June gap" between spring and summer flowers.
Mildew can be a problem, but cutting them back after the first bloom will produce a fresh crop of leaves and a second bloom

Centranthus ruber

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Mid-Green

White, Pink or Crimson in
May-August

"Red Valerian" is often naturalized in cracks in walls, self-sows.
Full Sun to Part Shade
Well-drained chalky soil
Zone 5-8
Good cut flower and attracts butterflies. deadhead to stimulate continued bloom.

Companions - Echinacea, cosmos, nepeta, beared irises, geranium, papaver orientale, iris sibirica on a wild seashore garden.

Cerastium tomentosum

Details of smaller Cerastium and which container to grow the plant in:-

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

White

White in
May-August

"Snow-in-Summer". Spreading ground cover of slivery grey foliage in dense mats.
It is best used for large- or small-scale planting wherever its unusual foliage colour can contrast well with its surroundings. It may be used on slopes or level ground, or between steppingstones.
The most suitable for small beds is the even smaller Cerastium tomentosum var. columnea.

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 8
(45 x 20)

Bright Green in Spring and Summer, Rich Red in Autumn

Brilliant Blue in August-October
ceratostigmafloplumbagoides1a

"Dwarf Plumbago, Blue Leadwort".
Compact and low-spreading.
Full Sun to Part Shade
Well-drained soil.
Zone 6-9
The rounded, smooth leaves take on bright autumn tints while the flowers are appearing. It can cover large areas and is attractive tucked into corners or under shrubs. It combines well with English boxwood, ajuga, or sempervivums.

Ceratostigma Companions - Grow as groundcover under late-season coloured foliage such as grasses, Berberis thunbergii, Acer palmatum, Hydrangea quercifolia, Disanthus and Fuchsia.

Ceratostigma willmotianum

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Mid to dark Green with purple margins in Spring, and Summer, Red in Autumn

Rich Blue in
August-November

"Chinese Lumbago". Prized for its small flowers
Cut to ground in spring.
Full Sun to Part Shade
Well-drained soil
Zone 6-10
Green with red tints in leaves and stems in autumn.

Cercis siliquastrum

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 324 (900 x 810)

Bronze in Spring, Blue-Green in Summer, Yellow in Autumn

Bright Pink in
April
chaenomelesfloxsuperba1a

"Judas Tree, Love Tree". Native regions close to the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts.
Full Sun
Zones 7-9
Thrives in hot, dry summer weather, as long as the soil moisture is adequate in winter and spring

Chaenomeles x superba

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 72
(150 x 180)

Mid-Green

White, Pink or Crimson in
April-July

"Flowering Quince".
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained but not too rich soil and a dry atmosphere. Cut back hard each year. The flowers appear in stalkless clusters on the previous year's wood, followed in summer by yellow green fruits with waxy, strongly perfumed skins that make fine jams and jellies.

Chaenomeles x superba 'Crimson and Gold'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 72
(90 x 180)

Mid-Green

Red with Yellow anthers in
April-July

"Flowering Quince".
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained but not too rich soil and a dry atmosphere. Cut back hard each year. The flowers appear in stalkless clusters on the previous year's wood, followed in summer by yellow green fruits with waxy, strongly perfumed skins that make fine jams and jellies.
It freely suckers which makes it a blessing for ground-cover but a nuisance otherwise.

Chaenomeles x superba 'Rowallane'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 72
(90 x 180)

Mid-Green

Scarlet in
April-July

"Flowering Quince".
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained but not too rich soil and a dry atmosphere. Cut back hard each year. The flowers appear in stalkless clusters on the previous year's wood, followed in summer by yellow green fruits with waxy, strongly perfumed skins that make fine jams and jellies.

Chamaedaphne calyculata

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 36
(75 x 90)

Dark Green

White in
April-May

 

Chamaemelum nobile
(Anthemis nobilis)

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Fresh Green

...

"Roman Chamomile". From western Europe, including the British Isles.
Mat-forming
Full Sun
Zone 4
Any well-drained soil. Dried flower heads are used to make chamomile tea.
Mowed and rolled, it can serve as a lawn substitute or a living, growing path, made more attractive by the pleasant fragrance it gives off when walked upon.

Chelidonium majus
'Flore Pleno'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Bright Green

Yellow in Spring-Summer

"Greater Celandine". Self-seeding. Ground cover. Best in a wild garden.
Full Sun or shade
Zone 5
Any soil
Grows in woodland and the bottoms of hedges almost throughout Europe and western Asia.

Chionanthus virginicus

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in
July

"American Fringe Tree". From native forests of southeastern USA. May take 10 years to flower.
Full Sun
Zones 5-9
Well-drained soil

Chionodoxa

Deciduous Bulb

6 x 2
(15 x 5)

Dark Green

Blue in
April

"Glory-of-the-Snow". See link to further details in bottom row.

Choisya 'Aztec Pearl'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Dark Green

Pink-tinged White in
May

Excellent hedging plant
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 8-11
Slightly acid, humus-rich, well-drained soil

Choisya ternata

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Bright Green

White in Spring - fragrant

"Mexican Orange Blossom". From Mexico. Compact, rounded bush making an excellent hedging plant
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 7-11
Slightly acid, humus-rich, well-drained soil

Choisya ternata 'Sundance'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 84
(210 x 210)

Bright Yellow maturing to yellow-green

White in
May

"Mexican Orange Blossom". From Mexico. Compact, rounded bush making an excellent hedging plant
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 7-11
Slightly acid, humus-rich, well-drained soil

Chrysanthemum parthenium

Annual below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Mid Green

White in Summer

"Feverfew". Used as fillers or for contrast among other bedding plants.

Companions - Grasses, perovskia, hardy fuchsias, sedum, aster, solidago, salvia.

Cimicifuga japonica

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
August-November

Ground-hugging foliage, purplish black stems.
Full Shade to Full Sun
Humus-rich, cool, deep soil.
Zone 4-8
Cut down in fall after frost leaving several inches of stems so you know where they are and do not accidentally step on the crowns in the winter.

Companions - Hakonechloa, boltonia, geranium, hosta, heuchera, aconitum, ferns, Anemone japonica, miscanthus, rodgersia, lilies.

Cissus striata

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360
(900 cms)

Obovate, leathery, Glossy, Mid-Green

Green in
June-August

"Ivy of Uruguay". The serrated leaves are shiny green, forming a dense carpet. Not fully hardy in cold sites and is a greedy feeder, doing best in a rich, fertile soil.

Cistus 'Silver Pink'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36
(60 x 90)

Dark Green

Clear Pink in
June-July

"Rock Rose". Evergreen. Withstands sea winds well

Cistus x corbariensis

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Dark Green

White in
June-July

A tender shrub for full sun and well-drained soil. It suffers in cold winters but is suitable for the warmer counties. It only makes dense cover when fully exposed to sun and air.

Cistus x cyprius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dark Green

White in
June-August

Cistus are effective in rock gardens and as informal borders where there is no traffic.

Cistus x florentinus

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Grey-Green

White in
June-August

 

Cistus x purpureus

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Dark Green

Dark Pink in
June-August

 

Clematis armandii

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 96
(360 x 240)

Dark Green

White in
April

Climber for large walls or fences to cover pergolas and roofs of small buildings.
Full Sun with roots in shade
Zone 7
Any moisture-retentive, well-drained soil
Clematis appreciate monthly feedings throughout the growing season. Mulch in the winter season with organic material.

Clematis cirrhosa

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

108 x 60
(270 x 150)

Dark Green above, slightly bronze beneath

Cream in
March-April

Clematis companions - Clematis x durandii with cornus alba (variegated forms) and salvia guarantica; Clematis recta 'Purpurea' with bronze fennel, phlox paniculata, miscanthus, physocarpus opulifolius 'Diabolo', dahlia 'Bishop of Llandaff'.

Clematis integrifolia

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Light Green

Mid-Blue in
July-September

"Solitary Clematis". Needs good support to stop it sprawling. Fluffy silvery-brown seedheads
Full Sun
Well-drained, humus-rich chalky soil.
Zone 3-9
 

Clematis macropetala

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 60
(240 x 150)

Dark Green

Blue in
April-July

It does not require pruning.

Clematis marmoraria

Deciduous Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 8
(15 x 20)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-White
in April-May

Deciduous. Prostrate shrub with shiny, dark green, divided leaves. The flowers are followed by fluffy white seed heads.

Clematis montana 'Elizabeth'

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 96
(900 x 240)

Purple-flushed Mid- Green

Pale Pink in
May-June

All the montanas enjoy a north-facing aspect (south-facing in the southern hemisphere) are not fussy about soil and do not require pruning.

Clematis montana grandiflora 'Alba'

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 96
(900 x 240)

Mid-Green

White in
may

 

Clematis montana var. rubens

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 96
(900 x 240)

Bronze-Purple

Mid Pink in
May-June

For woodier clematis species - prune back to the lowest pair of buds in early spring.

Clematis recta

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 30
(120 x 75)

Grey-Green

Heavily scented White in
August-November

"Ground Clematis". Guide it into a stout shrub or support discreetly with brushwood.
Full Sun
Well-drained, humus-rich chalky soil.
Zone 3

For all herbaceous clematis - cut old growth to the ground in the spring when new growth is beginning.

Clematis tangutica

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 96
(450 x 240)

Sea-Green

Yellow in
June-September

It forms a dense carpet of twiggy stems. It will quickly spread and performs beautifully on a sunny slope or bank.

Clerodendrum bungei
(Clerodendrum foetidum)

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Dark Green tinged with purple when young

Very fragrant dark Pink in
August-November

"Glory Flower". Suckering shrub from China and the Himalayas. It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Deep, moist, fertile soil

Clethra alnifolia

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Mid-Green

White in
August-September

 

Clethra fargesii

Deciduous Shrub above 2 feet in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green, turning Red and Yellow in Autumn

White in
August-October

 

Colchicum

Herbaceous Bulb

4 x 1
(10 x 2)

Green

Pink some in
October-November others in March-April
colchicumcflokesselringiirvroger

See photos of Colchicums in Colchicum and Crocus Gallery.

Convallaria majalis

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 12
(23 x 30)

Dark Green

Stongly scented White in
May

Spreading "Lily-of-the-Valley" takes time to settle down in a woodland garden, or under deciduous shrubs.
Best in Part Shade in well-drained, humus-rich, alkaline soil.
Zone 1-9
Rampant weed-excluding carpet groundcover. Work abundant leafmould into the soil before planting and mulch with leafmould in autumn.

The red fruit is very poisonous.

Convallaria majalis 'Albostriata'

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 12
(23 x 30)

Bright Green striped Creamy-White

Stongly scented White in
May
convallariaflotmajalis1

Best in Part Shade in well-drained, humus-rich, alkaline soil.
Zone 1-9
Cut convallaria specie to the ground when it dies back. Top dress with leaf mould in autumn, Divide when they flower poorly due to overcrowding.

Convalleria companions - Ferns, oxalis, epimedium, asarum, iris foetidissima, brunnera macrophylla, arum italicum

Convallaria majalis var. rosea

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Dark Green

Pale mauvish-Pink in
May

Best in Part Shade in well-drained, humus-rich, alkaline soil.
Zone 1-9

This is less vigorous than Convallaria majalis. Use around shrubs, such as the taller rhododendrons and camellias, and are also effective with ferns.

Convolvulus cneorum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 36
(75 x 90)

Silvery-Green

White in
May-August

Shrubby Morning Glory in
Full Sun
Well-drained sandy soil
Zone 6-8

Companions - Lavender and other gray-leaved plants, low-growing grasses, artemisia, tall sedums, salvia

Coreopsis auriculata

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 24
(80 x 60)

Mid-Green

Bright Yellow in
June-July

Full Sun
Well-drained moist soil
Zone 3-9
Coreopsis (Tickseed) is long-blooming, but are not long-lived - 3-4 years before the show begins to dwindle; regenerate from divisions at the outer edge of the clump to extend their life.

Companions - Echinacea, campanula, penstemon, santolina, salvia, solidago, grasses, aster, lavandula, perovskia; try Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam' with hakonechloa

Coreopsis verticillata

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Mid-Green

Yellow in
July

"Whorled Tickseed". A good filler plant for gaps.
Full Sun
Zone 4

Coreopsis plants prefer
Full Sun to Part Shade
Fertile, well-drained, sandy or chalk soil
Zone 3-9
Deadhead to keep flowering. Top-dress with manure in autumn and cut back hard after frost.

Cornus alba 'Elegantissima'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Green, edged White

Creamy-White in
May-June

"Red-barked Dogwood, Tatarian Dogwood". Red branches and twigs, brightest in winter or late autumn. Cut back annually almost to ground level to encourage new growths, which have the best colour.
Full Sun, Very Light Shade
Zones 4-9
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil. Excellent winter accent plant against white snow or dark evergreens.

Cornus alba 'Kesselringii'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Brown in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Reddish-Purple in Autumn

Creamy-White in
May-June

Full Sun, Very Light Shade
Zones 4-9
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil. Excellent winter accent plant against white snow or dark evergreens.

Cornus alba
'Siberica Variegata'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Green, White margins

Creamy-White in
May-June

"Red-barked Dogwood, Tatarian Dogwood". Red branches and twigs, brightest in winter or late autumn. Cut back annually almost to ground level to encourage new growths, which have the best colour.
Full Sun, Very Light Shade
Zones 4-9
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil. Excellent winter accent plant against white snow or dark evergreens.

Cornus canadensis

Herbaceous Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

5 x 12
(12 x 30)

Mid-Green

White bracts
in May-June

"Creeping Dogwood". Has bright green leaves and small green flowers with white bracts followed by bright red berries. It spreads all over the place and needs to be kept in check. Does well in woodland (especially pine trees) and mountain gardens and as a ground cover around rhododendrons and similar plants on peaty soil..

Cornus stolonifera 'Flaviramea'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Dark Green, Red or Orange in Autumn

White in
May-June

Bright Yellow-Green winter shoots. Cut back annually almost to ground level to encourage new growths, which have the best colour.
Full Sun, Very Light Shade
Zones 2-10
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil. Excellent winter accent plant against white snow or dark evergreens.

Corokia cotoneaster

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Dark Green

Fragrant Yellow in
June
corokiaflotcotoneaster2a

"Wire-Netting Bush". From New Zealand and grown largely for its unusual angular, interlacing branch pattern. Suits mild coastal climates and tolerates wind.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 8-10
Fertile, well-drained soil.

Coronilla valentina
(Coronilla glauca)

Valentina means 'of Valentia' (Spain).

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Bright Green

Fragrant Bright Yellow in
March-April

Native of Mediterranean region.
Full Sun
Zones 9-10
Fertile, well-drained soil and protection from strong winds. Cut leggy plants back to the base in spring.

Coronilla valentina glauca 'Variegata'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Green, Creamy-White margins

Fragrant Yellow in
April-June

Native of Mediterranean region.
Full Sun
Zones 9-10
Fertile, well-drained soil and protection from strong winds. Cut leggy plants back to the base in spring.

Cortaderia selloana 'Sunningdale Silver'

Evergreen Grass above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 96
(300 x 240)

Mid-Green

Silvery-White spikelets in
September

Waterside position .
Zone 7
Makes striking specimen plant, effective against a background of dark foliage or hen lit from behind by the sun; in borders they need to be used towards the front.

Corydalis nobilis

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Bluish-Green

Light Yellow in
June

Will grow in full sun but flowering period is much lengthened if growing in cool, somewhat moist, partly shaded, conditions.

Corydalis companions - Ferns, primula, epimedium, hosta, ranunculus ficaria, pulmonaria, brunnera, omphalodes

Corylus maxima 'Purpurea'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 144 (600 x 360)

Purple

Purple and Yellow in
February

"Filbert". It has deep, dark purple, spring foliage, softening to a dull greenish purple in summer.
Provide ample space in Full Sun or Part Shade
Zones 4-9
Moist but well-drained, chalky soil. For fruit set, there is a cold requirement of about 1000 hours below 45 F (7 C). Cool, moist summers also assist nut production

Cotinus coggygria 'Flame'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Orange-Red in Autumn

Purplish-Pink in
August-November

"Venetian Sumac, Smoke Tree".
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Soil that is too moist or fertile discourages free flowering.

Cotinus coggygria
'Royal Purple'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Deep Purplish-Red in Spring and Summer, Red in Autumn

Deep Pink in
August-November

"Venetian Sumac, Smoke Tree".
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Soil that is too moist or fertile discourages free flowering. Deeper purple foliage than above in spring and summer

Cotoneaster
'Coral Beauty'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 72
(90 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July-September


Cotoneaster is one of the small-fruited genera of the pome-fruit group of the rose family, that includes Pyracantha, Crataegus and Amelanchier. The name means 'useless quince'.

Cotoneaster
'Hybridus Pendulus'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 60
(180 x 150)

Dark Green

White in
June


The lower-growing species are popular for rock gardens, embankments and foundation plantings. Some species make good hedges and espaliers
.

Cotoneaster conspicuus

Evergreen Shrub above 2 feet in height

12 x 84
(30 x 210)

Shiny Dark Green

White in
July-September

Best used in containers or rock gardens.
Since it belongs to the rose family, it should be replaced by a plant not from the rose family when required

Cotoneaster horizontalis

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 60
(45 x 150)

Glossy Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Orange in Autumn

Pinkish-White in
May-June

"Rock Cotoneaster". Flowers followed by deep red fruit. Native to mountain areas of western China, it is deciduous in cool climates but only semi-deciduous in warmer climates
Full Sun
Zones 5-10
Moderately fertile, well-drained soil. It is good in combination with low-growing junipers. It has heavily textured foliage and is especially effective on banks and in low dividers to discourage traffic.

Cotoneaster horizontalis 'Variegatus'

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

15 x 60
(37 x 150)

Green with Cream margins in Spring and Summer, Red with Cream margins in Autumn

Pinkish-White in May-June

"Rock Cotoneaster". Flowers followed by deep red fruit. Native to mountain areas of western China, it is deciduous in cool climates but only semi-deciduous in warmer climates
Full Sun
Zones 5-10
Moderately fertile, well-drained soil. It is good in combination with low-growing junipers. It has heavily textured foliage and is especially effective on banks and in low dividers to discourage traffic.

Cotoneaster integrifolius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Glossy Dark Green

...

Cotoneaster are deep-rooted and good soil binders.

Cotoneaster lacteus
(Cotoneaster parneyi)

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Dark Green above, Yellow-White felted beneath

White in
June-July

"Rockspray Cotoneaster". Chinese shrub with white flowers followed by large bunches of orange-red fruits that persist through winter.
Full Sun
Zones 7-11
Moderately fertile, well-drained soil

Cotoneaster linearifolius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30
(75 x 75)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July

 

Cotoneaster rotundifolius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 120
(150 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
June

 

Crataegus prunifolia
(Crataegus persimilis)

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 360 (750 x 900)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Red or Orange in Autumn

White in
June

"Hawthorn".

Crocosmia 'Lucifer'

Herbaceous Bulb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 3
(90 x 7)

Mid-Green sword-like, ribbed leaves

Tomato-Red in
August

Full sun
Well-drained, MOIST soil
Zone 5-9
May need support. Good seedheads.
"Montbretia". In some soils common montbretia increases so fast that it ceases to flower, it should be thinned and given a fertiliser, or moved into a fresh spot. If flowering diminishes, they should be divided in early spring.

Crocosmia 'Solfatare'

Herbaceous Bulb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 3
(60 x 7)

Bronze

Apricot-Yellow in
August

Full sun
Well-drained, MOIST soil

Zone 7-9

Crocosmia companions - Hemerocallis, agapanthus, berberis, euphorbia griffithii, miscanthus, carex, dahlia, phygelius, physocarpus opulifolius 'Diabolo', anemanthele lessoniana

Crocosmia masoniorum

Evergreen Bulb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 12
(150 x 30)

Mid-Green

Reddish-Orange in
June-October

Full sun
Well-drained, MOIST soil

Zone 7-9
Good cut flower, invasive and very robust.
Crocosmia have attractive upright foliage and their vibrant vivid flower colour produced in late summer.

Cryptomeria japonica 'Elegans'

Evergreen Bushy Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 144 (600 x 360)

Fresh Green in Spring and Summer, Red-Bronze in Autumn and Winter

...

"Japanese Cedar, Sugi". A solid column of foliage to 360 inches (900 cm) high and 96 inches (240 cm) across, needles are long and soft; in winter the tree turns a striking dull bronze or plum colour.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 7-10
Deep, fertile, moist but well-drained soil

Cryptomeria japonica 'Vilmoriniana'

Evergreen Bushy Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Yellow-Green in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Bronze in Winter

...

As above. Suitable for rock gardens.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 7-10
Deep, fertile, moist but well-drained soil

Cyclamen cilicium

Deciduous Tuber below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 3
(5 x 7)

Mid-Green above, purplish beneath

White or Pink in
October-November

 

Cyclamen cilicium 'Album'

Deciduous Tuber below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 3
(5 x 7)

Mid-Green above, purplish beneath

White in
October-November

 

Cyclamen coum

Deciduous Tuber below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 4
(5 x 10)

Deep Green with Silver pattern

White and Red in
March-April

 

Cyclamen hederifolium

Deciduous Tuber below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

5 x 6
(12 x 15)

Mid to Dark Green

Scented Pink in
November-December

The most prolific and dense-leaved species, seeding itself in the rather heavier limy soils, particularly under trees. Plant in summer, when dormant, from pot-grown seedlings, not from dried imported bulbs. A mulch of leaf-mould keeps weeds at bay after leaves have died down and benefits the plants.

Cynara scolymus

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 48
(180 x 120)

Grey-Green

Purple in
October

"Cardoon".
Zone 6-10

Companions - Rhubarb, large-scale grasses, artemisia 'Huntington'; most effective as a specimen plant

Cynoglossum nervosum

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 20
(75 x 50)

Mid-Green

Blue in Summer

"Himalayan Hound's Tongue". Can be short-lived
Full Sun
Zone 5
Well-drained, deep, poor soil. Use in herbaceous or mixed border.

Cytisus 'Hollandia'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dark Green

Cream and Cerise-Red in
May-June

"Broom".

Cytisus 'Lena'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 60
(120 x 150)

Dark Green

Dark Yellow in
June-July
cytisusflotlena1a

Excellent plants for hot, dry locations. In the Southwest USA, they combine well with many coastal plants, brooms tolerate salt-laden air and do well in sandy soil. They are very effective trailing over walls and down slopes.

Cytisus praecox 'Zeelandia'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dark Green

Pale Yellow in
May-June

"Warminster Broom, Moonlight Broom".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 5-9
Most soils

Chamaecytisus purpureus
(Cytisus purpureus)

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Dark Green

Pink to Deep Lilac in
July in
June

"Purple Broom". Native to southeastern Europe. Broadly spreading habit. Flowering in the next season is promoted by cutting back as soon as flowering has finished.
Full Sun
Zones 6-9
Very Well-drained soil, preferably in a raised position such as a rock garden. They seldom survive transplanting.

Cytisus 'Killiney Red'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 60
(120 x 150)

Dark Green

Rich Red in
June-July

 

Cytisus scoparius
f. andreanus

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Dark Green

Yellow-and-Red in
May-June
cytisusflotscopariusandreanus1a

"Common Broom, Scotch Broom".
Full Sun
Zones 5-9
Most soils

Cytisus x beanii

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Hairy Dark Green

Golden-Yellow in
May-June
cytisusflotbeanii1

 

Cytisus x kewensis

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 72
(30 x 180)

Hairy Dark Green

Cream in
June

 

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Chionodoxa, Convolvulus, Corydalis, Cyclamen and Cytisus and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)

 

Welcome to Heather World

Heather World extends a very warm welcome to everyone entering the world of heathers, especially to newcomers who have recently developed an interest in these attractive shrubs. The four heathers groups, Andromeda, Calluna, Daboecia and Erica are shown in the cultivar lists, together with images of many.

Every aspect of heathers, from the wild heathers of European heaths and moorlands to the rare and unusual splendours of South African or “Cape” heaths can be seen here. Cultivation tips, including choosing, growing and propagating heathers, to scientific studies and nomenclature, are available. Here is the Publications published by The Heather Society.

The website was also home to the old Heather Society, a group of heather enthusiasts who were dedicated to enhancing the interest in heathers to the world. The society closed at the end of 2020, but their Yearbooks and Newsletters can be viewed here.

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses


with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


Topic
Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.

 

 

 

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1

 

item1b item1b