Ivydene Gardens Conifer Tree Gallery:
Site Map

Book preview by The Royal Horticultural Society:-

"Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Conifers: A Comprehensive Guide to Cultivars and Species by Aris G. Auders and Derek P. Spicer 2 volumes
ISBN 9781907057151 Published in July 2012.
The Royal Horticultural Society encyclopedia is a much needed reference book on conifer cultivars and species, both hardy and tropical. The two volumes of this extensive and lavishly illustrated 1,500-page work feature about 8,000 cultivars, over 5,000 photographs and all of the world’s 615 conifer species, plus their subspecies and varieties."


A Tree a Day provides lists of trees ( click on name in each list to get details and photo ) suitable for:-


You can select
2 of the conifer trees described within a page of the
1000 Groundcover Plants; being Plant Selection Level 5 in the Plants Topic.

You can select
0 of the conifers described within a page from Camera Photo Galleries, which is not used in the Rock Garden by clicking on the centre of its thumbnail in the relevant Foliage Colour Comparison page within this gallery.

You can select a Conifer by clicking on the Thumbnail to see its Plant Description from the:-

  • Flower Colour
  • Leaf Colour
  • Shape
  • Cone Colour or
  • Bed Pictures Comparison Pages in the menu on the right

or you can select one of the
7 CONIFERS by clicking on its:-

  • Conifer Description Page name in the list below

Conifer Trees

Coblands Nurseries:-
Coblands Nurseries were founded in 1963 growing a wide range of shrubs, herbaceous, grasses, ferns and trees in the ‘coblands’ of Kent. The production nursery extends over 120 acres on a number of sites in and around Tonbridge, growing approximately a million plants at any one time.
www.best4plants.co.uk now brings this wealth of knowledge and expertise to the general public as well as the trade.


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Conifer Tree Index
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

Flattened Spherical
(o)Narrow Conical
(o)Broad Conical
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping








Height x Spread in feet (cms)

12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms

Foliage Colour


Trunk Image

Shape Image

Foliage Image

Cones Image

Abies koreana
(Korean Fir)

30 x 20
(900 x 600)

Narrow Conical

After ten years it is usually not higher than 2.5 meters.

Dark Green, Silver beneath

Best grown as a specimen tree, or in a bed - surrounded while small - with ornamental grasses and ground-hugging callunas, especially those with coloured foliage.





Cryptomeria japonica
(Japanese Cedar, Japanese red cedar, Sugi (Japanese), Liu shan (Chinese).

80 x 20
(2400 x 600)

Narrow Conical

Mid to Deep Green

Good screening tree.
The Japanese cedar is the national tree of Japan and it is often planted near temples and shrines for symbolic reasons.
Although revered in its native Japan, it is not without its drawbacks, chief among them its pollen. When the male flowers shed their pollen from February, the incidence of hayfever increases dramatically and is also known to adversely affect asthma sufferers.





Cryptomeria japonica 'Elegans Compacta'
(Japanese Cedar)

9 x 6
(270 x 180)

Broad Conical

Juvenile Dark Green turning Bronze in Winter

Useful accent plant in bed of heathers and as screen





Juniperus communis
(Common Juniper)

10 x 10
(300 x 300)

Columnar - Because of its dense cover of prickly needles, juniper provides a good nesting site for birds such as the goldcrest (Regulus regulus) and the song thrush (Turdus philomelos), and it is also important in providing winter cover for the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix). The berries are eaten, and the seeds distributed, by birds such as the fieldfare (Turdus pilais), which is a seasonal migrant from Scandinavia, and the ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus).

Deep Green

Juniper foliage is eaten by mammals such as red deer (Cervus elaphus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the current excessive populations of both of these species has contributed to the current decline in juniper's distribution in the UK. The burning of moorland also limits the ability of juniper to regenerate.

Think twice about junipers if you or your neighbours grow pears. Juniper-Pear Rust is becoming a common fungus that switches between pears and junipers in alternate years. When it attacks pear leaves, they drop early and the yield of pears is reduced. In some pear-growing areas of the USA the planting of junipers is illegal.

Ground-cover. A small conical tree may make a good specimen tree but has also been known to make a good avenue.
Juniperus communis is used as an evergreen ornamental shrub in gardens.

"The colloquial name for gin - which is flavoured with juniper is 'Mother's Ruin' - is based on the juniper's ability to cause miscarriage." from The Poison Garden.





Juniperus recurva
(Himalayan weeping juniper, coffin juniper, drooping juniper, sacred juniper, chui zhi bai, chui zhu bai, xiao guo chui zhi bai, pama, pama, betar, guggal, thelu.)

30 x 15
(900 x 450)

Broad Conical


Ornamental tree valued for its drooping foliage.
The male and female forms of this species are very hardy in this country if sheltered from high winds, and succeed best in a rich, stiff, loamy soil, and in a slightly-shaded situation.





Juniperus recurva 'Densa'. Correct name is Juniperus squamata.
(Dwarf Himalayan weeping juniper, Singleseed Juniper.)

2 x 4
(60 x 90)

Narrow Conical

Dark Green

Ground-cover, container and hedges.
Junipers need little pruning.





Juniperus viginiana
(Eastern redcedar, Carolina cedar, cedar, cedar apple, evergreen, juniper, pencil cedar, red cedar, red juniper, red savin, savin, Virginia cedar.)

70 x 20
(2100 x 600)

Columnar - A tree shape designed by nature to be a haven for nesting birds.

Grey-Green with Bronze cast in Autumn

Windbreak, screen or speciman. Nesting and cover for wild animals and birds







Dobbies provides the following in its Easy Guide to growing Conifers (cannot find their advice page in September 2018):-

"Conifers come in a vast range of colours and many change shade during the year. Careful choice can give you a great splash of colour in autumn and winter when most other plants are dormant. Size is determined by variety and not by size at planting. Most plant labels carry a 10-year height as part of the description.


• [d] = dwarf, under 40cm in 10 years

• [s] = slow, under 1m in 10 years

• [m] = medium, up to 2m in 10 years

• [f] = fast, anything above that.

Growth rates vary: some grow quickly straight away (x Cupressocyparis leylandii) but then need to be kept in check; others are very slow for a time and then grow rapidly (Araucaria araucana – monkey puzzle); while some barely grow more than 2cm a year (Picea mariana ‘Nana’ – spruce).

Choosing & Planting

Conifers will tolerate most soils, but avoid planting in areas that waterlog regularly, except for Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress) and Metasequoia (dawn redwood). A very chalky soil will suit Taxus (yew), some junipers and pines. Local climate, such as areas of high or low rainfall, can affect height and spread.

Before planting, remove the tree from the pot and soak the rootball in a bucket of water for about 10 minutes. Clear the area of weeds.

Make the planting hole about twice the size of the rootball; the top of the rootball should be just 2.5cm below ground level.
Advice from Chris Garnons-Williams "Make sure that you unwind the roots and spread them out on a cone of soil to prevent the death of that tree within 10 years when those circular roots have grown next to each other and they cannot absorb the water or nutrients from the soil."

Refill the planting hole with the original soil mixed with peat, coir or very well-rotted compost. Do not use nitrogenous fertilisers such as poultry or horse manure or bedding plant compost as this usually contains fast-release fertiliser, which can damage conifer roots.

One or two feeds with a slowrelease fertiliser will be quite enough to maintain growth.

Give enough water to keep the rootball moist but not waterlogged in the early years after planting.

Recommended Plants

There are well over 1,000 different conifer cultivars to choose from; if you cannot find a specific variety that you’re looking for, there will be alternatives. When choosing conifers for a certain position, it is easier to find them by height, colour and growth habit rather than trying to remember a long Latin name. New cultivars have much more user-friendly names! Below is a list of some of the more popular cultivars, although the choice is practically endless. For more varieties, take a trip to your local garden centre or nursery, or visit www.conifers.org.uk (this domain name is for sale in September 2018).



Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Green Hedger’ [m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii [f], Taxus baccata [m], Thuja plicata ‘Atrovirens’[f], T. occidentalis Emerald [m] & ‘Brabant’ [f]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Stardust’ [m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Castlewellan’[ f] & ‘Gold Rider’ [f], Cupressus macro carpa ‘Goldcrest’ [f], Taxus baccata golden varieties [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Sunkist’ [m]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Chilworth Silver’ [m] & ‘Pembury Blue’ [m], Cupressus arizonica ‘Blue Ice’ [f] & var. glabra [f]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Summer Snow’ [m] & Argenteovariegata’[ m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Harlequin’ [f], Thuja plicata ‘Zebrina’ [m]

  Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica Elegans Group [f] & Elegans Compacta [m]

Column (fastigiate)


hamaecyparis lawsoniana Ellwood’s Pillar [s], ‘Grayswood Feather’ [m], ‘Green Pillar’ [m], and ‘Little Spire’ [m], Cupressus sempervirens ‘Totem Pole’ [m], Taxus baccata ‘Fastigiata’ [m]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwood’s Gold’ [m], Cupressus macrocarpa ‘Wilma’ [m], C. sempervirens ‘Swanes Gold’ [s], Juniperus communis ‘Gold Cone’ [s], Taxus baccata ‘Standishi’ [s]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Pelt’s Blue’ [f], Juniperus communis ‘Compressa’ [d], J. scopulorum ‘Blue Arrow’ [m], Pinus sylvestris Fastigiata Group [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Juniperus scopulorum ‘Silver Star’[m], Taxus baccata ‘Fastigiata Aureomarginata’ [s], ‘Icicle’ [d] & ‘Ivory Tower’ [s]

Conal (pyramidal)


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwoodii’ m, x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Olive’s Green’ f, Picea glauca var. albertiana ‘Conica’ m & ‘Laurin’ d, Thuja occidentalis ‘Holmstrup’ m


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Minima Aurea’ [s], ‘Springtime’ [s] & ‘Yvonne’ [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Yellow Ribbon’ [m]


Abies lasiocarpa ‘Compacta’ [m], Cupressus arizonica ‘Pyramidalis’ [m], Juniperus chinensis ‘Pyramidalis’ [m], Picea glauca Alberta Blue s & ‘Sanders Blue’ s, P. pungens ‘Hoopsii’ [m] & Glauca Group [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Fleckellwood’ [m], ‘Snow White’ [m] & ‘Summer Snow’ [m], Juniperus chinensis ‘Variegata’ [m], Picea glauca ‘J. W. Daisy’s White’ [s]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Chamaecyparis thyoides ‘Ericoides’ [s], ‘Rubicon’ [s] & ‘Top Point’ [s]

Trimming & Pruning

Correctly chosen, most conifers only require a light clip in late summer with secateurs or shears to keep the shape correct. Despite popular myth, x Cupressocyparis leylandii only need one trim a year, preferably in July. Untrimmed fast-growing hedging plants are a social menace, so be a good neighbour and keep them in check. Junipers benefit from occasional radical pruning and most will reshoot from the old wood. However, as with most conifers, don’t let them get too large before pruning otherwise you will have unsightly brown wood for a year or two.



Abies balsamea Hudsonia Group d, Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana Gracilis’ s, Pinus mugo varieties s, Tsuga canadensis ‘Jeddeloh’ s


Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Fernspray Gold’ [m], ‘Nana’ [d], ‘Nana Aurea’ [s] & ‘Nana Lutea’ [s], C. pisifera ‘Filifera Nana’ [s] & ‘Sungold’ [s], Pinus densiflora ‘Alice Verkade’ [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Rheingold’ [s], T. plicata ‘Whipcord’ [m]


Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Boulevard’ [m] & ‘Squarrosa Lombarts’ [m], Juniperus ‘Grey Owl’ [m], J. squamata ‘Blue Star’ [d]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Nana Albospica’ [s], C. pisifera ‘Snowflake’ [d], Cryptomeria japonica ‘Sekkan-sugi’ [m], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Sulphur Spray’ [m]/[p]>

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans Compacta [s], Juniperus horizontalis ‘Andorra Compact’ [d], Podocarpus ‘Blaze’ [d] & ‘County Park Fire’ [d], Platycladus orientalis ‘Rosedalis’ [s]

Ball (glubose)


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Gnome’ [d], ‘Green Globe’ [d] & ‘Minima Glauca’ [s], Picea abies ‘Little Gem’ [d], P. glauca ‘Alberta Globe’ [d], Thuja occidentalis ‘Danica’ [d]


Platycladus orientalis ‘Aurea Nana’ [s], Thuja occidentalis ‘Amber Glow’ [d], ‘Golden Globe’ [s] & ‘Golden Tuffet’ [d]


Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Curly Tops’ [s], Picea mariana ‘Nana’ [d], P. pungens ‘Globosa’ [s]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Pygmaea Argentea’ [d], C. pisifera ‘Nana Aureovariegata’ [d] & ‘Plumosa Compressa’ [d], Cryptomeria japonica ‘Golden Promise’ [d]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Compressa’ [d] & ‘Vilmoriniana’ [d], Thuja occidentalis ‘Teddy’ [d]

Ground Cover (prostrate / semi-prostrate) -- Growth rates differ to width


Juniperus communis ‘Green Carpet’ [s], ‘Hornibrookii’ [m] & ‘Repanda’ [m], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Mint Julep’ [m], J. rigida subsp. conferta [m], J. sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’ [m]


Juniperus horizontalis ‘Golden Carpet’ [d], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Carberry Gold’ [m], ‘Gold Coast’ [m] & Golden Joy’ [s]


Cedrus deo ‘Feelin’ Blue’ [m], Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ [m] & Glauca Group [m], J. squamata ‘Blue Carpet’ [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Juniperus chinensis ‘Expansa Aureospicata’ [m], J. squamata ‘Holger’ [s], Taxus baccata ‘Repens Aurea’ [m]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Juniperus horizontalis ‘Andorra Compact’ [s] & ‘Winter Blue’ [m], Microbiota decussata [m], Taxus baccata ‘Corleys Coppertip’ [m]

Trimming & Pruning

Few gardens rely solely on flowers for year-round interest; they also need a structure of different plant shapes, colours and textures to provide a background and maintain year-round appeal. Conifers are ideal because they are available in so many forms, are hardy, easy to care for and long-living.

• Hedges in a variety of growth rates and colour give privacy, provide habitats for wildlife, absorb traffic noise and pollution, screen unsightly objects and create a backdrop for the garden (see our leaflet Making Gardens Beneficial to Wildlife for advice on planting a hedge).

• Ground cover can be provided by fast- or slow-growing prostrate conifers used to edge ponds, paths or borders; cover unsightly areas; and suppress weeds. They can act as a foil for bulbs, flowers and grasses.

• Specimens planted in the centre of a lawn, in a corner, in a tub or in a border or rockery can add structural interest to a garden.

• Containers: miniature and dwarf conifers suit container planting and will last five years or more in the same pot with a minimum of attention. Just water in summer, give an occasional trim and an annual feed of slow-release fertiliser. Low troughs can be underplanted with miniature bulbs and bedding plants. Plant a single conifer in patio planters to give height or a combination of different shapes, textures and colours for an all-round display. Use prostrate junipers in place of trailing plants.

• Borders can benefit from the graceful, arching foliage of pendulous conifers or upright-growing specimens. Plant with other shrubs, phormiums, heathers or grasses for a long-lasting border.

• Water features: conifers are excellent planted beside water as their strong shapes make wonderful reflections. They also hide the edges of pond liners and break up fixed lines of vision.

• Mixed plantings: conifers can be used with other plants to give year-round interest and colour: dwarf conifers live happily alongside other plants in containers, or by themselves as specimens. Try them with winter bedding and early spring bulbs and flowers, which can then be swapped for summer bedding. Heathers and hardy cyclamen also make a great combination."

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677



Site design and content copyright ©January 2007. Page structure amended November 2012. Completed change from adding a page to mapping and thus changing that page to the desired plant description page and index details, September 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Book by The Royal Horticultural Society:-

"Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Conifers: A Comprehensive Guide to Cultivars and Species by Aris G. Auders and Derek P. Spicer 2 volumes
ISBN 9781907057151 Published in July 2012

The Royal Horticultural Society encyclopedia is a much needed reference book on conifer cultivars and species, both hardy and tropical. The two volumes of this extensive and lavishly illustrated 1,500-page work feature about 8,000 cultivars, over 5,000 photographs and all of the world’s 615 conifer species, plus their subspecies and varieties."


A Tree a Day provides lists of trees ( click on name in each list to get details and photo ) suitable for. Unfortunately on 25 April 2024, I cannot find this website, but if you google A tree a day, then you can buy the book:-

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.


This table section copied from Plant Botanical Index H page

Form of Perennials, Annuals, Bulbs, Climbers:-
Stems densely cover the ground and the flowers extend above.
Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and the flowers are close to the foliage.
Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level.
Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and the flowers.
Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.


What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay? Page explains what to do about trees/shrubs/hedges that may damage the foundations of your property.
What happened to a new building, which was caused by the builder, 6 years after it was built. The new owner was then landed with a large bill. The Builder warranty is first 2 years, then years 3-10 can be covered by NHBC Buildmark.

Most modern houses cannot afford large shrubs, trees or hedges within 10 feet = 120 inches = 300cms of a house wall or a garden wall, so it is best to use:-
Growing Edibles in Containers inside your home,
Soft Fruit List with soft fruit bush (Blueberry, Gooseberry, Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Whitecurrant or Jostaberry) instead of a shrub from the shrub lists provides you with the size of shrub suitable for most current gardens.
The Raspberry may be used as a mini-hedge in the garden to separate areas or against your boundary fences/walls.
The Blackberry, Boysenberry and Tayberry cane climbers can also be used as mini-hedges or to clothe walls/fences/pergolas.
They all provide you with edible fruit. The Soft Fruit Gallery compares colour photographs of some soft fruits,
Choosing a top fruit tree or remaining top fruit instead of a tree from the tree list provides you with a plant of a size that is suitable for most current gardens. These trees also produce edible fruit. Further details in these galleries -
Top Fruit Apple, Cherry, Pear
You could use 1 of the trees from the Deciduous and Evergreen Trees suitable for Small Gardens.


The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-
North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp.
South-facing gardens get the most light.
East-facing gardens get morning light.
West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light.


Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

columnarshape1a1a1Columnar Tree/Shrub Form

A tree shape designed by nature to be a haven for nesting birds.

ovalshape1a1a1Oval Tree/Shrub Form




roundedshape1a1a1Rounded or Spherical Tree/Shrub Form




flattenedsphericalshape1a1a1Flattened Spherical Tree/Shrub Form




narrowconicalshape1a1a1Narrow Conical/ Narrow Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.
These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadconicalshape1a1a1Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.

These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener.

eggshapedshape1a1a1Ovoid/ Egg-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape




broadovoidshape1a1a1Broad Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.


Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-
Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil.
Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation.
Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts.
Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension.
Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point.


Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

invertedovoidshape1a1a1Narrow Vase-Shaped/ Inverted Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape



fanshaped1a1a1aFan-Shaped/ Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape




broadfanshapedshape1a1a1Broad Fan-Shaped/ Broad Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.

narrowweepingshape1a1a1Narrow Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape

Very useful for children to use as a secret den. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadweepingshape1a1a1Broad Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape




Single-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar tree Tree/Shrub Shape

Multi-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar Tree Tree/Shrub Shape


Other uses of plants:-
Crevices Garden Use
Hanging Basket Use
Large Leaves Use
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 Use
Rock Garden Use
Thorny Hedge Use
Trees for Lawns Use
Windbreak Use
Non-Tree Plants in Woodland Use
Gardens by the Bay is the place to find perfect companions for all your bulbs, perennials and ornamental grasses.


Sun Aspect:-
Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.


Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.


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The following article is very useful and important in your management of your garden.

HOW SOIL WORKS Posted on August 20, 2011 by Rupert Foxton-Smythe from HousePlants Guru:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world! On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime: Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners. The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


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Guidelines for Using Plants with Colored Foliage from University of Illinois Extension:-

Traditional gardening rules suggest that when you use plants with colorful foliage, use them sparingly. Avoid using too much color and use lots of green to blend and soften. But, when you set out to create a garden of color using foliage, you have to rely more on the colors of the foliage than that of the flowers. Flowers, as nice as they are, come and go, but foliage remains constant. So break the rules. Use masses of the same brightly colored foliage plants in groups of three, five, seven, nine, or more. The effect will be show stopping. But, in order to keep the design from becoming garish, here are a few rules that you should try and follow.


A Passion for Purple

Purple, bronze, red, and black leaves have a common thread of red pigment. Bronze leaves can be very dull and muddy looking. But if they are planted; so that the sun lights them from the side or from behind, the resulting effect is one of a plant that shimmers with highlights of red. Purple-bronze leaved plants are also excellent companions with blue-gray plants. Plants with black leaves stand out when paired with yellow or red leaved plants.


Golden Plants

Plants with gold or yellow foliage tend to mimic the strong rays of the sun when planted in mass or “dropped” into a planting. Yellow hued leaves will “warm up” a garden and when paired with orange or red leaved plants, cause them to “burn” with intense color. Yellow leaved plants are also compatible with purple leaved plants and blue flowers.


The Silver Lining

Silver-white or blue-gray leaves reflect light and act as “blenders” because they go with most other colors. Silver foliage makes a punctuation type of statement when used with hot colors like red, orange, or gold. White foliage also lightens up dark corners of a garden and is visible in the garden at night.


Wild and Crazy Leaves

Variegated leaved plants offer endless patterns that can be subtle or extremely gaudy and wildly colorful. These irregular patterns can be very complex with the variegations being speckles, spots, blotches, swirls, or lines. Many times, two or more colors are present making them difficult to use. Some leaves even break the color rules and have both warm and cool colors on the same leaf. To use these plants effectively, pick up one color of the leaf and use that color when choosing companion plants. See these different colours in
Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index


Color Echoes

Plants with colorful foliage are often used as specimen plants and are allowed to stand alone. Such plants can also be used in groups with other plants if planted next to or with plants that have a similar color in its leaves. This echoing effect, repeating a similar color in different plants, can be used to good effect even when the plants have colors that scream.


Contrasting Texture and Shape

Using plants with contrasting leaf colors, shapes, and texture can make an interesting combination. Avoid using leaves of the same size and texture next to each other. Create textural contrast so the coarse textures will seem coarser and the fine textures seem finer. Texture can also create spatial illusions. Coarse textured plants will appear closer to the viewer and fine textured plants will tend to recede or appear farther away. If you want to make the far end of the garden seem closer, plant coarse textured plants. Fine textured plants can be used to make a shallow garden seem deeper.


The following pages may help:-

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Pollution Barrier
...Adjacent to Water
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Adjacent to Water
Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166
Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Copied from Work Details of Ivydene Horticutural Services page


Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira:
Photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira
taken in February 2022.

Planting trees or shrubs in grass is a total waste of time since the grass will absorb every drop of rain in the UK, leaving none for the the trees/shrubs, except what is in the soil. Unfortunately all public bodies think that planting this way or under tarmac is a good idea by the numbskulls in

Because of this, we are depriving ourselves from oxygen being produced by these plants.


Just thought that I might read the following from:-

  • A. Tree roots Leaflet No. 6 Published by the Arboricultural Association in 1991:-
    "There is a popular misconception that the roots of a large tree growing under typical British conditions
    will penetrate to a depth of several metres. People refer to these as "tap roots" or "anchor roots".
    Under most conditions of soil and climate in Britain this picture is far from the truth. Tree roots need
    to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen from the soil. These are usually most readily available near to
    the surface, and carbon dioxide produced by the roots disperses more readily there. As a
    consequence, most roots are normally found in the upper 600mm (24 inches) or less.
    On poorly drained clay soils in areas with a moderate or high rainfall all the roots of a large tree may be
    in the upper 300mm (1 foot = 12 inches) or less.
    Roots will sometimes penetrate to a depth of 400 or 500cms, particularly in drier parts of Britain, but
    that is the exception rather than the rule; and even there, the majority of roots are likely to be in the
    upper 600mm.
    All roots contribute to the moisture supply and stability of the tree, and there is no meaningful
    distinction between what are often called "feeder roots" and "support roots". The uptake of
    moisture and nutrients takes place mainly through very fine hairlike roots at the ends of the
    smallest woody roots. Many of these fine roots may die in the autumn and grow again in the
    next spring. These could be called "feeder roots", but would not include any roots more
    than 1mm diameter.
    Typical tree on typical soil, in Britain (An indication of root spread of a typical tree, where root
    development is unimpeded by ditches, walls or other obstructions.):-
    • Height of tree about 2000cms
    • Main rooting depth about 60cm
    • Maximum rooting depth about 100-200cm
    • Branch spread about 900cm
    • Main root spread about 1200cm outer limit of root system about 2000cms, or more
  • Narrow or fastigiate forms may have a smaller branch spread, but can have a similar root
    spread. The size of the root system is related to the amount of foliage which the tree supports,
    not just to the height or branch spread.
    "Tap roots" are a feature of some tree seedlings, such as oak, which tend to send down a single
    main root; but as trees grow, the main direction of root growth is in a lateral direction, and the
    "tap root" does not continue to develop to such a great extent as the upper parts of the tree. A
    mature oak tree will not therefore be a scaled-up version of an oak seedling, but will hav a differently
    shaped root system.
    The roots of most (but not all) trees sub-divide rapidly, so that most of the roots are relatively
    thin except within 200 or 300 cms of the main stem. It can often be possible to cut through the
    complete root system 300cms from the tree without seeing any roots more than 25mm (1 inch) thick.
    The extent of the root system will vary with the soil, climate, tree species, and other factors, but
    will normally extend further than the branches.
    Ploughing, trenching, raising or lowering the soil level, or digging even the top 200mm (8 inches)
    of soil may destroy a major proportion of the root system of a tree." In other words when service
    repair, renewal or a new service installation is done, then further damage is done to the tree roots.

  • B. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 36 97 TRL Tree Roots and Underground Pipes by
    G. Brennan, D Patch and F R W Stevens Published in January 1997 ISSN No. 1362-5128:-
    "...Underground services are laid in trenches cut through the soil and then backfilled. ... If a pipe is
    cooler than the surrounding soil, moisture will condense around it creating conditions conducive to
    root growth. When pipes are excavated, a mass of fine roots may be found forming a sheath round
    the pipe, and this may lead engineers to blame tree roots for causing direct damage to the
    service. ... Roots do not break pipes or force their way into pipes to gain access to water and nutrients.
    Apart from the problems associated with clay or mortar packing, why do pipes and their joints fail? On
    highly shrinkable clay soils tree roots may contribute to soil drying, and where as a result a clay
    shrinks pipes may then move. But more important are the design and quality of the pipe materials, the
    standards of workmanship and supervision during construction of the pipeline. In addition, later
    excavations adjacent to the line of the service can result in slumping of soil and distortion of the pipe.
    All of these could cause cracks in pipes or weakening of joints.
    If moisture escapes from a water-carrying underground pipe, a moisture gradient will develop in the
    soil. Tree roots in the vicinity of the pipe may flourish in the moist soil and penetrate the pipe at the
    seepage point. Roots will then proliferate within the pipe; eventually they may create a blockage.
    This is probably the most dramatic and troublesome form of tree root damage to a pipe - particularly
    if the pipe is carrying foul water. However, roots are most unlikely to grow into a pipe that is leaking
    under pressure (e.g. a water main)."
    The above might explain the 2 ways that trees in pavements get their water supply, but not how
    they get gas exchange for the oxygen or carbon dioxide, but may explain the small amount of
    nutrient gained from the surrounding of the storm drain with its detritus.

  • C. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 59 2012 The effects of Weed Competition on
    Tree Establishment by R.J. Davies and J.B.H. Gardiner Published in June 1989 - Revised with minor
    alterations May 2012:-
    "Many sites are grassed before tree planting to improve their appearance. All plants compete to some
    extent but grasses and clover are particularly competitive. ... The roots of weeds close to the tree also
    compete for moisture and nutrients and on grassy sites this is more important than competition for
    light. ... Mowing often increases the sward's transpiration, and thus the moisture stress suffered by the
    tree. See effect of grass on trees in section 9 of damage to trees in pavements of Funchal, Madeira in
    the second table on the left.
    Moisture and nutrient compeition are interrelated: weeds may compete directly for nutrients or by
    drying the soil render them unavailable to the tree. Trees suffering competition often appear nutrient
    deficient, wheras weed-free trees have larger greener leaves with higher nutrient concentrations. But
    fertilsing alone rarely relieves competition; it often invigorates weeds and the tree suffers.
    Effective weed control must free the tree roots from this competition:-"
    • "Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on
      higher ground in South-West England" from Wikipedia.
    • Followed by :-"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of
      soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season.
      You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better
      results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy
      soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into
      three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week
      because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
    • so at 1 inch a week that is 52 inches and at 2 inches a week that is 104 inches,
    • so you can see that turf round tree roots can absorb more than the annual rainfall in
      South-West England, leaving no water for the tree roots.

  • D. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 110 93 ext Water Tables and Trees by
    D R Helliwell Published in February 1993:-
    "Over much of lowland Britain, the annual precipitation (rain and snow) is in the order of 600mm.
    The canopy of a deciduous tree will intercept about 15%, which is evaporated directly back to the
    atmosphere, and cover of evergreen trees will intercept about 30%.
    The precipitation which reaches the ground may enter the surface layers, where it is held initially
    against the pull of gravity in the fine pores and spaces. Any additional water which falls onto the
    surface will enter the ground and move downwards, wetting successive layers. Precipitation falling
    on impervious surfaces is often channeled into drains, and so it may not contribute to the soil
    moisture system - as happens with the rain falling onto the tarmac, concrete or paver covering the
    roots of trees in covered pavements.
    A question is often asked is "If a large tree takes 200 gallons of water from the soil per day, how
    can it survive if it can not draw on the 'water table'?. The answer is that in most locations the soil
    in which the tree is rooted can store sufficient 'available moisture' to keep the tree alive during
    dry weather in most summers. Recharge of soil moisture around the roots is from precipitation.
    A large tree may have roots in an area of 300m2, to a depth of 1m or more. In that volume of soil
    there may be more that 45,000 litres (10,000 gallons) of 'available water' at the start of the growing
    season, which is enough to keep the tree fully supplied for at least 50 days at peak demand, even if
    no more rain falls in that period.
    A typical figure for annual uptake of water in Europe is around 330mm. Assuming that, in an average
    year the soil is at 'field capacity' at the start of the growing season, and taking a rainfall figure of
    600mm, less the amount which is intercepted, there should be sufficient moisture for tree growth if
    there is a moderate depth of retentive soil. There is no need to invoke the 'water table' as an
    explanation for the survival and successful growth of trees. Dieback or death of trees following
    particularly dry years may not be related to the depth of the 'water table'."
    Mature trees in pavements do not have any stored rainwater in the soil or any replenishment of it.

    Nobody involved in roads or public spaces like parks appears to know, care or maintain the plant
    requirements upon which they depend for the oxygen that keeps them alive, but keep on finding
    ways to damage that plant world.
  • 1."Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly planted trees
    The results of an experiment planted with sycamore, hawthorn and Italian alder transplants on the
    grassed verges of a newly constructed trunk road at Ripley, Derbyshire, illustrate that assertion.
    The treatments where no weed control and 54, 76 and 106cm diameter areas around the trees
    sprayed with paraquat once each summer for three years. The figure (page) shows survival growth
    after 3 years. The annual paraquat applications gave incomplete weed control; better control
    would probably have produced greater responses. The shapes of the graphs suggest that spots
    larger that 106cm diameter might have given greater responses. Many weeding experiments using
    broadleaved species on grassy sites over the length and breadth of England have produced similar
    survival and growth responses.
    Tree growth is related to the area weeded around the tree. A one metre diameter herbicide spot
    size is often appropriate for transplants, although larger areas usually give more growth. Larger
    planting stock should receive larger weed-free spots."
    Instead of chemical control, why not use plants as shown in section 9 in the second table on the left?
    "The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants.
    Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree
    roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser
    or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.
    The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,
    • since it is within an enclosed public space.
    • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass
      as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
    • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation
      of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
    • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
    • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then
      employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
    • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get
      fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down
      before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?"
  • 2. Provide 'Available Water' for trees in pavements
    Install a French Drain under the pavement to release the water into the surrounding soil and return
    the other end to the Aco drainage system to allow for overflow. Use a silt trap between this perforated
    pipe and the Aco Drainbox to prevent silt from blocking the French Drain. This should vastly reduce the
    volume of stormwater being output to the local rivers or the sea.
    Plant the new tree at least 50cms (18 inches) away from pavementedge to road.
  • 3. Provide gaseous exchange and nutrients for these trees in pavements.
    Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked
    in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then,
    collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it
    with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed
    that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the
    top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.



A '£134,000 disaster of 95% of 12,800 saplings planted to help tackle the climate crisis
have died because they were not watered in the summer drought' created by a
Gloucester Council that did not have a clue

"A twig waste of money as trees die in heatwave by Joel Taylor in the Metro of Friday, September 23, 2022.

Thousands of trees planted to help tackle the climate crisis have died because they were not watered
in the summer drought.

Some 12,800 saplings were dotted across Gloucester by the city's council, which promised a 'thriving
network of sustainably managed trees' when it announced the £130,000 scheme in February as part of
the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations.

But the council admitted in July that, due to the tough jobs market, it had struggled to employ a tree
officer, whose job would have involved checking on the saplings.

And Cllr Alastair Chambers said 95 per cent of the trees have now died due to lack of water during
the heatwave.

He added "This is such a waste of taxpayers' money. I am all for trees and a better environment so I
voted for the trees to be planted. Sadly, that didn't include park management of the trees. When I was
in Ukraine, even under a time of war, they had cleaner streets and parks.'

The council said the summer heatwave was unprecedented.

A spokesperson added:' It's disappointing this led to the loss of trees in the city and we will be looking
to do some replanting where resources allow with a more robust watering/care schedule.'

It had a budget of £16,000 for the trees and secured £118,000 in outside grants."


Let us look at the 3 photos in the article from GloucestershireLive. of these newly planted trees.

  • Photo 1 has a 72 inch(180cm) stake which is not a Machine Round tree Stake inserted
    into the ground inside, and 12 inch (30cm) diameter of Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium)
    800mm High
    to protect the dead whip inside. The whip is attached to the stake possibly
    with a Rainbow Semi Mature Tree Tie.
    This whip has been planted into ground covered in grass and so when you read the
    information in the row above on Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly
    planted trees
    you can understand why this whip never stood a chance, because the grass
    took up 2 inches depth of water a week if any fell and it took all the nutrients in the ground.

    A circle with diameter of 120cm (48 inches) of grass should have been removed and it
    placed round the edge of the circle upside down to rot with a 1200mm Diameter Cor-Ten
    Garden Ring inside the edge of the circle to stop the grass from re-entering the circle.
    Then the whip should have been planted as specified in Planting Bare Root Whips from
    Chew Valley Trees
    using a cane instead of the stake, a rabbit guard instead of the
    Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium) and 4 inch depth of mulch from Melcourt. Then sow clover
    as a green manure
    on the mulch to provide nitrogen to the whip roots as a legume and
    stop the wind and sun from drying out the ground within the Cor-ten Garden Ring.
    The outer circle of upside down turf stores the rainwater within it and the mulch prevents
    the sun and wind from drying out the ground where the whip has been planted. Spray
    4 gallons of water onto the mulched area to thoroughly soak the mulch and the ground
    It is better to plant these whips in the autumn, like October instead of February. It is
    likely in England for the period from October to March to have rain or snow on most days
    and during the late autumn/winter when the temperature falls below 5 Centigrade, then
    the whip will grow its roots instead of growing above ground level as it does for
    above 5 Centigrade. So it should not have a watering problem in the Autumn/Winter.
    Trees and Shrubs absorb rainwater in August to use in the production of Spring foliage
    the following year, so thoroughly soak the ground in August and again in April and allow
    the mulch to stop the trees from wilting during the summer.

    Melcourt some years ago did an experiment with fruit trees. Half a field they planted fruit
    trees and thoroughly soaked the ground in April. The other half of the field they also planted
    fruit trees, thoroughly soaked the ground and then covered the soil with a mulch in April.
    They then measured the soil moisture level each month, but did absolutely nothing else
    for these fruit trees. In August the fruit trees without a mulch were showing signs of
    distress, whereas the the fruit trees with a mulch were fine. The experiment was
    carried out during a very hot summer.

    A water ring is a mound of compacted soil that is built around the circumference of a planting
    hole once a shrub/tree has been installed. The water ring helps to direct water to the outer
    edges of a planting hole, encouraging new roots to grow outward, in search of moisture. The
    height of the mound of soil will vary from a couple of inches for 10 ltr potted shrubs, to almost
    a foot (30cm) for balled and burlapped trees, especially those planted on a slope. Mulching over the
    ring will help to further conserve moisture and prevent deterioration of the ring itself. Once a
    plant is established, the water ring may be leveled, but the mulch should continue beneath
    the plant during each spring and summer.
    Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch (2.5 cms) of moisture most
    plants prefer per week from March to October. The first two years after a plant is installed,
    regular watering is important. It is better to water once a week and water deeply using drip
    irrigation (thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches
    (15-18 cms)), than to water frequently for a few minutes. With container grown plants,
    apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes, or preferably put the
    pot inside a larger pot on pot legs to raise it 1 inch above the bottom of the outside pot with
    a wick from the bottom of the outer pot up through to the middle of the inner pot and
    replenish the 1 inch (2.5 cms) depth of water in the outside pot. The outside pot has a hole
    2 inches (5 cms) above its base to allow for drainage of excess irrigation water or rain. Water
    plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant
    stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior
    to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems. Do not wait to water until
    plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too
    much (when they reach the permanent wilting point). Mulches can significantly cool the root
    zone and conserve moisture.
    Waterlogged soil occurs when more water is added to soil than can drain out in a reasonable
    amount of time. This can be a severe problem where water tables are high or soils are
    compacted. Lack of air space in waterlogged soil makes it almost impossible for soil to drain.
    Few plants, except for bog plants, can tolerate these conditions. Drainage can be improved
    by creating a French Drain (18 inch x 12 inch - 45 x 30 cms - drain lined with Geotextile like
    Plantex or Weed Control Fabric filled with coarse gravel and the weed control fabric overlaid
    on the top before mulching the top with 3 inch depth of Bark) in the boggy area and extending
    this drain alongside an evergreen hedge. The hedge will abstract the water over the whole
    year. Over-watered plants have the same wilted leaves as under-watered plants. Fungi such
    as Phytophthora and Pythium affect vascular systems, which cause wilt.
    A small yew tree was planted on a slope in a lawn in our local churchyard for the millenium.
    After 8 years it had hardly grown, so I removed the lawn from about 24 inches from the trunk
    and upended the cut lawn to make a water ring round it on the slope below the tree. I then
    applied a mulch of compost to the exposed soil and now that yew tree is quite happily growing,
    since the water ring traps the rain as it goes past the tree trunk.
  • Photo 2 does not have any rabbit protection and it appears to have been pollarded. YOU DO
    NOT POLLARD WHIPS, and the side branches are too short, since perhaps they have also
    been pollarded.
  • Photo 3 has the same problems as the other 2.


Best Watering Practices for newly planted trees may help from the point of watering, but if the
ground has a sufficient mulch and it is soaked in April and August, then you may be okay.
Esagono Irrigation System might work for soaking the ground in April and August.
Amvista L9 Liquid Seaweed could be added to the water in the Easagono to provide the trace
elements to the green manure and the trees in either April or August. GreenWaste Management
Services Ltd
may also have a soluble product that could be used in either April or August to
supplement the Seaweed product.



The UK is producing food which will affect us humans, cattle and wildlife, so visit us and get poisoned.

"Guy's News on Monday 15th April 2024
The madness of maize

While most of Devon is bright green, an emerging patchwork of fields is turning yellow. This is the kiss of death from glyphosate, the 'world's favourite herbicide'.
Most agriculture starts by removing any competing vegetation. In this case, the fields need to be cleared to sow maize, grown as seed for dairy cows. The choice is normally either to plough (inverting the top 15-25cm of soil), costing around £25 per acre, or to spray with glyphosate, costing around £15 per acre. Some argue that because glyphosate kills weeds without disturbing the soil, it is less damaging to the environment - and have even branded no-plough farming, facilitated by glyphosate, as 'regenerative'. At college, I was taught that glyphosate breaks down quickly and harmlessly on soil contact, has zero mammalian toxicity, and is harmless in our waterways. All of this turned out to be untrue. Whether glyphosate is less harmful than the soil dsturbance caused by ploughing is unclear. Like all artificial pesticides, glyphosate is banned in organic farming.
Every year, I watch these fields die. What upsets me is that bcause maize likes a deep, loose seedbed, the fields will almost always be ploughed anyway. This begs the question: why spray as well? To add to the madness, much of the land wwill soon be covered with clear plastic film, to warm the soil and boost early growth. Since 2021, the EU (European Union) has only allowed biodegradable film, which breaks down into Carbon Dioxide and water. But in the UK, most of the film is oxo-degradable - which breaks down into microplastics that remain in the soil indefinitely. The effects are largely unknown, but initial research shows substantial changes to soil biology and uptake into the crops we eat. I am bemused that such widespread plastic pollution is deemed acceptable, while we congratulate ourselves on banning plastic straws. Some maize even goes to fuel subsidised anaerobic digesters to make 'green' electricity, despite having such a catastrophic environmental footpring.
My point here is not to demonise farmers, but to plead for a food and farming policy that accounts for environmental as well as financial costs. Farmers are not philosophers; they must make a living in the world as they find it. It's the goverrnment's job to create the framework, so that food production is not achieved at the cost of the planet."


"Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review


Glyphosate, a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It can persist in the environment for days or months, and its intensive and large-scale use can constitute a major environmental and health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the current state of our knowledge related to the effects of this pesticide on the nervous system of various animal species and humans. The information provided indicates that exposure to glyphosate or its commercial formulations induces several neurotoxic effects. It has been shown that exposure to this pesticide during the early stages of life can seriously affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission and to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death due to autophagy, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. The doses of glyphosate that produce these neurotoxic effects vary widely but are lower than the limits set by regulatory agencies. Although there are important discrepancies between the analyzed findings, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate produces important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrates." by the National Library of Medicine - An official website of the United States government.



"In recent years, a silent menace has emerged, threatening the environment and human health. Microplastics, tiny particles of plastic less than 5 millimeters in size, have infiltrated our oceans, soil, and even the air we breathe. With their omnipresence, microplastics have become a matter of growing concern for the environment and human health.
Recent evidence indicates that humans constantly inhale and ingest microplastic through contaminated seafood, including fish and shellfish, Additionally, microplastics have been found in tap water, bottled water, and even commonly consumed beverages, such as beer and salt. In fact, a new study estimates that the average adult consumes approximately 2,000 microplastics per year through salt.
Different chemicals can leach from our plastic water bottles, knives and dermatologic products to enter our bodies. These compounds are linked to serious health issues such as endocrine disruption, weight gain, insulin resistance, decreased reproductive health, and cancer." from Microplastics on Human health: how much do they harm us of UNDP - United Nations Development Programme