Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 2:
Page 23 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 12601
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Item is
Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG 6004.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This looks like irrigation pipe and that would explain why the tree has grown and
the bark split apart as the trunk has expanded sideways.



Item is
Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with crossing branch IMG 6002.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams.
This tree should never have been planted here as this crossing branch was
probably there in the nursery and the nurseryman had not pulled it away from
crossing when it was still growing.



Item is
Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with irrigation pipe and growing tree IMG 6003.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Exposed irrigation pipe which has been used to irrigate this tree as the bark is
splitting showing that it is growing and so are the geraniums. It is unfortunate
that stone chippings have been put round the base. Since people do either walk or
stand on this surface to have a cigarette, these chippings act like chisels on the
roots of this tree. The plastic pipe exposed to the sun is likely to degrade faster
and the water in it will get quite hot with the sunshine on a black surface.
You love boiling water spraying against your lips don't you?

If my solution of CEDAdrive was used, then the plastic in the CEDAdrive would
support humans and stop the stone within it from acting like chisels on the
lateral roots. Hopefully the 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the plastic and the
trunk would not be stepped on by humans, but at least there will still be at
least 2 inches (5cms) of sharp sand and the green manure plants between the
human and the lateral roots. The irrigation pipe will also be below the CEDAdrive
or that will be replaced with pop-up sprayers to spray a larger area of the
CEDAdrive slabs to irrigate a bigger area of the roots of this tree.. This combined
with the Beany kerb edging and French Drain to reduce the volume of rainwater
on the roads from overloading the main storm drains, should provide a better
living condition for these trees.



Item is
Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum roots raising pavement IMG 6007.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The lateral roots of this tree have elevated the concrete pavers, since they are
simply laid on the ground just over the lateral roots. These laterals have also
broken the concrete containment and have advanced into the tarmac of the road
alongside. The tendency to plant these trees that grow very tall and wide does not
allow for this growth sideways. If you view the previous photos on this page,
you will note that some of these trees have been planted metres away from the
road instead of only about 20 inches (50 cms) and so those ones are not likely
to have their lateral roots damaged by bothe vehicles and pedestrians.

Problem reduced if my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements
is followed. Perhaps we might persuade people not to drop their cigarettes
alongside the tree - perhaps remind them of a little detail about their country
where Madeira is Pirtuguese for wood, THAT WOOD BURNS AND HOW WOULD
YOU LIKE IT IF THE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT (be careful viewing this medical
article - it contains a photo of bare skin) UNDER YOUR SKIN WAS SET ALIGHT?



Item is
Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG 6005.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The cavity within this branch stump wound is extensive and I suspect is
encouraging the 3 trunk Forked Leader above it to split from the other trunk on the right.

This tree could be in a critical condition.



Item is
tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG 6006.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree needs attending to.

I am concerned about these trees, so I sent an email to the Honorary Consul for Madeira of the UK and received the following:-

Hi. This is the qmail-send program at mailfrt10.isp.novis.pt.
I'm afraid I wasn't able to deliver your message to the following addresses.
This is a permanent error; I've given up. Sorry it didn't work out.

O sistema de correio electronico Novis nao conseguiu entregar a sua
Por favor leia cuidadosamente este aviso de modo a identificar a
causa da falha na entrega. Em caso de duvida ou persistencia da dificuldade
contacte o seu fornecedor de acesso Internet (ISP).


This message is larger than the space available in the user's mailfolder. (#5.2.2)

O tamanho desta mensagem excede o disponivel na mailfolder do utilizador. (#5.2.2)

--- Below this line is a copy of the message.

Return-Path: <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>
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Thu, 07 Nov 2019 19:46:05 +0000
From: "chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk" <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>
Reply-To: Christopher Garnons-Williams <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>
Subject: Are you concerned about the trees in the pavements from Funchal
centre to the Forum shopping centre?
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Dear Honorary Consul for Madeira,

I am concerned about the trees in the pavements in Funchal as you can =

see from the following:-

















Are you concerned for us visiting this island?

Kind Regards,

Chris Garnons-Williams

I have a timeshare in the Pestana Promenade and another in the Pestana =
Mirimar and I am responsible for creating ivydenegardens.co.uk=



Item is
Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with black mesh repairing hole in tree IMG 6010.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The rusty metal mesh is now embedded within the tree.

What is enclosed within the cavity caused by rotting of the branch stump is
difficult to know. Has this cavity been filled with small stones or broken up
concrete with the netting to stop it falling out? With the gaps seen in the
enclosed material all one can assume is that the cavity is continuing to rot.
This mesh needs removal and my solution etc followed as soon as possible,
because this tree could also be critical.


Carefully cut through the mesh an inch (2.5 cms) from the tree into the metal mesh
to remove the major mesh section. Carefully remove the stones/concrete and rot.
High pressure hose with water only the inside of this cavity from top to bottom.
Remove the water from the bottom. Spray with boron solution. Spray bottom of
hole with expanding foam and it is probably better to use cullet rather than bottles
as the sandwich layer between that and the expanding foam, remembereing that the
expanding foam has to be in contact with the tree. When the top of the lower cavity
is reached, then spray the expanding foam into the top of the cavity. Allow to set,
and spray again trying to make sure that no holes are left and then the final spray
to fill the open part of the cavity. Let it set and carve the result to make sure it drains
the rain, before applying the 2 coats of sealant. All of this in the same day. The final
foam spray can cover over the remaining metal mesh so that it becomes part of the
growing tree in the future. Remember to add photos and the repair history to the
records about this tree to be held by the government who are responsible for public
areas, so that when it is cut down, the tree surgeons and sawmill will know what to expect.



Item is
Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road IIMG 6009.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree is surrounded by weeds who take what water and nutrients are available.

This tree in sending out its lateral roots and raising these concrete pavers.

  • Solution by Madeira - replace pavers with layer of concrete, which has
    now broken apart. The nearer pavers are also being elevated; so again
    answer by Madeira - apply more concrete.
  • Why do not we adopt the same principle, if we bulge, then apply
    corsets to squash it down again. If that causes problems elsewhere
    on your body then apply an overall one as the ladies in the 18th century
    in the UK had to and why they then swooned, because they could not breathe?
  • My solution would stop this intentional harm to these trees. If it seriously
    bulged, then take up that section of CEDAdrive, lay some more sand
    down and relay it.



Item is
Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road road repairIMG 6008.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The tree roots have gone under the tarmac in the road breaking it up as well as
replacing the concrete kerb. Transport engineers then put concrete on top of the
roots and fresh hot tarmac as well to try and contain the problem to the detriment
of this tree. Where these roots replace the concrete kerb, vehicles are running over them.

Take up this new section of tarmac and the tarmac to the length of the box girder
system and the same width as to what was the new section of tarmac..
Lay a 6 inch (15 cm) box girder on sharp sand which replaces that tarmac in that
area and extend this 2 metres (80 inches) beyond the tree roots acting as the kerb
on each side of the trunk. Weld another 6 inch box girder to each end at rightangles
and have it 20 inches (50 cms) horizontally into the pavement. This is too high for
lorries and buses to ride over. Replace the tarmac with Topmix Permeable Concrete
CEDAdrive slabs. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be
increased since traffic crosses it. Replace the concrete pavers with my solution
for mosaic pavements. This system should provide the tree roots under the road
with water etc and protect the tree from being repeatedly hit by the heavier traffic.
The kerb is out of line from this tree to zebra crossing. Replace it with the
Beany Block Kerb and French drains - which may be used to distribute water - irrigation
system. Paint the top and the side facing the road of this box girder with yellow and
black diagonal stripes to warn traffic of this hazard to their tyres.



Item is
Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section IMG 6011.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
It is great to see all these wires going through the foliage of this tree. A storm will stretch them as branches hit them and the wires may well snap. By mistake in cutting a hedge, I once cut through the telephone wire. It cost me £100 to have it replaced.
There is some black material tied around one of the trunks in the second forked leader. In constricting the growth, the branch beyond it will become heavier than this fulcrum point can sustain and snap off.
The trunk sticks out into the road and you can see the lighter colour of grey as to where much of the heavier traffic tyres go. Iit is very close to the trunk and that is why this tree is affected.
You can see that the trunk of the next tree slopes towards the road and could be damaged by buses or heavy duty lorries.
Are all these metal posts sticking up clear of the foliage of these trees? Whose responsibility is it to record this and do something about it?



Item is
Tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG 6013.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree is being throttled with concrete pavers and it growing over them.

Replace the pavement and kerb with my solution for mosaic pavements. If you plant trees in pavements again, then find out what their mature girth and trunk diameter is; so that you can add 12 inches (30 cms) as the clear distance from the kerb and half that mature diameter as the distance to plant the juvenile tree from that kerb. Follow the other recommendations for mosaic pavements etc and if this is viewed annually to see if part of the CEDAdrive panel needs to be removed, then replace it with sand etc to not impede the trunk growth.
Investigate the open divide and see if there is any damage there and take appropriate action even if that means using a rod brace.
See if you can educate your population to not carve trees, since that can cause a lot of damage later on as that section of enclosed carving rots away.
Note that there are trees growing in a narrow bed on the other side of the road, with a mulch of stone to stop the ground from drying out from the wind and sun. They are supported by tall stakes - normally these should connect with the trees at about 18 inches (45 cms) at an angle to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground. If these treees are not strong enough to stand fully upright under their own steam, they should be thrown away and the trees grown in a proper nursery with those being planted instead. Unfortunately if these trees are replaced, it would be sensible to replace them with ones from a different family as you might get the effect of replant disease killing of the replacements. The Rose family is famous for this in killing off a replacement within 7 years of the last rose having been planted there.


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives onthe other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a

Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it is quite easily forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is involved. All cuts over 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they are reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these preparations, however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing has been completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out. These need to be filled in as they open and the surface covered with further applications of a wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be the most up to date version), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I switched to Black External Masonry Paint (this Bedec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently seems to be a very good one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.


Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-

These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that degenerative processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into the parent branch or trunk by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues the whole snag becomes rotten and may hold considerable moisture which encourages further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete healing and the resultant callus forms a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots away completely. When this happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,and this encourages further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......


Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in time, if allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be making light of the situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and decay is often more extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay is usually most rapid in the softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting below the cavity is of course natural, for water often collects in the hollow, either as a result of rain or because of the seepage of sap from neighbouring living tissues. Once moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a progressive increase in the activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very rapidly if there are other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join up with each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent to the area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the hollow trunk is left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a drastic shortening of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and the health of the tree deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers."


The following is copied from Ivydene Gardens Private Garden Maintenance Topic:-

This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.

Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.



It also means that if you put metal, concrete, tarmac etc round the base of a tree, then it will grow over it and then the above will happen later in the life of the tree; because the weight above this constriction will exceeed the mechanical strength at the constriction point.


Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-
"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is to a certain
extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated by the terminal bud.
This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near the base often do not develop
but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for many years, perhaps throughout the
life of the tree. However, should a break or a pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these
lower buds may develop and grow out. It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace
with the developing stem over the years, ready to break out should the need arise."

2 Articles on FORKED LEADERS:-
1 - Pages 25-26 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Forked Leaders:-

"It is most important to establish a newly planted tree as soon as possible, and it may be necessary
to feed and water to ensure a speedy establishment and the good growth which is required. So far
as pruning and training are required, one of the most important points is to retain and encourage
the lead for trees, see Fig. 10 below.


2 - Riverside Native Trees 2295 River Road Delaware, OH, America has written this
section on Pruning Trees

Pruning is as much an art as it is a science. Many factors come into play when
deciding whether or not to lop off a branch. This information will help you make
the best pruning decisions that will promote desired growth. First, buy a good
set of pruners and keep them sharp. Sharp blades cut woody tissue without
crushing adjacent cells. In the nursery we use 1” bypass pruners. These have
a large enough opening to prune anything that needs it in the nursery.

The actual pruning of the branch is not a haphazard cut. If you are trying to
remove the branch entirely, look carefully at Figure 1. Three points are
illustrated: the trunk of the tree, the branch itself, and the collar that connects
the two.  The collar can be identified as the point where the branch expands
and “fastens” to the trunk (Figure 1; shaded area)  When making the pruning
cut, you want to leave the collar on the tree (Figure 1; green line) while not
leaving a stub of a branch. Just to the inside of the collar are cells that function
to seal the wound after pruning and you do not want to remove those.  If pruning
cuts are made inside of the branch collar (Figure 1; red line)  the wound is
larger, takes longer to close and is thus subject to infection.  Figure 2 illustrates
pruning cuts that are actively closing.  At the bottom green arrow you can easily
see the bump that should be left on the trunk when you make a correct pruning
cut.  Within one growing season the wound closing process will be complete. 
The normal bark texture will return after a couple more growing seasons and a
ll signs of pruning will be gone.


Figure 1.

The object of pruning is to remove a branch but not cut so much off that it
leaves a big wound. If you cut along the red line (cut the branch off smooth with
the trunk) a large wound is left for the tree to heal. Pruning along the green line
leaves a “bump” but this smaller wound will heal more quickly and be less prone to
disease. As the tree continues to grow this bump will be incorporated into the trunk


How to determine whether to prune a branch:-

1) Remove branches that will compete with the leader. These are called leader
competers. See Figure 3. This side branch is relatively thick and will compete
with the leader for nutrients. Removing it completely will promote the growth
of the leader. If in doubt, cut the competer back by one-third or one-half. The
rest can be pruned off later if needed. If it is a low branch you can remove it
completely. Our rule of thumb in the nursery is that if a lateral (side) branch is
one-third or more the diameter of the actual leader we either cut it off or cut it back.


Figure 3.

This Swamp White Oak has lost its central
leader; the single trunk that grows straight
up. Instead there are a number of equally
sized branches growing from a single point.
Choose the straightest of the branches and
prune the rest of them off. If needed, stake
and tie the new leader so that it grows straight.

See our clinic on staking and tying trees.



Figure 4.

A whorl is a structurally weak point on a tree.


2) Remove most branches in a whorl. In Figure 4 there are five branches growing
from the same point on the trunk. This is called a whorl and it is not good
branching structure in hardwood trees, It probably resulted from a loss of apical
dominance when the seedling was planted. Choose the straightest one to become
the new central leader and prune the other four adjacent branches off completely. 
The two branches below this could be kept but cut back by half as they are growing
a little too vigorously.  Don’t forget to leave the collar when you make your pruning
cut (see paragraph 2 above).  If the new central leader is not straight it can easily
be staked with bamboo and tied.

On Saturday 17 October 2020, we visited some friends and I was shown a 30 feet
high eucalyptus tree with 5 trunks in a whorl just above ground level. These were
composed of 3 forked leaders and you tell where each would split. The maintenance
staff decided to lower the crown by 10 feet again, thinking that would solve the
problem. I tried pointing out that it would not and that when the forked leaders
started the process of splitting away from each other, that the damage to the cars
and houses would be extensive. The maintenance staff poo-poo-ed the facts. It is
a shame that people are not trained properly in the UK.

Examples of Tree Forks from trees in pavements within Funchal, Madeira:-

Gallery 3 Page 27 :-

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

Gallery 2 Page 16 :-

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of these trees
IMG 6382.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of this road section from the
other end IMG 6390.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with 3 bracing wires
IMG 6386.JPG
1 of the braces is loose. There is rot on the trunk which may proceed round
the trunk and kill it. There is also damage on its Forked Leader.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with bracing wire
IMG 6381.JPG
The trunk is dying and there is a Forked Leader in trouble. The brace is loose
and therefore useless.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6384.JPG
The Forked Leaders on this tree are badly damaged.

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting

18, Naturalize

19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-

...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watershoots pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watershoots (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watershoot).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

Information about this yew tree on 22 March 2020 from rainhamchurch.co.uk website.

Gallery 2 Page 17

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and end of brace
IMG 6374.JPG
This and the following problems are detailed in Plant with Photo Index Gallery.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6371.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6372.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6373.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6379.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6376.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6378.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6385.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6391.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 18

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6392.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6393.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6394.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6394.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6395.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar by information centre IMG 6397.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6398.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6399.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6400.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6401.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section IMG 6402.JPG

Tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section IMG 6403.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 19

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration
IMG 6404.JPG

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration
IMG 6405.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6407.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6408.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6409.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6410.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6411.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6412.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6414.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6417.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 20

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6418.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6419.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6420.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6421.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6422.JPG

Tree 76 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6423.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6425.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6426.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6427.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6428.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6429.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 21

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6431.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar view next road section
IMG 6432.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6434.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6435.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6436.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6439.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6441.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6442.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6438.JPG

Trees 66 and 67 from pestana mirimar pollarded by information centre
IMG 6396.JPG

Trees in pavement from junction of 2 roads to forum
IMG 6114.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 22

Tree 81 from pestana promenade pavement pavers with gaps IMG 5994.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade viewing next section of road towards forum
IMG 5990.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5991.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5992.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5995.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5996.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5998.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5997.JPG

Tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG 5999.JPG

Tree 83 from pestana promenade to forum where watered tree is growing
IMG 6000.JPG

Tree 84 from pestana promenade to forum with shrub and raised pavement
IMG 6001.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 23

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6004.JPG

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with crossing branch
IMG 6002.JPG

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with irrigation pipe and growing tree IMG 6003.JPG

Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum roots raising pavement
IMG 6007.JPG

Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6005.JPG

tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6006.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with black mesh repairing hole in tree
IMG 6010.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road IIMG 6009.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road road repair IMG 6008.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section
IMG 6011.JPG

Tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement
IMG 6013.JPG


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.


Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 2 Page 14

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6345.JPG
I wonder what the black section is?

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6347.JPG
There is rot occuring between the trunk on the right and its branch in the middle. There are 3 branch stumps rotting into the trunk. If these are not attended to then this trunk/branch will fail. I know that birch rots very quickly, but I do not know for maples.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6348.JPG
The roots are growing over the concrete and the tarmac in the road. The edge of that tyre from a heavy lorry came very close to the trunk of this tree.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6350.JPG
Severe rotting is occuring in this trunk from the broken not sawn branch stump.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6351.JPG
This tree is out into the road, with the road tarmac right up to the trunk.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido pavement edge pushed out IMG 6346.JPG
This tree has pushed the concrete kerb out of line and has grown over it. The kerb for the road needs to go into the existing road by at least 6 inches (15cm) in order to relieve the roots of this tree.

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6352.JPG
The roots of this tree are growing in the tarmac of the road and over the concrete kerb. The concrete kerb needs to be moved by at least 6 inches (15 cms) beyond these tree's roots. The concrete kerb needs to be carefully removed from under this root.

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG 6353.JPG
The roots of this tree are growing over a concrete slab, the concrete kerb and into the tarmac road. You can see the dent in the tarmac where heavy duty tyres are depressing it and damaging the exposed root there both from the tyres and the machine laying the tarmac. This kerb needs moving out by at least 12 inches (30 cms) to stop further damage to this tree.

Tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6354.JPG
This tree is growing over the pink concrete pavers surrounding it. The pavers need carefull removal. The created gap should be replaced by a crushed seaweed/sand combination.

Tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG 6355.JPG
I suspect that the pink pavers laid in this pavement round this tree and one before it are laid directly onto the soil below. The roots of the trees have pushed them up and they have grown weeds in betwen them. These 2 trees have also pushed the kerb out of line into the road.

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6356.JPG
This one has also pushed the kerb out of line and it is growing over some of its pink pavers.

Gallery 2 Page 15

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6358.JPG
Roots of this tree have pushed the kerb out into the road. there is grass and
other weeds growing between these concrete pavers. I suspect these pavers
have been laid directly on the soil below as I believe the mosaic pavements
had their marble blocks embedded in the earth, before that earth was replaced
with concrete. Gaseous exchange can occur with the roots and so can the
nourishment provided by the dead foliage and the rainwater could also get
between these pavers. With this material, the lateral roots and the feeder
roots could grow to cause this damage to the pavement surface. Attempts
using concrete have been made to attempt to repair the surface.
If the concrete pavers were replaced using the solution to current problems
on these mosaic pavements, then no doubt the tree would perhaps tend to
keep its roots within the pavement area rather than the road.

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6359.JPG
This tree has overgrown the concrete kerb, some concrete pavers and is growing
its roots into the road. Where the roots have raised the concrete pavers making
the pavement look untidy, the pavers have been replaced with concrete.
This concrete has been split by the roots. The tarmac next to the roots growing
in the road has been driven over by the lorries breaking the tarmac up by those
same roots.

This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.


I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - "In 2013 a new estimate of 1050 early deaths as a result of just PM2.5 air pollution across Kent & Medway in 2010 was calculated by the Kent and Medway Air Quality partnership (K&MAQP) Health Sub Group. Figure 4 shows a figure between 11 and 12 of PM2.5 for Medway with 50 early deaths from PM2.5 pollution in 2010 per 100,000 population. It had a population in 2014 of 274,016. Each year if you live in Medway you may die early as 1 out of 2.74 x 50 = (2.74 x 50)/100000 probabability - remember the stupidity of the stiff upper lip of the British as your parent with heart and lung problems, spouse or child kicks the bucket." This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6360.JPG
Tree surrounded by concrete pavers embedded in soil, concrete repairs to broken pavers, tarmac of the road with depression in the tarmac caused by heavy lorries and buses within 4 inches (10 cms) of roots of this tree. The pavers have been uplifted by the lateral roots of this tree and grass is growing between the pavers. The roots of this grass will absorb all irrigation and any nutrients that become available leaving nothing for the tree.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 12 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road by zebra crossing IMG 6362.JPG
Tree 61 is suffering the same problems as tree 60. Even more concrete has been applied between the tree and the concrete pavers with the intention of "making it look tidy", while killiung the tree. Some of the exposed roots have been trodden on by pedestrians taling off their outer layers. One of the lateral roots has been forced to go round round the tree between the trunk and the concrete.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6361.JPG
This is tree 61 from the other side, with the same problems of a larger lateral root being forced round the trunk of the tree and over the concrete kerb. There is some stone under the trunk, which may have been what surrounded the trunk before and the trunk grew over it. One of the roots has split - dehydration? Roots under the tarmac in the road and those exposed roots have been driven over.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (45 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6363.JPG
You can see the damage done to the roots of the tree and its trunk by lorry and bus tyres and you can note that the other trees in the distance are also out into the road. The cars and vans miss the trees whereas the heavier vehicles do not. See that the tyres of the yellow lorry are very close to the central stripped white line and that the bus comming towards the lorry is also quite close to the central white line. Now you can understand why the lorries and buses hit these trees when so much of the clearway between opposing vehicles is taken up by the trees in the road.
Simple, move the road across by 24 inches (60 cms) and this problem is solved. 
In other words put the inner section of a concrete kerb on the outside of the road 
drain and then you do not have to alter the drains under the road and you merely 
make the opposite pavement 24 inches (60 cms) narrower.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6365.JPG
You can see splits in the bark of the trunk of this tree and lighter brown bark in these splits. This lighter brown bark indicates this year's growth in the trunk from the irrigation during the year. When you look below the trunk, you find at least 7 lateral roots have been cut off. These have now dried out and are splitting apart. Under these cut off roots there are deep holes. There were also other lateral roots from the top of this wall to the pavement, which will have been cut through and the wall built with concrete directly against these cuts. The lateral root support structure on at least 120 degrees of this tree has been removed. The tree is big, and all it needs is a nice strong wind and the current gap under these cut roots is going to get higher and the tree is likely to fall down away from the road.

If you intend to keep this tree, then you need to brace it with a brace going at 
45 degrees to the yellow wall to the opposite side of the road to a metal structure of 3 H frame sections attached together in a pyramid shape and another brace at 135 degrees to an identical metal structure on the other side of the road. This 
will prevent the tree from falling into the garden behind it. Remove the stone wall 
and rebuild one 12 inches (30 cms) further out as a dry stone wall and refill 
behind with the solids drained from the fertilizer. This will turn into soil as the worms interact with it. This will allow the air to get into the earth behind it and for that 
earth to function as a possible start for new roots. The irrigation and fertilization 
on the replaced pavement of CEDAdrive slabs can also extend to the earth 
surrounding this side of this tree. Do not attach this tree to the maples on the 
other side of the road, because you get a high wind and both will fall down.
: madeira, Portuguese for wood. Today, it is a popular year-round resort, 
being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists, almost five times its 
population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and 
cultural value, flora and fauna, landscapes (laurel forest) that are classified as a 
UNESCO World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans. The main harbour in 
Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, 
receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, 
being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger 
cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.
You could simply cut down the tree, but your island is named for its wood not for 
its concrete. You could cut down all 166 trees with problems and then what 
would be the difference between your port and any other in the rest of the world? Put the bulb displays on the concrete buildings?

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6366.JPG
We do appreciate seating.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6367.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6364.JPG
You can see that this is a heavy maturing tree with a great deal of static weight above these roots and that is why it needs the metal brace supports that I have specified above. Not only do you have the existing weight, but when in leaf and you get a storm, then that causes this tree to act like a sail from the kinetic force exerted by the wind.

Gallery 2 Page 16

Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree IMG 6369.JPG
This juvenile tree is unlikely to survive more than 5 years.

Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree IMG 6370.JPG
I wonder if this was cut up bicycle tubing used for the ties. You can already see
the rot of this branch stump going into the trunk.

Tree 62 from pestana mirimar view of road section towards mirimar IMG 6368.JPG
Loose bracing in this group of trees is a complete waste of time, as is the dehydration caused to the trees by the lawn.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of these trees
IMG 6382.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of this road section from the other end IMG 6390.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with 3 bracing wires
IMG 6386.JPG
1 of the braces is loose. There is rot on the trunk which may proceed round the trunk and kill it. There is also damage on its Forked Leader.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with bracing wire
IMG 6381.JPG
The trunk is dying and there is a Forked Leader in trouble. The brace is loose and therefore useless.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6384.JPG
The Forked Leaders on this tree are badly damaged.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6388.JPG
There is a great deal of damage on these trunks and there is woodworm. I suggest you use Boron Ultra 12 to kill the woodworm , wet rot and dry rot in this tree.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6389.JPG
This has multiple branch stump wounds, woodworm and the trunk is splitting. Telephone cabling? going through the foliage above this rotting trunk.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing
IMG 6380.JPG
The 3 braces on this section of the tree are a mess; if they were all under tension then one of these trunks would be under tremendous strain from 0, 90 and 180 degrees and even worse when there is a storm or high wind. The person designing this was determined to kill the tree. "Cables are placed to provide support to weak limbs. Rods can be inserted in weak fork unions usually in conjunction with cables higher in the crown. " from Heritage Arboriculture.

Gallery 2 Page 24

Tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement
IMG 6014.JPG

Tree 89 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by grey pea-shingle IMG 6015.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum street light in foliage
IMG 6019.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum telephone wires in foliage
IMG 6017.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum watersprouts
IMG 6020.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum IMG 6026.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum IMG 6027.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum IMG 6028.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6023.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6024.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6025.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 25

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum telephone post
IMG 6021.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum telephone wire through foliage IMG 6022.JPG

Tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum broken signpost tree in road
IMG 6032.JPG

Tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum raised pavement IMG 6029.JPG

Tree 93 from pestana promenade to forum roots growing between pavers IMG 6033.JPG

Tree 93 from pestana promenade to forum roots growing between pavers IMG 6034.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG 6035.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG 6036.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG 6038.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk view next road section
IMG 6042.JPG

Tree 95 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6040.JPG





The following is from "The Hidden Life of Trees - What they feel, How they communicate: Discoveries from a Secret World" by Peter Wohlleben. This English translation was published William Collins in 2017.
ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0 -
"Friendship - look up into the forest canopy. The average tree grows its branches out until it encounters the branch tips of a neighbouring tree of the same height. It doesn't grow any wider because the air and better light in this space are already taken, However, it heavily reinforces the branches it has extended, so you get the impression that there's quite a shoving match going on up there. But a pair of true friends is careful right from the outset not to grow overly thick branches in each other's direction. The trees don't want to take anything away from each other, and so they develop sturdy branches only at the outer edges of their crowns, that is to say, only in the direction of "non-friends". Such partners are often so tightly connected at the roots that sometimes they even die together."

My comment "The canopy that he is writing about is in a natural forest. Unfortunately in Madeira and elsewhere, trees are incorrectly pruned and this leads to watershoots and watersprouts. Unfortunately both of these are not directly connected with the central nervous system of the remainder of the tree and thus they grow in an uncontrolled way interfering with that tree's own canopy as well as any other neighbour with the growth from the watershoots. If the tree is not pollarded but correctly pruned so that a juvenile branch no matter how small can take over the tip leader position, then the central nervous system can continue to function for the entire tree."



"When a caterpillar takes a hearty bite out of a leaf, the tissue around the site of the damage changes. In addition, the leaf tissue sends out electrical signals, just as human tissue does when it is hurt. However, the signal is not transmitted in milliseconds, as human signals are; instead, the plant signal travels at the slow speed of a third of an inch per second. Accordingly, it takes an hour or so before defensive compounds reach the leaves to spoil the pest's meal. Trees live their lives in the really slow lane, even when they are in danger."

My comment "Due to those watershoots and watersprouts not being connected to this nervous system, only the nervous system within the watershoot or watersprout can try to deal with the problem, which is unlikely."



"Trees can mount their own defense. One of these ways is to warn each other using chemical signals sent through the fungal networks around their root tips, which operate no matter what the weather. Surprisingly, news bulletins are sent via the roots not only by means of chemical compounds but also by means of electrical impulses that travel at the speed of a third of an inch per second. Once the latest news has been broadcast, all the oaks in the area promptly pump tannins through their veins to put off the chewing insects."

My Comment" If my solution for the mosaic pavements was used not just on the pavements but also the drives alongside of the domestic dwellings, drives on commercial properties and pavements in public gardens, then the fungal network could be linked everywhere and trees suffering from one problem in one area could warn the others, who could try out their solution, until the pest can be obliterated or scared off. As it stands at the moment every tree in a pavement is a loner and due to being starved, dehydrated and gassing its own roots with carbon dioxide and nitrogen compounds, it has nothing to help it.

Unfortunately as human beings, we no longer care about nature and quite happily say that we are breathing, so what is the problem? and ignore our destruction of the plant kingdom which provides us with oxygen by pouring concrete/tarmac on it."

This book is very good in connecting us back to nature, like we were before the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and the country folk worked with nature.


When a tree is taken out of the nursery ground to be put into a black pot or a white pot, 80% of its roots are cut off and that makes it difficult for the tree in its later life. Barcham with its white pot persuades the remaining roots to travel down the pot instead of circling within it. When the trees from pots where the roots have circled are transplanted, the planters do not re-arrange the roots so that those roots in a circle continue to grow in that circle and not leave it. So, within 10 years the tree runs out of water etc because it has no roots outside that circle to provide water, nutrients or gas exchange. Because the roots go down the pot, then when their trees are transplanted, they can be persuaded not to go under the road by using a geotextile and if the 2 inches (5 cms) of Heicom Tree Sand was there then its roots would go into that medium and be accompanied by fungi etc to grow a healthy tree.
explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

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Barcham is Europe's largest tree specialist, who are growing over 200,000 instant impact trees near Ely, Cambridgeshire


Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on Page 27 -
PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).


If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.




This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.




USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).

The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.





I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.



Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.



A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.




It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season."
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.



"When the experiment is made with the stem and the leaves in the free air, whilst the roots are in a limited atmoshere of oxygen, then they absorb several times their own volume of this gas. This is because the carbonic acid formed and absorbed is carried into the general system of the plant, where it is elaborated by the leaves, if exposed to the same light, or simply exhaled if the plant be kept in the dark.
The presence of oxygen in the air which has access to the roots is not merely favourable; it is absolutely indispensable to the exercise of their functions. A plant, the stem and leaves of which are in the air, soon dies if its roots are in contact with pure carbonic acid, with hydrogen gas or azote. The use of oxygen in the growth of the subterraneous parts of plants, explains wherefore our annual plants, which have largely developed roots, require a friable and loose soil for their advantageous cultivation. This also enables us to understand wherefore trees die, when their roots are submerged in stagant water, and wherefore the effect of submersion in general is less injurious when the water is running, such water always containing more air in solution than that which is stagnant. " from Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, phsics, and meterology; or.


Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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