Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - M

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row


with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)


with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests


United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Macleaya microcarpa
'Kelway's Coral Plume'

Herbaceous Perennial above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 36 (210 x 90)

Grey to Olive-Green

Deep Buff to Coral-Pink in

"Plume Poppy". Invasive. Native to western and central China
Dappled shade in open woodland
Zone 4-9
Moist garden soil in a sheltered position. Annual compost mulches in spring helps to maintain vigour.

Companions - the larger bolder grasses, phlomis fruticosa, solidago, kniphofia, phygelius, phormium. Macleaya is a good cut flower for fresh or dried arrangements, but be careful: the stems and leaf stalks produce a yellowish orange sap that can stain clothes and skin. As with any milky-sapped plant, singe the bottom of the flower stems when used as a cut.

Magnolia grandiflora 'Exmouth'

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Light Green

Creamy-White in

"Bull Bay, Southern Magnolia". From southern USA. Dense conical shape with fragrant flowers.
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 6-11
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil.

Magnolia liliiflora

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Dark Green

Deep Purple in

"Lily Magnolia". Bushy shrub from China with fragrant flowers.
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 6-10
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil.

Magnolia stellata
'King Rose'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 72 (210 x 180)

Dark Green

Pink and White in

"Star Magnolia". Many-branched, compact shrub from Japan with fragrant flowers.
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 5-9
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil.

Mahonia aquifolium

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Bright Green in Spring and Summer, Bronze/Purple/Red in Autumn and Winter

Yellow in

"Oregon Grape, Holly Grape". Dense, bushy shrubs for hedges, windbreaks and ground-covers.
Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun
Zones 5-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Mahonia aquifolium 'Atropurpurea'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Bright Green turn dark Red-Purple in Winter

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia aquifolium 'Orange Flame'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Rust-Orange young foliage turning Red in Winter

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia japonica

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 120 (210 x 300)

Dark Green

Fragrant Yellow in

Blue-Purple berries.

Mahonia japonica 'Bealei'
(Mahonia bealei)

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)


Fragrant Yellow in

"Motherleaf Mahonia". From western China. Blue-Purple berries.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Mahonia lomariifolia

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 72 (300 x 180)

Dark Green

Fragrant Yellow in

One of the tallest and most elegant mahonias. Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Mahonia napaulensis

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 120 (240 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia nervosa

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 36 (45 x 90)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia x wagneri 'Pinnacle'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 120 (210 x 300)

Bronze in Spring, Bright Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia pumila

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)


Dark Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia repens

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Matt Green

Dark Yellow in

"Creeping Mahonia". Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun, Filtered Shade.
Moist Soil

This is a plant for medium and small areas, including borders and patio settings with rocks and lattice.

Mahonia x wagneri 'Undulata'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green turning Red-Purple in Winter

Rich Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia x media 'Charity'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 108 (360 x 270)

Dark Green

Yellow in

Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Malus 'John Downie'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

312 x 240 (780 x 600)

Bright Green

White in

"Apple, Crab Apple". Orange and Red fruit.
Full Sun
Zones 3-9
Fertile, well-drained, loamy soil with protection from strong winds

Malus 'Royalty'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)


Crimson-Purple in

Dark Red.

Malus toringoides

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 360 (750 x 900)

Bright Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in

Yellow fruit.

'Golden Hornet'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

312 x 276 (780 x 690)

Bright Green

White in

Golden-Yellow fruit.

Malva moschata

Deciduous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

Rose-pink in

"Musk Mallow". Tap-rooted, bushy. Cottage garden favourite. Cut back the flowering stems to ground leaving the basal leaves after flowering
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained, moist sandy soil

Companions - phlox paniculata, boltonia, coreopsis, veronica, phlomis, veronicastrum, lysimchia ephemerum. Plants will be small if kept too dry.

Meconopsis paniculata

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 24 (180 x 60)


Pale Yellow in

"Blue Poppy".
Dappled Shade
Zone 7
For Neutral to Acid soil, mulch with well-rotted manure and leafmould in spring.

Companions - pulmonaria, dicentra, hosta, helleborus, polygonatum, arisaema, geranium, heuchera; the woodland garden. Mulch with coarse organic material (compost would be best), along with manure (but not over the crown). Water during dry spells in the summer.

Meconopsis quintuplinervia

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Mid- to Dark Green

Pale lavender-Blue in

"Harebell Poppy".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 7
Moist leafy soil.

Part shade Woodland garden association - have meconopsis, candelabra primulas and ferns .

Melicytus crassifolius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Dark Green

Yellow in

Purple berries.

Mentha gracilis 'Variegata'

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Dark Green striped and flecked Gold

Lilac in

"Ginger Mint, Red Mint". Wide-spreading clump.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Moist, fertile soil. Strongly invasive so restrict its growing area - or grow within a pot.

Mentha longifolia

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Green to Silver-Grey

Lilac or White in

"Horsemint". Grown for ornament only - the musty scent of the foliage is not pleasant, so put it at the back of a large border.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Moist, fertile soil.

Mentha x piperita 'Citrata'

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 36 (50 x 90)

Dark Green tinged Reddish-Purple in Sun or Copper-Red in shade.

Pinkish-Purple in

"Orange Mint, Eau de Cologne Mint". Strong-growing spreading mat.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3
Moist, fertile soil.

Mentha pulegium

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Bright Green

Lilac in

"Pennyroyal". Mat-forming with a fresh, pungent mint scent. Creeping in every direction. Needs protection from hard frosts.
Full Sun
Zone 7
Native to wet places on sandy soils in western and central Europe, and western Asia.

Mentha spicata

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)

Bright Green

Pink, Lilac or White in

"Spearmint". Upright plant. Best grown in a container to curb its spread, this is the usual mint for sauce.
Full Sun
Zone 5
From damp grassy places in central and southern Europe

Mentha suaveolens 'Variegata'

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)


Pink or White in

"Pineapple Mint". Runs strongly, with shoots often arising some way from the original clump.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Grows on wasteland in much of Europe.

Mespilus germanica

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow-Brown in Autumn

White in

"Medlar". From Europe and southwest Asia bred for its brown fruit.
Full Sun
Zones 4-9
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind. It must not be allowed to dry out.

Microbiota decussata

Evergreen Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)

Mid-Green turn Bronze in Winter


"Russian Arborvitae". From Siberia. Usefull ground cover, similar to the spreading junipers. Besides groundcover, it can be a speciman on its own or grouped with other low-growing conifers or heathers. It also makes a good foil for other more colourful plants, such as bulbs.
Full Sun
Zones 3-9
Free-draining soil. Prune only if absolutely necessary and then only into the new wood.
Some garden centres will not stock it because customers return it when it 'dies' when its foliage turns completely brown in winter. Use this change of colour to grow some tall winter flowering daffodils in front of it to complement it. It likes a well-drained soil and quickly spreads.

Milium effusum 'Aureum'

Semi-Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

Rich Golden Yellow in Spring becoming Yellow-Green

Golden spikelets in

"Bowles' Golden Grass". Spectacular ground cover.
Dappled Shade
Zone 5
Moist, well-drained, rich soil. Found in damp oak and beech woods on heavy alkaline soil throughout northern temperate regions, including Britain.

Mimulus guttatus

Herbaceous Stolon Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)


Yellow in

Invasive, upright or semi-prostrate. From western, midwestern and northeast USA.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Damp soil

Companions ligularia, ajuga, carex elata, lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea', darmera, primula florindae; small ditches, edge of small waterfall. Ver attractive as a container plant.

Mimulus luteus

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)


Yellow in

"Monkey Musk, Yellow Monkey Flower". Invasive, self-sows, can be grown in water
Full Sun
Zone 7-9 From Chile and naturalized elsewhere including Britain.

Mimulus ringens

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)


Violet or White in

"Allegheny Monkey Flower". Upright, thrives in shallow water (6 inches - 15 cms - deep)
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Moist soil or shallow water - from Eastern North America

Mirabilis jalapa

Deciduous Tuber Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Mid Green

Fragrant Red, White or Yellow in

"Four o'clock Flower, Marvel of Peru". Bushy perennial, sometimes grown as an annual.
Full Sun
Zone 8
Tubers can be overwintered frost-free, or grown fresh from seed each year in well-drained, fertile soil. From Peru, and tropical areas of North, Central and South America.

Mitella stauropetala

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 12 (50 x 30)

Purple-tinged Mid-Green

White or Purple in


Moltkia x intermedia

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 12
(23 x 30)

Dark Green

Bright Blue in


'Beauty of Cobham'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)


Pale Pink in

"Bergamot". Clump-forming.
Full Sun where summers are cool, or in dappled shade where they are hot.
Zone 4-9
Moist soil
Do not allow plants plants to dry out in summer and protect from excessive winter wet.
Two-tone harmonies - Try it with Verbascum 'Helen Johnson' behind it and pink flowers from a bedding nicotiana slipped between the 2 of them to provide a consistency of bright, clear colour all through the summer.

Companions - larger grasses, phlox, salvia, acanthus, achillea, penstemon, alchemilla, eupatorium. Most effective in large colonies, wild gardens (meadows), and the grass border.

'Vintage Wine'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Red-Purple in

Full Sun where summers are cool, or in dappled shade where they are hot.
Zone 4-9
Moist soil

Divide every 3 or 4 years using a sharp-edged spade. Top-dress with manure or compost every winter. Deadhead as flowers fade. Do not allow plants to dry out in summer. Cut back in late autumn to the crown.

Morina persica

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Dark Green

Scented White in

Rosette-forming plant with toothed or deeply cut, very spiny leaves. From the Balkan Peninsula.
Full Sun
Zone 6
Very well-drained soil in a gravel garden. Growth will be unduly lush in rich soil. Plants dislike disturbance

Companions - saxifraga stolonifera, ajuga pyramidalis 'Metallica Crispa', acaena, euphorbia, sedum.

Morus nigra 'Wellington'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 600 (1200 x 1500)


Pale Green in

"Black Mulberry". Green turning Red then dark Purple in September edible fruit. From Britain and northern Europe
Full Sun in sheltered position
Zones 6-10
Ferile, well-drained soil


Herbaceous Bulb

8 x 2
(20 x 5)


Blue or White in

"Grape Hyacinth".

Myosotidium hortensia

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Very Glossy Mid-Green

Dark Blue in

"Chatham Island Forget-Me-Not".

Myosotis sylvatica and it's cultivars

Herbaceous Perennial

12 x 6
(30 x 15)


Blue or White in

"Forget-me-not". Behaves like a biennial, self-sows.
Zone 4-9

Companions - Spring-flowering bulbs,early irises, viola, dicentra, meconopsis cambrica, galium odoratum, erysimum; the white form pairs very nicely with 'Viola 'Bowles' Black'; try myosotis alpestris 'Gold 'n' Sapphire' with tradescantias or centaureas with the same combination of blue flowers and golden leaves

Myrteola nummularia

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 12
(5 x 30)

Dark Green

White in

Pink berries.

Myrtus communis

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in

"Common Myrtle, True Myrtle". Eect shrub
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 8-11
Moist, well-drained soil. Trimming keeps them compact. They can be used for hedging or as container plants, clipped into a ball or pyramid. In cooler areas, container plants need protection during winter.


Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches


Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Muscari, Myosotis and Myrtus and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)

A good, weed-free mulch is a most valuable addition to a new ground cover planting. A couple of inches (5 cms) will keep weeds down and make them easier to pull out if they do appear; 4-5 inches (10-12.5 cms) will prevent most weeds from growing. Some of the better mulches are sawdust, fir bark, ground bark, and tree leaves, as well as gravel and rocks. There are many others of limited availability, depending on your area.

Besides preventing weeds from growing, some organic mulches improve the soil and add nutrients as they decompose. They also conserve moisture, an important consideration where summertime water is in short supply and anytime young, shallow-rooted plants are just getting started. Finally, soil temperature is controlled evenly, creating a more favourable root environment.

You might also try a living mulch of flowering annuals - see Bedding - while the ground cover is filling in or have a green manure of Caliente Mustard 199 to provide nutrients for the ground cover plants. It will hide the bare spots with colour.

In some harsh-winter areas, some ground covers benefit from a winter mulch. A mulch applied at the time of a new autumn planting will prolong the time it takes the soil to freeze, allowing plants to become further established.

With an established ground cover, apply the mulch
the ground is frozen, to keep it that way. Damage occurs when the soil alternatively thaws and freezes. A loosely applied mulch such as straw or shredded leaves over the ground cover also insulates plants against drying winter winds. Air should be able to circulate around the foliage.



Your Ground Cover requires watering and this guide may help you.
Use a strimmer to mow the ground cover to about a 6 inch (15 cm) height in the spring before new spring growth occurs - to tidy it up.

Mulching Materials

Sawdust, Wood Chips, Wood Shavings

Low in plant nutrients, decompose slowly, tend to pack down. Well-rotted material preferrred. Can be decomposed if nitrate of ammonia or nitrate of soda is supplemented at the rate of 1 pound (444 grammes) per 100 square feet (9 square metres) to stop the decomposing process without it depriving the ground cover plants of nitrogen. Keep away from building foundations; may cause subterranean termites (you may be able to buy these from a pet store) to arrive.
I would not recommend using fresh sawdust, wood chips or wood shavings, since they take from the ground more than they give.

Peat Moss

Attractive, but expensive for large areas. Should be kept moist at all times.
Peat is disappearing fast and should not be used for any purpose otherwise there will be no peat bogs left in the world.

Rotted Manure

May contain weed seeds.
Rotted cow manure from overwintering in barns is unlikely to contain seeds, since the cows have 4 stomachs and eat the same food 4 times.

Spent Mushroom Compost

Often available in areas where commercial mushrooms are produced. Usually inexpensive, with a good colour that blends into the landscape.
I find that about half disappears by each autumn, and it is light to replace. I prefer this mulch for its nutrients, stopping of weed seeds germinating, and ease of hoeing it when weeds do appear using a swoe.

Shredded Hardwood Bark

Makes an excellent mulch that is easy to apply and very attractive. Lasts longer than peat moss, adds valuable organic matter to the soil.
It has the same problem as for the Sawdust, Wood Chips and Wood Shavings in that it takes nitrogen from the soil to decompose it. As you walk on it to maintain the bed you are likely to push it into the soil. Although it may last longer that Spent Mushroom Compost, I would still prefer to use Spent Mushroom Compost.

Pine Needles

Will not mat down. Fairly durable.
Advantage is that it would acidify the soil as well and a useful mulch to use round acid-loving plants like hydrangeas, rhododendrons, camellias and azaleas as well as these plants in
Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Tree Leaves
(Whole or Shredded in the autumn).
There are several reasons why deciduous trees lose their leaves: 

  • It means the tree spends less energy through the harsh winter
  • It conserves moisture within the trunk and keeps it from drying out
  • It allows wind to blow through the branches, putting less strain on the tree – a serious concern in winter storms and gales 

Excellent source of humus. Rot rapidly; high in nutrients. Oak leaves especially valuable for Azaleas, Camellias, and Rhododendrons.
Dropped leaves generally have lost most of their water content but retain many of their other components which can be recycled to be used for other plants. I tend to mow the leaves on the lawn for the ones that have landed there and the others from the flower beds that I have blown from them or raked from those same beds. I then get shredded leaves which when laid as a mulch do not blow away as the unshredded ones would, especially on a slope. You can also mow your drive, paths, pavement and road to collect your own leaves and the ones from public areas for the same purpose - use the highest cut height on your rotary mower so that you do not cut into the path, road, pavement etc.

Ground Corn Cobs

Excellent for improving soil structure
and is especially useful for the soil around young evergreen trees and shrubs.

Gravel, Stone Chips

Limited use, but particularly good for rock garden plantings. Extremely durable, holds down weeds
but does not stop them growing,

nor does it supply nutrients or humus.

Hay, Grass Clippings

Unattractive, but repeated use builds up reserve of available nutrients that lasts for years.
According to this American Research it is a good idea to cut the grass and leave the mowings on top of the lawn. IF YOU FOLLOW THEIR GUIDELINES, THEN YOU WILL NOT BE CREATING MORE THATCH AND IT WILL BE OKAY. I tend to collect mine and lay a 0.5 inch (1 cm) layer onto flower or vegetable beds, under hedges and under shrubs and trees once a fortnight. The green mowings turn light brown and look fine. If you put another mulch like hay or any of the others on steeply sloping beds, then the only way of keeping those mulches in place is put this grass mowings on top - it will not move even in heavy rain and so the stones in the bed will not be washed out onto the lawn area below.


Same as "Hay, Grass Clippings", but lower in nutrients, although furnishes considerable potassium.

Strulch ® is a light and easy to use garden mulch made from wheat straw for organic gardening. A patented process developed by Dr Geoff Whiteley at The University of Leeds, is used to ‘preserve’ the straw so that it lasts for up to two years and gives an earthy brown colour.

Strulch has a neutral pH and can be used throughout the garden on borders, raised beds, around cultivated fruit and on vegetable plots.

Why Strulch is beneficial?

▪ Strulch mulch reduces weed growth by up to 95%
▪ Strulch mulch helps retain moisture around plants
▪ Strulch mulch enriches soil and its structure
▪ Strulch mulch is suitable around flowers, shrubs, fruit and vegetables
▪ Strulch, the straw garden mulch, lasts up to two years, spreading the cost, saving water and fertiliser, making your plants grow healthier and stronger and giving you more time to relax.
▪ The physical properties of Strulch mulch together with the embedded minerals deters slugs and snails.


Ground and packaged commercially. Especially attractive in this form. Sometimes available in rough form from pulpwood loading sites.

Melcourt Industries sells many different types of mulches and you can use their Bag for Life, which you can re-use over and over again.


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Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Erect or Upright

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo

Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable


Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.


Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants

Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

Then, finally use

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z



Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.




Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1