Ivydene Gardens Photo Work Done by Chris G-W 1 Gallery:
Page 3 has photos from the
work of chris
taken during November 2019.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in
the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes
in schools, or at home, to:-

  • Assist in selecting a plant.
  • assist in designing your garden for the overall structure to
    provide you with mystery so that no point of the garden is
    always visible from other points of the garden to persuade
    you to go outside and look round that corner to see what
    is happening there now,
  • assist in selecting areas of the garden for different seasons
    and different uses - spring bulbs in this area, vegetable
    garden in this one leading to a pond etc,
  • in the shape of different plants to provide variety instead of
    regimented single shape and single height shrubs, which
    in effect turn into a uniform hedge with possibly different
    foliage colour. This becomes very difficult to maintain as
    these shrubs/trees etc simply intertwine together,
  • create areas to be used like a solid effect surface for a
    wheelchair with raised boxes for plants so that the wheelchair
    owner's knees can go under them and he/she can garden
    whilst still in the wheelchair. Also he/she can use a remote
    control to operate cars on this ground surface and race them
    around under these raised beds of ponds, flowers, fruit and
    vegetables with his friends, or
  • assist in providing areas to sit down in the garden to have
    a barbeque, a chat with your spouse or simply admire your garden.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Work Item 2 is abbey gate cottages plan 31
IMG 0337.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
Back Garden planted by Old Fence



Work Item 2 is abbey gate cottages plan 34
IMG 0534.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
Back Garden planted by Picket Gate.
The client's cottage is the second of 5 terraced cottages, with the white wall and
kent peg tile roof facing you being the fifth.



Work Item 2 is abbey gate cottages plan 33
IMG 0447.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
Having a drink to celebrate the completion of Work 2, with the client.



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 1
IMG 0034.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
Some years later she asked to replace the sloping back lawn, patio and
crazy paving with a level patio.



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 7
IMG 0086.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
so I came up with a proposed plan.



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 36
IMG 0536.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
When I started I looked at the crazy paving outside the house



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 39
IMG 0539.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
and the entry garden gate, I found that I could not get my wheelbarrow through
because the new gate had been installed too far down the hill and the roof of
Firewood Store stopped it going at right-angles to allow full access.


So -


Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 6
IMG 0084.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
I replaced the open fronted Firewood Store with a new roof structure which was
then felted, battened and retiled with Kent Peg Tiles.


but the rain was coming in the back door -


Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 5
IMG 0082.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
Having reached the back door, I found that rainwater was coming into the cottage .

Having graduated after 7 years:-

  • Year 1 studying Polymer Chemistry,
  • having failed the exams I then transferred to Psycholgy in Years 2 and 3
  • before going out to Israel for 18 months where
  • having told them I was not allowed to do heavy manual work having
    spent 3 months of the previous academic year in bed due to back problems
    caused by car and motorbike crashes - during this time on the way to the
    chiropracter in London a car I was overtaking turned right in front of me
    so I landed up on the road, was treated by the chiropracter and half-a-mile
    further on then had to put my body on the ground to avoid a pedestrian
    running across the road with him being obscured by the taxi travelling on
    my left (not quite the best way of getting better), I ended up in their sanatorium
    of the kibbutz I was working in. During my time in the sanatorium immobile
    on the bed, my mental health was greatly improved when the Syrians sent a
    Katyusha rocket, which exploded nearby. After a week in there, they sent me
    to a military hospital, where the surgeon sent me to X-ray to confirm that my
    back was not broken and then laid me face down on the operating table. He
    then stated that it might hurt as he depressed my back muscles until he found
    one that hurt more - at which point he increased the pressure. My overtightened
    muscles gave up the fight and relaxed. He got me off the table and told me to
    touch my toes. I expressed my thanks and was taken back to the kibbutz. Now
    what could I do that reuired less physical work? Ah, go to school, So I went to
    an Ulpan to learn Hebrew for 6 months, where you were taught for 4 hours and
    worked for 4 hours. I ended up washing dishes. Having finished the course and
    got my Aleph and Bet in Hebrew, I had missed the start of the next academic
    year, but I could not stay at the school, So I moved to another kibbutz, where
    I ended up using a saw and hammer to make a wooden hut suitable for 6
    volunteers like myself. The hut had four 1 metre square sofa cushions, an entry
    porch at one end leading into a double room and then the other entry porch at
    the other end with a basin and toilet in it. 6 metal sprung beds could fit in 3 rows within the
    double room. Being one of the oldest original homes in the kibbutz, it was
    constructed of 2 lots of wood either side of the frame nailed side to side and filled
    with stones to stop the bullets from the friendly arabs living across the valley. This
    wood has shrunk over the years and the tar paper covering it had mostly ripped
    and fallen away. So being a partially qualified Psychologist and fully qualified Pratt,
    I then spent happy months from 05:30 to 15:00 each working day, hammering new
    2 inch ply over the gaps on the outside, using second hand wood stored under
    the newer houses, I then replaced 3 of the four doors, put greenhouse sliding
    glass frames into each window of the porches, green mosquito netting over them
    since I did not manage to get the glass for them, installed ceilings in both porches,
    a hanging cupboard in the first entry porch, created 2 sets of bunk beds with
    one on top of the other for 1 half of the double room, made a sofa with cupboard
    space underneath and the 4 cushions on top and a bed on top of another
    cupboard on the other side and another bed with cupboard underneath in the
    bathroom. Painted the place inside and out.
  • attended year 3 in Brunel before going to ICL to aid them with recruitment for
    Printed Circuit Board Operatives where I gave them the Kohs Block Test, which
    was a very good indicator of their dexterity and eye selection of components.
    I then
  • attended the final year at Brunel, before
  • at the Easter break, I was riding my motorbike in Wales and came off landing on
    my head and doing considerable damage to the extent that a third of my brain is
    still detached from the skull. I was lucky, that I was discovered by 2 female
    doctors who got me to hospital.
  • I ended up back at the university under Section 22 and the supervision of the
    local NHS Psychiatrist, who could tell me what to do etc. He did nothing whatsoever
    to aid me, so I did it myself. I had lost the power of speech and when I spoke
    I had to listen to what I was saying to know what I was saying. If somebody
    interrupted me, I was lost. If I spoke in a conversation for longer that 10 minutes,
    I got a headache. So I bought jewellery beads and candle making equipment
    and attended the students version of the Samaritans, where i could talk to
    students about my wares. Once made, the price was 25% more than the cost
    to me of the materials. That would help my speech, but what about my thinking
    processes? The phsychiatrist was no help but Kelly Grids were a correct
    method of sharing the same thought processes as the patient with the
    pyschiatrist, rather than the psychiatrist imposes his thoughts on the client.
    Using articles written by Loius L. McQuitty, I created analysis programs by
    punching cards for the university computer, which the operator then ran
    after midnight. I also documented them using Fortran Comment Statements,
    so that staff could use them in their research to anaylse their results.
    Eventually the psychiatrist stopped mucking around and stated I was
    mentally fit and could return to my status as a student in January of then my
    final year and take my finals.

in the University of Brunel with a 2.2 in Psychology, I felt that I was eminently
qualified to carry out all these succeeding developments despite having no
instruction in them, as you can tell from my cv:-


Besides coding the Tactical and Tabular Displays for the Nimrod aircraft, I was
handed a magnetic tape with the software to test the program on a Test Rig
with the operating system manuals marked up in pencil, told that it had operating
system errors and told to sort it and get it working. I did, and tested what page
designs I was given to code for the Navigators Displays to make sure that they
were possible. I had to return one design as it requested the display of too much
information for the time allowed by those display computers. I documented the
test rig and the navigators tabular display software on all 4 levels producing 2100 A3 typed sheets.
The Royal Airforce only allow their personnel 2 years on each piece of software -
after the program was delivered it came back stating that they required us to make
any further changes as they could not within that timeframe.

The Digital Colour Map Unit was a high speed digital device for displaying a digitised
map on a screen monitor. It could display an aircraft half way up the screen in the
middle with the map moving underneath it. It was first used for helicopter pilots and
we had 4 months before Farnborough to create the working program. I did the
display section of it and then spent 4 months afterwards flying off and getting back
on in the right place and blew many EPROMS as a result. My employers were unable
to sell the system to MOD and ended it over 30 years ago.
Now, you use it in your cars as SATNAV.

I moved to the Maritime Systems Division and took over the test rig software of 44 computers
for the Indian Sea King. Since it was not documented, I was informed that I had to
document it otherwise the division would receive no further work from the MOD. I did
point out that I knew nothing about Sonar, Difar, Radar etc, but they still insisted,
so beng a fully qualified Psycholgist with expertise in machine coding of course I
complied. Then, before I was made redundant due to being over 36 I created with a
hardware engineer a computer system that guaranteed to differentiate its buoy code
signal from any other and so it could be used in a Nimrod for training purposes, instead
of actually dropping Sonar, Difar or any other type of buoys to track enemy submarines.
At the time I was 1 of 2 engineers in a division of 650 personnel who had the authority
to sort out any hardware or software problem on any piece of equipment, but the
company could employ 2 younger personnel for the wage I was earning, so double their work done -
except not many people actually did their job properly and documented their code as
well as tested it at every single stage to find out if there was any problems. Once the
data for testing the failure of 1 of the 2 computer systems providing data to the
Indian Sea King was incorrect and in going down to Yeovil, I could explain exactly
where they had gone wrong and got the errors sorted. When one of the computers
failed, then I had to use the restart data followed by the proper data mixed with the
downgraded other data. This meant that I had more than 50% of the data on the
tape was redundant to me at any one time and therefore I could not also deal with
incorrectly tagged data as well.

Amazing isn't it that a completely untrained individual has the ability to create MOD
software that aids this country and the Indians in their defense - what would have
been the result if I had had some training either in the education system or by my employer?

I have cut down trees using a chainsaw. I worked under the tuition of a trained tree
surgeon for a few days, so that I always checked my chain and retightened it if necessary.
I also cleaned the airfilter and if the chain was blunt, then changed for one of my
others which had been sharpened professionally. If the sharpeners deemed it unusable,
then I bought a new chain. I used ropes to try and minimise any possibility of damage
to myself as well as a chainsaw jacket, hat and gloves. The complete body outfit was
too warm, since it is padded with cotton fibre, which if the chain catches then it goes
with the chain and jams it. Now I do not have the stamina; so its use is very minimal
on logging only. Tree work is done with a saw only. So you could say that I am not
qualified to talk about the trees in the pavement in Funchal and qualified in terms of
educational qualifications then you would be right - but they need sorting and at the
same time you can affect climate change to help in reversing it by getting more
nature to convert the carbon dioxide we produce and our engines including aircraft
engines back into oxygen.

Having been made redundant, I realised that actually doing your job correctly meant
that you could be stepped on and so instead of applying to the War Museum to animate
their displays, since I could think in machine code and work within the time limits of
any computer system, since I had changed compilers, operating sytems and computers
about every 2 years, that coding would have been easy-peasy. I decided to do gardening
together with designing, building and mantaining private gardens and so I went to a
speech therapist to get my speech back into order to convince the horticultural college
to take me on and went from there to create Ivydene Horticultural Services.

I made church candles for St Johns in Chatham. At some point the vicar requested
incense candles, so I embedded incense in the 2 inch diameter 2 feet high candles.
Unfortunately during the communion on Easter Sunday, the incense gathered in
flocks and offered up their light to the lord with 24 inch flames, much to the
embarrassment of the vicar. The flames were extinguished before the napoleonic war
timbers in the roof could add to the glory. After that, I procurred some incense
perfumed liquid to add to the remelted candle ends to make these candles and
the normal sized candles for the choir.
Not that I attended church, but I did my christian duty by them

  • by buying replacement hymn books for the entire congregation and hymn books
    with music for the choir
  • as well taking over the 100 feet of pews in one of the 2
    galleries and sorting out the second-hand books into fiction and then non-fiction
    sections, which I would exchange with the ones in a florists box on a table by the
    church entry each week. At 10 pence each we made £10 a week for that church.


the rainwater was then stopped from coming in.



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 9
IMG 0099.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
but in removing the crazy paving by the kitchen, I found that the drain was broken
and that the mains water pipe was leaking, so



Work Item 3 is abbey gate cottages plan 8
IMG 0098.JPG
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams
they were replaced.


Before I could get on to my landscaping job again, the neighbour in the fifth cottage
asked me to descale his hot water pipe to his bath upstairs. I did point out that he
worked for a builder who employed plumbers, and that he lived next door to a plumber
and that I was not a plumber. He still requested. So stopping mains water entering
the cottage, I opened the hot water tap in the kitchen and then put a funnel linked to a
hose clipped onto the hot water tap in his bathroom. I then mixed descaler from the
plumbing section of a builders merchant with water and poured it down the funnel. It
slowly made its way down to the kitchen and when the flow was reasonable we turned
the hot water tap in the kitchen off. Allowed the pipe to fill with the descaling mixture
for an hour and then let it out. Turned on the water and flushed the pipe. The hot
water flow was then considerably better than the normal hour that it took to fill the bath.

I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460 Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals


Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Photos of Plans, Lists and Work done are in work of chris folder.

This folder has 710 photo images.

Up to 11 photo images in this folder will be inserted onto only a page in a Photo of Work Done by Chris G-W Galleries.

Each photo image will count as 1 photo in the Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens on the respective Page W.

A link to a page in another
Ivydene Gardens Gallery providing further details on the respective list, plan or work done may be supplied.

Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams:-

Page 1 - Work Item 1 is
New Patio, Path, Trellis and Picket Fence with Picket Gate for
Abbey Gate Cottages

Work Item 1 is
Abbey Gate Cottages plan 41
IMG 0541.JPG
Original Patio and Back Fence with Rock Garden

Work Item 1 is
Abbey Gate Cottages plan 18
IMG 0324.JPG
Original Picket Fence

Work Item 1 is
Abbey Gate Cottages plan 10
IMG 0316.JPG
Current Garden Design

Work Item 1 is
Abbey Gate Cottages plan 12
IMG 0318.JPG
Proposed Garden Design

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 56
IMG 0616.JPG
Proposed Garden Design with a proposed site plan,

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 49
IMG 0609.JPG
Proposed Garden Design details of wood required plan and

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 48
IMG 0608.JPG
Proposed Garden Design
and details of paving materials required plan.

Work Item 1 is
Abbey Gate Cottages plan 14
IMG 0320.JPG
Trellis erected and building patio foundations

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 37
IMG 0537.JPG
Completed patio and path with the slab separators

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 22
IMG 0328.JPG
Patio and Path completed with sharp sand replacing the slab separators.

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 19
IMG 0326.JPG
Picket Fence completed.

Page 2

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 20
IMG 0325.JPG
Picket gate erected.

Work Item 1 is
abbey gate cottages plan 3
IMG 0070.JPG
Plan of Work Item 1 completed.

Work Item 2 is
planting more plants in front and back gardens of
Abbey Gate Cottages

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 47
IMG 0607.JPG
Back Garden Current Planting Plan

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 44
IMG 0604.JPG
Back Garden Proposed Planting Plan

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 45
IMG 0605.JPG
Front Garden Current Planting Plan

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 46
IMG 0606.JPG
Front Garden Proposed Planting Plan.

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 53
IMG 0613.JPG
Plant Descriptions Page 1

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 54
IMG 0614.JPG
Plant Descriptions Page 2

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 55
IMG 0615.JPG
Plant Descriptions Page 3

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 28
IMG 0334.JPG
Back garden planted by patio

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 29
IMG 0335.JPG
Back Garden planted by Picket Fence

Page 3

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 31
IMG 0337.JPG

Back Garden planted by Old Fence

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 34
IMG 0534.JPG
Back Garden planted by Picket Gate.

Work Item 2 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 33
IMG 0447.JPG
Having a drink with my client.

Work Item 3 is
replacing sloping patio with flat patio in back garden of
Abbey Gate Cottages

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 1
IMG 0034.JPG
Some years later she asked to replace the sloping back lawn, patio and crazy paving with a level patio.

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 7
IMG 0086.JPG
so I came up with a proposed plan.

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 36
IMG 0536.JPG
When I started I looked at the crazy paving outside the house

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 39
IMG 0539.JPG
and the entry garden gate, I found that I could not get my wheelbarrow through because the new gate had been installed too far down the hill and the roof of Firewood Store stopped it going at right-angles to allow full access.

So -

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 6
IMG 0084.JPG
I replaced the open fronted Firewood Store with a new roof structure which was then felted, battened, retiled with Kent Peg Tiles and leaded to stop the rain going down the house wall or the back wall of the Firewood Store.

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 5
IMG 0082.JPG
Having reached the back door, I found that rainwater was coming into the cottage .
As you can see from the plan; the rainwater was then stopped from coming in.

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 9
IMG 0099.JPG
But, in removing the crazy paving by the kitchen, I found that the drain was broken
and that the mains water pipe was leaking, so

Work Item 3 is
abbey gate cottages plan 8
IMG 0098.JPG
they were replaced.

Before I could get back onto my landscaping job the neighbour requested that I descale his hot water pipe to his bath. Was I now a fully qualified plumber? So having become a sanitation engineer, a joiner, electrician, roofer and water engineer, not being a plumber; I immediately did it for him.

Page 4

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan 6
IMG 0085.JPG
So I got on and did the requested patio, electrical sockets and water taps. Then, she requested a dry stone wall. So, I became a dry stone waller in contructing 66 feet of waal that could be sat on using ragstone.

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo09 5A
Many years later, I went and took photos. Note the Hostas on the left which you will see again in the last photo on this page as I took photos round this back garden.

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo10 6A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo20 16A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo21 17A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo16 12A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo14 10A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo15 11A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo22 18A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo11 7A

Work Item 3 is
Abbey gate cottages plan
Photo12 8A

Page 5

Work Item 4 is
11 city way 1 front garden 1
IMG 0261.JPG
Mulching front garden beds with sawdust

Work Item 4 is
11 city way 1 front garden 6
IMG 0581.JPG

Work Item 4 is
11 city way 1 front garden 2
IMG 0315.JPG

Work Item 4 is
11 city way 1 front garden 1
IMG 0314.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 1
IMG 0402.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 2
IMG 0403.JPG
Keep vegetable garden annual rotation plans and mulch the vegetable garden in spring

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 4
IMG 0405.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 3
IMG 0404.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 6
IMG 0407.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 8
IMG 0409.JPG

Work Item 5 is
11 city way veg garden 5
IMG 0406.JPG

Page 6

Work Item 6 is
236 city way 1
IMG 0702.JPG

Work Item 6 is
236 city way 1
IMG 0703.JPG

Work Item 6 is
236 city way 1
IMG 0706.JPG

Work Item 6 is
236 city way 1
IMG 0708.JPG

Work Item 6 is
236 city way 1
IMG 0705.JPG
Existing back garden 3-dimensional site survey carried out during 2003.
This existing site plan created from the site survey and above 2 sheets provide important information in determining any proposed design - using DESIGNCAD.

Work Item 7 is
236 city way 9
IMG 0710.JPG

Work Item 7 is
236 city way 11
IMG 0712.JPG

Work Item 7 is
236 city way 10
IMG 0711.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 8
IMG 0287.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 6
IMG 0285.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 7
IMG 0286.JPG

Page 7

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 3
IMG 0282.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 4
IMG 0283.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 1
IMG 0027.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 5
IMG 0284.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 9
IMG 0288.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 10
IMG 0289.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 19
IMG 0513.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 20
IMG 0514.JPG

Work Item 8 is
abbotsleigh plan 12
IMG 0291.JPG

Work Item 9 is
Drive laid without foundations
Photo06 3.jpg

Work Item 9 is
Drive laid without foundations
Photo07 4.jpg

Page 8

Work Item 10 is
Applegarth 2
IMG 0123.JPG

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
IMG 0773.JPG

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo05 1A.jpg

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo08 4A.jpg

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo05 2.jpg

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo06 3.jpg

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo07 4.jpg

Work Item 11 is
Balmoral road
Provide Cedagravel plastic and sand to make drained surface for staff to use
Photo08 5.jpg

Work Item 12 is
Blendon road 1
IMG 0381.JPG

Work Item 12 is
Blendon road 2
IMG 0382.JPG

Work Item 12 is
Blendon road 3
IMG 0383.JPG

Page 9

Work Item 12 is
Blendon road 5
IMG 0385.JPG

Work Item 13 is
Blendon road 7
IMG 0387.JPG

Work Item 13 is
Blendon road front garden
IMG 0073.JPG

Work Item 13 is
Blendon road 10
IMG 0390.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 28
IMG 0442.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 30
IMG 0444.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 31
IMG 0445.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 11
IMG 0391.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 12
IMG 0392.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road 13
IMG 0393.JPG

Work Item 14 is
Blendon road chipper shredder IMG 0378.JPG


Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the complete rewiring of my home, with the report by a qualified electrician about the result and his statement:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re use any of it."

Unfortunately, any electrical work carried out at your home is your responsibility.
If it is not carried out correctly, then you are stuffed :-

  • you need to get another electrician to make out a report so that your contracted electrician cannot claim any more from you,
  • then there is no point contacting the organisations that the contracted electrician is a member of, since they wish you to use the same elecrician to make the job up to standard,
  • so you write off the expense and go through the rigmarole all over again, if you carry out the work yourself then you still need a qualified electrician to check your work and give you an electrical certificate, so that you can eventually sell your house. You used to be able to put up your own scaffolding, but not anymore - you must employ a recognised firm instead.
  • if your gas boiler is fitted the wrong way round as mine was, and the annual maintenance engineer did not discover that for 6 years, then your house could have blown up before it was found out and then you had it installed correctly - others who had their gas boilers incorrectly installed have refused to have them changed and so their boilers could also blow up. If the Grundfos pump that pumps the water from the boiler round your house to the hot water tank and radiators is incorrectly positioned, then its motor will not be lubricated by that water and will need replacing within 6 months - another job for an incompetent plumber.
  • the government is acting as a complete terrorist by building the new school opposite me, with its entry from Otterham Quay Lane instead of Seymour Road. The stationary traffic will kill the drivers and the pupils when being dropped off and collected at the end of the day, but this notification to the Department of Education who have paid for the school has been entirely dismissed and so asthma will occur for pupils who will not have access to doctors, since Medway has an insufficiency.
  • the building going on in the country, especially the South-East is crazy, since the amount already built within the last 5 years has exceeeded the proposed increase of water supply by Southern Water up to 2035.


I am currently working on updating the Common and Botanical Name Galleries of the UK Wildflowers - 2 June 2021.

Having discovered that the National Trust is deciding as to whether it will put plant labels for each of the plant groups in Sissinghurst Castle Gardens or not, I am disappointed to note that the current ones are getting broken, unreadable due to age or not existing at that garden. They also do have the manpower to provide these plant labels - They are currently looking for a head gardener to look after Sissinghurst Castle Gardens and other gardens with a total of only 8 staff. I have pointed out to the manager the lack of foundations under the paths in the garden and the fact that the concrete slab paths either side of the stone path in the middle going down the Lime Walk are all topsy-turvy. This means that people could fall over when they are wet from the rain - this is due to heave by the roots of the pleached limes. I have suggested that they lay weed control fabric over the existing ground where these conrete slabs and insert a depth of 4 inches (10cms) of Type I Rodstong, with 2 inches (5 cms) of sharp sand over the top before laying the consrete slabs back on top for those 2 side paths. Lift up the stone slabs from the central path and repeat the process. That is providing that the soil is based on sand not clay - if clay is involved then the Type I Roadstone depth may need to be extended to 8 inches (20 cms).

Due to lack of money, there is no money to improve the situation until the possibility that the returns from this current year might make up for their losses during the last pandemic year and things might improve in the following years. It is a shame that the 250,000 visitors to the garden have to put with lack of safety due to this slipshod maintenance procedure as do the ones in the Wisley Royal Horticultural Society Garden in 2014 for the same reason. Wisley only has 1,000,000 visitors a year and after 5 requests it takes from April to November for the pivoting slabs to have some sharp sand inserted under them to stop that and then for that sand to grow grass by April the following year, indicating that there was no foundation under that path in the Mixed Borders bed even after repair.

Why do institutions in the UK that have visitors to their premises ignore the correct installation procedure of providing access throughout their gardens as these minute organisations such as the RHS and the National Trust for year after year? One man and his dog do the maintenance at each property - unfortunately the man is still on holiday and the dog cannot keep up with demand.






Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©November 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  



Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
..A, B , C , D , E ,
..F , G , H , I , J , K ,
..L, M , N , O , P , Q ,
..R, S , T , U , V , W ,
..X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index of all plants detailed in this website

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9,

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

item33a1a1a1a1a1a item33a1a1a1a1a1a item30b2a1a1a1a1 item30b2a1a1a1a1 item31d1a1a1a1a1a item31d1a1a1a1a1a item36a2a1a1a1a1a1 item36a2a1a1a1a1a1 item1b2a1a1a1a1a1 item1b2a1a1a1a1a1 item38a1a1a1a1a1a1 item38a1a1a1a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1a1a1a1 item40a1a1a1a1a1a item40a1a1a1a1a1a item1e1a1a1a1a1 item1e1a1a1a1a1 item45a1a1a1a1a1a item45a1a1a1a1a1a item46a1a1a1a1a1a1 item46a1a1a1a1a1a1 item47a1a1a1a1a1a1 item47a1a1a1a1a1a1 item1c2a1a1a1a1a item1c2a1a1a1a1a item1d2a1a1a1a1a item1d2a1a1a1a1a item48e1a1a1a1a1a item48e1a1a1a1a1a item32a1a1a1a1a1a1 item32a1a1a1a1a1a1 item52c1a1a1a1a1a item52c1a1a1a1a1a