Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Introduction with
Edible Plant Parts Index

Comparison Pages
Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

 

Below the thumbnail pictures, the text box provides the Wildflower Family name, the Wildflower Common Name (with the colour of the text indicating

  • Soil Moisture Blue for Wet,
  • Green for Moist and
  • Brown for Dry Soil)

and the Height of the Plant (

  • Blue for 0-2 feet,
  • Green for 2-6 feet and
  • Red for over 6 feet high)

as the colour of the Text Border. If you click on the Wildflower Family Name, then that Wildflower Family Page will be shown. Scroll down that page until you find that Wildflower Common Name to see the following colour pictures for that plant - single flower, flowers, foliage and form in the next table row.
If you click on the thumbnail picture in this Gallery or the Common Name in the Wildflower Family Page, then the Wildflower Plant Description Page for that Wildflower will appear alongside with up to 9 photos and description.

This plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers fruit or seed with its colour:-

This plant gallery has pictures of flower beds with Wild Flowers with description.


After that, each NOTE Page will be completed if extra information is located that does not fit within the rows of the pages described above like larger photos, etc, and the Number of NOTE Pages of the respective NOTE Gallery for that particular Flower Colour will be incremented by 1.

Together with the Plants, Companion Planting, Offbeat Glossary and future Wild Flower Habitat sections of this website, these photographs should aid your choice of wild plant for your garden. The individual Page for each wild flower will be in one of the Wild Flower Habitat Galleries with indication of which nursery legally supplies its seed or plant.

 

Alphabetical List of Wild Flowers
The wild flowers are listed in alphabetical order with links to their respective Plant Description Page and their Wild Flower Family Page in the Wild Flower Plant Index

 

Habitat Tables
The wild flowers are also listed in the respective Habitat Table Page for

These then link you to the respective Plant Description Page. If it is not clear which type of soil the wildflower goes in, I have inserted it into the Neutral Soil Habitat Page, i.e. Watling Street Thistle grows in dry grassland in South England - South England has all the types of soil, so it is only inserted in the Neutral Soil Habitat Page under Dry Grassland.

 

Family Pages
The wild flowers are also split into their respective Wild Flower Family Pages with a table listing in alphabetical order - of all the Wild Flower Plants for that Family - by the Common Name with the Botanical Name, Flowering Month Period and Habitat is given; together with following colour pictures for each plant - single flower, flowers, foliage and form.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

I am requesting the donation of the following colour photographs of plants for this section:-

  • Flower - to show the shape and colour of the whole flower.
  • Foliage - to show the shape of the leaf and its colour. If its colour changes in the year, then a picture of each changed colour.
  • Form - to show the natural shape/growth habit of the whole plant. If the plant is deciduous, then one with foliage and one without.
  • Fruit - to show the shape and colour of the whole fruit/nut/seed produced after it has flowered.
  • Flower Bed - to show the overall effect of a group of plants together, preferably with the names of each of the plants displayed.

Each main photograph will be displayed in a 150 x 150 pixels graphic item. Each thumbnail photograph will be displayed in 50 x 50 pixels graphic item. Freeway allocates 72 pixels per inch. The photographs require to be in :-

  • JPEG Format and can be sent via Solid-State-Drive (send to Chris Garnons-Williams at 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, Moor Street, Rainham, Kent, ME8 8QE England)

Please give the Latin name of the plant and your contact details (It would be preferable that it is either your website or email address rather than your phone number). These will then appear with the relevant photograph. If you happen to be a Nursery, then this link could provide a means for people to get that plant.

 

Writers and broadcasters Pat O'Reilly and Sue Parker are frequent contributors to countryside magazines and have been photographing wildflowers for more than 30 years. Pat and Sue live in West Wales.

They have written 4 books on the wildflowers of Wales, which are available.

Lady Bird Johson
Wildflower Center in the University of Texas in the USA
:-

"Lady Bird Johnson, our former first lady, and actress Helen Hayes founded an organization in 1982 to protect and preserve North America's native plants and natural landscapes. First as the National Wildflower Research Center and later as the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, this special place exists to introduce people to the beauty and diversity of wildflowers and other native plants. Every day, the Wildflower Center brings life to Mrs. Johnson's vision in its public gardens, its woodlands and sweeping meadows as well as in internationally influential research. In 2006, the Center became an Organized Research Unit of the University of Texas at Austin.

Decades ago, Mrs. Johnson recognized that our country was losing its natural landscapes and its natural beauty. As much as 30 percent of the world’s native flora is at risk of extinction. The Wildflower Center was intended to help preserve and restore that beauty and the biological richness of North America. Since then, the Center has become one of the country’s most credible research institutions and effective advocates for native plants.

The Center’s gardens display the native plants of the Central Texas Hill Country, South and West Texas, while the Plant Conservation Program protects the ecological heritage of Texas by conserving its rare and endangered flora. The Native Plant Information Network is a database of more than 7,200 native species available online.

The Land Restoration Program applies knowledge of ecological processes to restoring  damaged landscapes. The Center’s education programs for children and adults teach people about their natural surroundings and how to grow native plants in their own backyards."

Nurseries that grow and sell plants to the public:-

If a plant is detailed in its own page in one of the Wildflower Plant Galleries and it occurs in one of their catalogues, then it is noted as being available from that nursery in the Comments Section of that plant's description page.

British Wild Flower Plants ( Burlingham Gardens, 31 Main Road, North Burlingham, Norfolk. NR13 4TA. Tel/Fax: 01603 716615 email office@wildflowers.co.uk website http://www.wildflowers.co.uk) is a family-run nursery started in 1986. They currently stock nearly 400 species of native plants.

John Chambers' Wild Flower Seeds ( 15 Westleigh Road, Barton Seagrave, Kettering, Northants. NN15 5AJ. Tel 01933 652562 Fax: 01933 652576 website John Chambers' Wild Flower Seeds) offers the country's largest and most comprehensive range of seeds for native British produced wild flower species and mixtures; wild, ornamental and cultivated grass species and mixtures. In addition, offers native British produced wild flower plants, seedlings and bulbs; associated books, posters and wallcharts. John Chambers' Wild Flower Garden at the Royal Showground, Stoneleigh, Kenilworth, Warwickshire is open to the public at both the Royal and Town and Country Shows. It shows how effectively plants from different habitats can be incorporated into garden settings. Above all, it demonstrates how colourful, attractive and suitable wild flowers are for use in gardens.

BritishFlora (Grange Farm, Widmer End, High Wycombe, Bucks. HP15 6AE. Tel 01494 718203 Fax 01494 718989 Email: info@britishflora.co.uk website BritishFlora ) is the leading provider of horticultural solutions to civil engineering problems encountered in major conservation, environmental, remediation, translocation and renewal schemes in habitats as diverse as highways, business parks, landfill sites, nature reserves, and the banks of tidal estuaries, rivers, canals, lakes and ponds as well as heath and salt marshes. With over 300 species held in stock (PDF list of available plants available from their Wildflower and Aquatic Plants Page of the Products and Services Section), they produce over 5 million native wild flower and aquatic plants including 1 million reeds annually.

 

This Table of Selected Wild Plants comes from The Illustrated Guide to EDIBLE PLANTS by Dagmar Lanska. ISBN 1 85152 117 8

Common Name

Botanical Name

Collected part

month of collection

use in kitchen

medicinal effects

yarrow

achillea millefolium

leaf

Apr-May

in soups, sauces, omelets

improves digestion and appetite

 

flower

May-September

to season dishes

 

Sweet-flag

acorus calumus

rhizome

Mar-Apr ,
Sep-Nov

to spice liquers, sauces, soups, sweetmeats, compotes, brandy, tea, vegetables

improves digestion and appetite

 

leaf

Mar-Apr

in salads

 

goutweed

aegopodium podagraria

leaf

Apr-Nov

in soups, salads

source of vitamins

lady's mantle

alchemilla xanthochlora

leaf

May-Sep

in soups, spinach, vegetable dishes

assists digestion, diuretic properties

garlic mustard

Garlic Mustard is
Alliaria petiolata
fgarlicflotmustard
(Alliare officinale,
Erbe Sophia,
Erva Adheira,
Hedge Garlic,
Hierba del Ajo,
Jack-by-the-Hedge, Knoblauchsrauke, Lauchkraut, Lauchrauch,
St. Sophia's Herb)

Crucifer family

leaf

Apr-Nov

in soups, sauces, spreads, stuffings, vegetable salads, forcemeat, lamb

antispasmodic and disinfectant. effect on digestive tract

seeds

Apr-Nov

to season dishes

 

chives

allium schoenoprasum

leaf

Apr-May

in soups, sauces, egg dishes, salads, mayonnaise, spreads, herb butters

improves digestion, appetite, lowers blood pressure

wild garlic

allium ursinum

tops

Apr-May

in salads, vegetables, pulses, sauces, stuffings, minced meats, mayonnaise, spreads, with fish, poultry, in herb butters

antispasmodic and disinfective effect on digestive tract

 

bulb

Sep-Oct

 

 

long-rooted garlic

allium vistoriale

leaf

Apr-Jun

in soups, sauces, mayonnaise, salads, spreads, on grilled meats, with amb, pork, fish

improves digestion and appetite, diuretic properties

 

bulb

Sep-Oct

 

 

service-berry

amelanchier ovalis

fruit

Sep-Oct

for jams, jellies, marmalades, juices, wines, tea

against common cold, to check hypo-vitaminosis

angelica

angelica archangelica

leaf, stem

May-Jun

in salads, soups, sauces, vegetables

improves digestion, diuretic, disinfectant, calming effects

 

fruit

root

Sep

Mar-Apr, Sep-Nov

to season dishes

 

great burdock

arctium lappa

root

Mar-May,
Sep-Nov

in salads, vegetable side dish

perspiratory, diuretic, bactericidal effects, to check digestive disorders.

 

leaf

Mar-Nov

in salads, soups

 

horse-radish

armocaria rusticana

root

Mar-May,
Oct-Nov

freshly grated to boiled meats, eggs, smoked meats, fish, vegetables, in soups, sauces, spreads

improves digestion, bacteridal effects

 

leaf

Mar-Nov

in soups, to spice pickled vegetables

 

garden orache

atriplex hortensis

leaf

Apr-May

as substitution for spinach, in soups, with vegetables, in stuffings, forcemeat, egg dishes

assists evacuation of bowels, production of blood

daisy

bellis perennis

leaf and buds

Mar-May

in salads, herb butter, soups, sauces, stuffings, spreads, omelettes

anti-inflammatory effects, for treating diseases of respiratory tract, source of vitamin C

 

flower

Mar-Dec

for syrup

 

Barberry

Barberry is
Berberis vulgaris
fbarberrycolflot1

Barberry family

fruit

Sep-Oct

for juices, syrups, wines, liquers, compotes, jam, tea; can be frozen, dried; dried in sauces with game (it prefers to be a snake in Snakes and Ladders), soups and with grilled meats

influences activity of stomach and bowels, improves appetite, source of vitamins

silver birch

betula pendula

juice

Mar-Apr

for syrup. 'Birch Champagne'

antispasmodic and diuretc effects

borage

borago officinalis

leaf

Apr-Oct

in salads, ragout, cold sauces and soups, spreads, mayonnaise, forcemeat, cold drinks, as fillings for pies and ravioli

diuretic, disinfective, calming effects, ingredient of spring cures

pot marigold

calendula officinalis

flower

May-Oct

seasoning (soups, sauces), food colouring

diuretic, perspiratory, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic effects

 

leaf

Jun-Sep

in soups, salads

 

rampion

campanula rapunculus

root

Mar-Apr

in salads, soups, vegetable side dishes, in vegetable mixtures

to check diabetes, source of vitamins

stemless thistle

carlina acaulis

flower

Jul-Sep

raw or cooked as artichokes

bactericidal, diuretic effects

caraway

carium carvi

fruit

Jul-Aug

to season bread, pastries, meat, soups, cheeses, vegetables, liquers

improves digestion of heavy food, appetite, carminative effects

 

leaf

Apr-May

in herb soups, salads, spreads

 

sweet chestnut

castanea

fruit

Oct-Nov

in soups, puree, desserts, meat suffings

for high blood pressure and kidney diseases

tuberous-rooted chervil

chaerophyllum bulbosum

root

Mar-Apr,
Oct-Nov

in salads, boiled like potatoes or root vegetables

improves digestion and appetite, source of vitamins

 

leaf

Mar-Nov

in salads, soups

 

fat hen

chenopodium album

leaf

Apr-Nov

in soups, stuffings, minced meats, potato dishes, as substitution for spinach

improves evacuation of bowels and blood production

cornelian cherry

cornus mas

fruit

Sep

for juices, wines, syrups, liquers, jams, compotes, vitaminized teas

disorders of digestive tract, diuretic effects, induces production of bile, source of vitamins

hazel

corylus avellana

seeds

Sep-Oct

in desserts, chocolate, puddings, ice cream, fruit salads, meat stuffings

high content of nutritious substances, grated with honey as cough cure

midland hawthorn

crataegus laevigata

buds

Apr-May

in salads, soft cheese spreads

with heart and blood circulation diseases

 

fruit

Oct-Nov

for syrups, teas

 

quince

cydonia oblonga

fruit

Oct

for cider, compotes, jelly, in meat dishes

disorders of digestive tract

chufa

cyperus esculens

tubers

Oct

in sweetmeats, boiled as vegetables, raw as almonds, roasted as peanuts

high content of nutritious substances

rosebay willowherb

epilobium angustifolium

leaf

Apr-Oct

for tea

calming effects

 

rootstock

Mar-Jun ,
Oct-Nov

for salads, compote

 

beech

fagus sylvatica

fruit

Oct-Nov

dried or roasted for direct use, ground in sweetmeats

high content of nutritious substances

hautbois strawberry

fragaria moschata

fruit

May-Jul

for jams, compotes, syrups, in desserts, soups

disorders of digestive tract, diuretic effects

wild strawberry

fragaria viridis

fruit

Jun--Jul

for compotes, marmalades, syrups, wines, filling for desserts

improves digestion, diuretic effects

sweet woodruff

galium odoratum

tops

May-Jun

to aromatize wine, milk, puddings, ciders, fruit soups, sauces, drinks

overall calming effect

wood avens

geum urbanum

rhizome

Mar-Apr, Nov

as spice (to replace cloves and cinnamon)

disorders in digestion, improves appetite

 

tops

Mar-Apr

in herb soups and sauces

 

ground ivy

glechoma hederacea

leaf

Apr-May

in vegetable stews, meats, soups, salads, spreads

improves digestion and appetite

floating sweetgrass

glyceria fluitans

fruit

Aug-Sep

to thicken soups, in puree

high content of nutritious substances

gooseberry

grossularia uva-crispa

fruit

Jun-Jul

for marmalades, jellies, compotes, juices, cold soups and sauces

diuretic, slight laxative effects

cow parsnip

heracleum spondylium

leaf

Apr-Sep

as spinach, in soups

improves digestion, calming effects

sea buckthorn

hippophae rhamnoides

fruit

Aug-Sep

for juices, syrups, jams, marmalades, compotes, sauce to accompany game and grilled meats

source of vitamins during infectious diseases, hypo-vitaminosis, in convalescence

hop

humulus lupulus

shoots

Mar-Apr

for salads, soups, as a side dish

calming, diuretic effects, improves digestion

hyssop

hyssopus officinalis

leaf

Jun-Sep

to season salads, minced meats, sauces, soups, game, chicken

improves digestion

juniper

juniperus communis

fruit

Oct-Nov

to season game, lamb sauerkraut, sauces, poultry

assists digestion of heavy food

apple

malus

fruit

Jul-Sep

for ciders, juices, wines, syrups, can be baked and dried

diuretic, calming effects

balm

melissa officinalis

leaf

Jun-Jul

to season food, wines, liquers, vinegar, for tea

digestive disorders, calming effects

medlar

mespilus germanica

fruit

Oct-Nov

for ciders, marmalades, syrups, wines

digestive disorders

white mulberry

morus alba

fruit

Jul-Aug

for ciders, wines, compotes, drinks from fresh juice, syrups

improves digestion, releives sore throat, diuretic effects

black mulberry

morus nigra

fruit

Jul-Sep

for ciders, preserves, wines, compotes

improves digestion, releives sore throat, dietetic effects, in diseases of pancreas

 

leaf

Jun-Aug

for tea

 

marjoram

origanum vulgare

tops

Jun-Aug

to season forcemeats, sauces, pizzas, risitttos, vegetable dishes, cheeses

improves digestion and appetite

wood-sorrel

oxalis acetosella

leaf

Apr-May,
Oct-Nov

in vegetable soups, sauces, mayonnaise, yoghurt salads, drinks

digestive disorders, diuretic effects

greater burnet-saxifrage

pimpinella major

leaf

Apr-May

in soups, sauces, mayonnaise, spreads, stuffings, salads, vegetables

digestive disorders, in diseases of respiratory tract

 

root

Mar-May,
Sep

for tea

 

umbrella pine

pinus pinea

seeds

Oct-Nov

in meat and vegetable dishes, sweetmeats

diuretic effects, high content of nutritious substances, source of vitamins

 

needles

Apr-May

for vitaminized drinks

 

ribwort plantain

plantago lanceolata

leaf

May-Aug

in soups, sauces, salads, for syrups

digestion disorders, diseases of respiratory tract

water-pepper

polygonum hydropiper

tops

Jul-Sep

to season salads, spreads, soups, sauces, meat dishes, stuffings

digestion disorders, diuretic effects

purslane

portulaca oleracea

tops

May-Sep

in cucumber, tomato, lettuce salads, soups, sauces, mayonnaise, spreads

diuretic and calming effects

wild cherry

prunus avium

fruit

Jun-Jul

for ciders, wines, brandy, jams, compotes, fillings for desserts, drying

promotes production of blood, building of bones, teeth, diuretic effects

cherry plum

prunus cerasifera

fruit

Sep-Oct

for spreads, sauces to grilled meats, wine, tea

in diseases of respiratory tract, improves digestion

sour cherry

prunus cerasus

fruit

Jul-Aug

for syrups, drinks, jams, compotes, soups, fillings for desserts

digestion disorders, diuretic effects, to check anaemia

 

leaf

Jul-Nov

to pickle gherkins and cabbage

 

 

fruit stalks

Jul-Aug

for tea

 

bullace

prunus insititia

fruit

Nov

for compotes, marmalades, wines, fruit sauces, in desserts, savoury and meat dishes

in diseases of blood circulation, diuretic effects

sloe

prunus spinosa

flower

Mar-Apr

for teas and syrups

improves digestion, slightly laxative, anti-inflammatory effects, in colds, digestion disorders, diarrhoea, diuretic effects

 

fruit

Oct-Nov

for compotes, wines, vinegars, liqueurs, syrups, teas

 

lungwort

pulmonaria officinalis

leaf

Mar-May

in soups, spreads, stuffings, forcemeats, in salads, teas

improves digestion, diuretic effects, in diseases of respiratory tract

pear

pyrus

fruit

Oct-Nov

fr vinegars, wines, in marmalades, ciders, drying

improves digestion, in blood circulation and kidney diseases

black currant

ribes nigrum

fruit

Jun-Jul

for jams, jellies, marmalades, compotes, liqueurs, in soups, sauces, desserts

diuretic effects, source of vitamins, assists digestion, in diseases of respiratory tract

 

leaf

May-Aug

to spice pickled gherkins and cabbage

 

dog rose

rosa canina

fruit

Sep-Oct

for preserves, wines, ketchups, soups, sauces with game, tea

improves digestion, production of blood, source of vitamins, diuretic effects

 

flower

May-Jun

for syrups, preserves, wines

 

japanese rose

rosa rugosa

fruit

Aug-Sep

for preserves, pastes, jellies, sweetmeats, teas

improves digestion, resistance of organism to diseases

 

flower

May-Sep

for wines, syrups, preserves, teas, in honey

 

soft-leaved rose

rosa villosa

fruit

Aug-Sep

for ketchups, marmalades, pastes, soups, sauces with game, juices, syrups, teas, in honey

improves resistance of organism

 

flower

May-Jun

for wines, syrups

 

blackberry

rubus fruticosus

fruit

Aug-Sep

for juices, soups, compotes, syrups, wines, liqueurs, fillings for desserts

improves digestion, calming effects

 

leaf

Jun-Jul

for tea

 

raspberry

rubus idaeus

fruit

Jul-Sep

for soups, salads, compotes, jams, fillings for desserts, syrups, juices, wines, liqueurs

improves digestion, diuretic effects

 

leaf

May-Aug

for tea

 

common sorrel

rumex acetosa

leaf

Apr-May

as substitution for spinach, in salads, soups, sauces, mayonnaise, spreads, on grilled meats

assists digestion, production of blood, diuretic effects

sheep's sorrel

rumex acetosella

leaf

Apr-May

as substitution for spinach, in salads, soups, sauces, mayonnaise, spreads, on grilled meats

assists digestion, production of blood, diuretic effects

sage

salvia officinalis

leaf

Apr-Jul

to season lamb, pork, fish, tripe dishes, stuffings, pates, forcemeats, herb butters

in digestion disorders, calming effects

clary

salvia sclarea

leaf

Jun

to spice wines, drinks, fruit soups, compotes, puddings, vinegar, vegetables

in digestive disorders, calming effects

elder

sambucus nigra

fruit

Aug-Sep

in jams, compotes, juices, wines, soups, syrups, sauces, liqueurs, wines, fillings for desserts

diuretic, perspiratory, anti-inflammatory effects, in diseases of respiratory tract

 

flower

May-Jul

for wines, lemonades, drinks, syrups, teas

 

winter savory

satureja

tops

Jul-Sep

to season poultry, game, fish, cheeses, pulses, stuffings, minced meats, smoked meats, suerkraut

improves digestion, appetite, against flatulence

common houseleek

sempervivum tectorum

leaf

Apr-Nov

for salads, vitaminized drinks

improves digestion and appetite, in diseases of respiratory tract

common whitebeam

sorbus aria

fruit

Aug-Sep

for wines, compotes, teas

diuretic, anti-inflammatory effects, digestive disorders

rowan

sorbus aucuparia

fruit

Sep

for compotes, syrups, ciders, liqueurs, jams, teas

laxative, diuretic effects, decreases blood pressure, source of vitamins

rowan

sorbus aucuparia ssp. moravica

fruit

Aug-Sep

for juices, syrups, compotes, preserves, liqueurs, wines, vinegars, brandy, tea

anti-inflammatory, diuretic effects, promotes secretion of bile, source of vitamins

service-tree

sorbus domestica

fruit

Sep

for marmalades, wines, distilled beverages

in indigestion, sources of vitamins

wild service-tree

sorbus terminalis

fruit

Sep-Oct

in jams, marmalades, for liqueurs

source of vitamins

common chickweed

Common Chickweed is
Stellaria media
ccommonflochickweed

Pink family

tops

 

in salads, in soups

source of vitamins, diuretic effects

dandelion

taraxacum officinale

root

Apr-May

in salads

improves digestion, dietetic, diuretic effects, assists secretion of bile

 

leaf

Apr-May

in salads, soups, sauces, as substitution for spinach

 

 

flower

May

for syrup, wine

 

breckland thyme

thymus serpyllum

tops

May-Aug

to season soups, vegetable dishes, meats, sauces, stuffings, pulses, baked dishes

improves digestion, appetite, in diseases of respiratory tract

garden thyme

thymus vulgaris

tops

May-Jun,
Aug-Oct

to season bouillons, sauces, fish, game, poultry, pulses, pizzas, vegetables

in digestion disorders, disinfectant effects

water chestnut

trapa natans

fruit

Oct-Nov

raw, boiled, roasted, ground to powder

high content of nutritious substances

colt's-foot

tussilago farfara

flower

Mar-Apr

for syrups, teas, honey

for diseases of respiratory tract, cough, high blood ressure, digestive disorders

 

leaf

May-Jun

in soups, stuffings, for casings filled with a stuffing

 

common nettle

Stinging Nettle is Urtica dioica
cstingingflosfemalenettle1a

Nettle family

leaf

Apr-May

as substitution for spinach, for soups, sauces, in stuffings, salads, minced meats, spreads, savoury desserts

promotes digestion, diuretic effects, assists secretion of bile

Small nettle

Small Nettle is
Urtica urens
fsmallcflobudcnettle1

Nettle family

leaf

May-Jun

as substitution for spinach, in salads, stuffings, egg dishes, forcemeats, for soups

promotes digestion, production of blood, diuretic effects

bilberry

vaccinium myrtillus

fruit

Jul-Aug

for syrups, wines, liqueurs, compotes, jams, fruit sauces, soups, filling for desserts

disinfectant, anti-diarrhoea effects

 

leaf

May-Aug

for tea

 

cranberry

vaccinium oxycoccos

fruit

Sep-Nov.
Mar

for preserves, juices, syrups, compotes, in honey, sauce with game

diuretic effects, assists secretion of bile, to cure common cold

 

leaf

Jun-Nov

for tea

 

cowberry

vaccinium vitis-idaea

fruit

Jun-Sep

for compotes with game, sauces, jams

improves digestion, appetite, with kidney and urinary tract disorders, to check diarrhoea

 

leaf

Jun-Sep

for tea

 

lamb's lettuce

valerianella

leaf

Mar-Apr,
Sep-Oct

in omelettes, salads, soups, spreads

promotes digestion, calming effects

guelder-rose

viburnum opulus

fruit

Oct-Nov

for compotes, juices, syrups, preserves, sauces, filling for desserts

anti-spasmodic, calming effects, to cure common cold

sweet violet

Sweet Violet is
Viola odorata
fsweetflot2violet1

Violet family

leaf

Mar-Apr

in herb soups, sauces, omelettes

to lower blood pressure, to check diseases of respiratory tract

 

flower

Mar-Apr

for syrups, oil

 

Garden radish

Garden Radish is
Raphanus sativus
fgardenflotradish

Crucifer family

root

May- onwards

salads

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map

Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery

...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use for Flowering Plants

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

 

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Approaching the
Coast (Coastal)
.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

WILDFLOWER INDEX
Botanical Name
Common Name

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

 

See current Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

See current Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names.

 

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

The Edible City
A Year of Wild Food by John Rensten. Published in 2016. ISBN 978-0-7522-
6613-8
provides details and recipes on many of the plants named in this column below:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Edible Plant - Flower, Foliage, Root, Fruit/Seed

Month for eating with Recipes

Dandelion

Taraxacum offinale

 

January

Eating Dandelions: Harvesting, Cleaning, and Cooking

Cow Parsley

Cow Parsley , Wild Chervil is
Anthriscus sylvestris and Chaerophyllum sylvestre
ccowfloparsley

Umbellifer family

 

January

Sweet Pickled Cow Parsley Stems.
Difference between Hemlock and Cow Parsley

Winter Cress

Barbarea vulgaris

 

Dec-Feb

Eat leaves and flowers

Crab Apple

Malus 'John Downie', Malus sylvestris

 

January

A collection of recipes and other tips for freezing, drying and storing crab apples. These include making syrup, fruit leather, apple butter, jelly, and muffins.

Sea Buckthorn

Elaeagnus rhamnoides

 

January

Vinegar for salads

Apple Mint (Round-leaved Mint)
 

Apple mint (round-leaved mint) is
Mentha
rotundifolia (Mentha suaveolens)
applecflosmintwikimediacommons1a

Thyme family

Apple mint is cultivated as a culinary herb and is used in the production of mint sauce and jelly.

A rhizomatous perennial herb of damp places. It is probably native only in South-West England and Wales, and elsewhere occurs as a garden escape, often forming extensive colonies on roadsides and waste ground. Apple scented white flowers in Aug-Sep.

Graphic of Mentha suaveolens - Place:Osaka,Japan. By I, KENPEI via Wikimedia Commons.

January

Marcy Lautanen-Raleigh grows this herb.

Yummly Apple Mint Recipes

Three-cornered Leek

allium triquetrum

 

February

Pesto, meatballs and burgers

Chickweed

stellaria media

 

February

Salad with its leaves and tops

Horseradish

Armoracia rusticana

 

February

Hummus and Sauce

Wild Garlic

allium ursinum

 

February

Pesto, spring salads, cornbread, soup and risotto

Garlic Mustard

Garlic Mustard is
Alliaria petiolata
fgarlicflotmustard1
(Alliare officinale,
Erbe Sophia,
Erva Adheira,
Hedge Garlic,
Hierba del Ajo,
Jack-by-the-Hedge, Knoblauchsrauke, Lauchkraut, Lauchrauch,
St. Sophia's Herb)

Crucifer family

 

February

Leaves in any season can be eaten but once the weather gets hot, the leaves will taste bitter. Flowers can be chopped and tossed into salads.

Ground Ivy

glechoma hederacea

 

March

Dried herb in marinades and seasonings for strongly flavored meats like venison and lamb

Winter Purslane

claytonia perfoliata

 

March

Miner's Lettuce Salad

Hogweed

heracleum sphondylium

 

March

Young Hogweed shoots fried in butter and eaten as stand alone vegetable.

Burdock

arctium lappa

 

March

241 root recipes

Sea Beet

beta vulgaris subsp. maritima

 

March

Leaves used in tarts and boiled

Magnolia

magnolia x soulandeana

 

April

Flower petals in honey. Pickled petals with fresh cheeses.

Stinging Nettle

Stinging Nettle is Urtica dioica
cstingingflosfemalenettle1

Nettle family

 

April

Packed with iron, calcium, vitamins A and C, you can use them as a partial stand-in for greens like chard or spinach in certain recipes where they won't be the main player (soups, pastas and warm grain dishes). 

Beech

fagus sylvatica

 

April

Eat raw nuts after they have soaked in water for 8 hours or more. Beech nut nibblers for tossing over a salad.

Cherry

prunus avium

 

April

Healthy cherry recipes using fruit of cherry

The Greater Stitchwort

Greater stitchwort is
Stellaria
holostea
cgreaterflostitchwort1

Pink Family

If you had lived 2 or 3 hundred years ago, and you had told your mother that you had a pain in the side, or 'the stitch,' she would probably have tried to cure the pain with a drink made from this bright little flower. Many people thought that the flower would cure 'the stitch', and that is why they gave it the name of Stitchwort.
The green shoots can be chopped into salads, steamed or quickly boiled. You can eat the flower buds and flowers and these can make an attractive addition to a wild salad.

April-June

The green shoots can be chopped into salads, steamed or quickly boiled. You can eat the flower buds and flowers and these can make an attractive addition to a wild salad.

Fennel

foeniculum vulgare

 

May

Recipes for main course, light meals and snacks, starters and nibbles, side dishes and desserts.

The Ox-Eye Daisy
(Moon Daisies, Moons, Moon-flowers)

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum is ox-eye daisy
oxeyecflodaisybritishflora

Daisy - Chamomiles and Mayweeds Family

 

May

I stripped the leaves and buds into salads, served them atop tacos, and added them to stir fries. I chopped them fine into a potato salad, and sautéed them in bacon fat to have first on an egg sandwich and later a tortilla pizza constructed with piles of yummy browned sausage.

White dead nettle

lamium album

 

May

Young leaves and flowers from Lamium album can be eaten raw. Young leaves can also be boiled and eaten as a vegetable or a smoothie.

Water Mint

mentha aquatica

 

May

In addition to infusing mint leaves to make a tea, you can also use them to flavour other foods. Cous cous makes a good trail food – light and easily rehydrated – why not add some shredded mint leaves for freshness? If you are picking berries, particularly raspberries, Rubus idaeus, add some small mint leaves for a delicious forager’s dessert.

Watercress

nasturtium officinale

 

May

I use the hot peppery leaves to add a kick to salads; their pungent flavour also makes flavoursome soups, sauces and flavoured butters and goes particularly well with eggs.

Lemon Balm

melissa officinalis

 

June

12 things to do with lemon balm.

Black Mustard

brasica nigra

 

June

Try frying them in a little oil with a handful of curry leaves, then fold through yoghurt to serve with meats and curries, or stir through rice to add texture and flavour.

Marsh Samphire

salicornia europaea

 

June

‘You don’t have to soak samphire before cooking it. Just blanch it for a minute and then refresh it in cold water,’ he tells me, as we survey a happy crowd of expectant lunchers in the Riverford Field Kitchen restaurant. ‘It couldn’t be easier.’
Master Veg Classes are taught by Riverford.

Sea Plantain

plantago maritima

 

June

Sweet fried plantains with sea salt and cinnamon

Sea Purslane

atriplex portulacoides

 

June

Blanching or steaming sea purslane gets rid of some of the salty flavours. It only needs a short amount of cooking though.

Sea Aster

aster tripolium

 

June

Sea aster leaves are practically built for rolling in wild sushi, but will also lift a salad or stir-fry to new heights.

Nasturtium

tropaeolum majus

 

June

How to use Nasturtiums in Food

Orange Day Lily

hemerocallis fulva

 

June

Young spring shoots and leaves under five inches taste similar to mild onions when fried in butter.

Common lime / linden

tilia cordata

 

June

1098 Lime recipes.

Ribwort plantain

plantago lanceolata

 

July

We toss the leaves in salads. Pick tender leaves in early spring before flower stalks appear. They can be eaten raw or cooked lightly.

Wild rocket, aka perennial, wall rocket

dilotaxa tenuifolia

 

July

10 best wild rocket salad recipes.

Fat hen

chenopodium album

 

July

Fat Hen has been chosen as one of the top ten best foraging courses in the UK by Countryfile. Fat hen food recipes from The Guardian

Good king henry

blitum bonus-henricus

 

July

Pick the leaves when young and cook them as you would spinach. Wash the leaves well and pick double the amount you think you will need. They can be added to a herb salad or make a good accompaniment to grilled fish.

Spear-leaved orache

atriplex prostrata

 

July

Superb salad leaf when young, and as a spinach substitute when mature.

pineapple weed

matricaria discoidea

 

July

Pineapple weed flower s and leaves are a tasty finger food while hiking or toss in salads. Flowers can also be dried out and crushed so that it can be used as flour. As with chamomile, pineapple weed is very good as a tea. Pineapple weed flowers may become bitter by the time the plant blooms, but are still good to eat.

Mugwort

artemesia vulgaris

Mugwort pollen frequently causes allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. Such adverse reactions are particularly common in Europe and the western United States during the mugwort pollen season which runs from late summer to fall. During the pollen season, people with mugwort allergy may notice their symptoms get worse or they may experience oral allergy symptoms when they eat foods that contain proteins that resemble those found in mugwort. This phenomenon is known as cross-reactivity between mugwort pollen and food allergens.

July

meadowsweet

filipendula ulmaria

 

August

In spring the young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked as a green.

japanese rose

rosa rugosa

 

August

Rose petal in honey

alexanders

Alexanders is
Smyrnium olusatrum
calexandersflo1

Umbellifer family

 

August

How to forage and cook alexanders.

water pepper

persicaria hydropiper

 

August

Soup.

wild marjoram

origanum vulgare

 

August

It is the perfect herb for seasoning meat but also works well when added to a medley of roast vegetables or fish and chicken stews, soups and casseroles. It also works well with dishes that include eggs or cheese.

sweet woodruff

galium odoratum

 

August

May Wine - Steep sprigs of dried sweet woodruff and crushed strawberries (sweetened with sugar if tart) in white wine in the refrigerator overnight, then strain the wine and serve it in a punch bowl garnished with whole strawberries and fresh sweet woodruff sprigs.

black mulberry

morus nigra

 

August

Mulberries work well as a substitute to blackberries and raspberries in recipes. They make excellent ices, fools and summer puddings, as well as jellies and jams. Best of all, eat them raw with sugar and cream.

white mulberry

morus alba

 

August

Eat 1 small handful per day. Add to smoothies, salads, desserts, yogurt or cereal

common hazel

corylus avellana

 

August

The name "hazelnut" applies to the nuts of any of the species of the genus Corylus. This hazelnut or cobnut, the kernel of the seed, is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste.

elder

sambucus nigra

 

September

Flowers & fruit. Make sure you always process the flowers and cook the ripe black berries, and never eat any of the green parts, they will make you very sick.

porcini

boletus edulis

 

September

The word cep is a Gascon term for the Boletus edulis mushroom (called ‘porcino’ in Italian). The same mushroom is called the ‘penny bun’ in English. This mushroom is generally agreed by connoisseurs to be among the finest eating mushrooms.

cherry plum

prunus cerasifera

 

September

As Cherry plums are considered a benchmark cooking plum, sure bets would be to preserve and jam, make pies and crumbles, but fresh-eating should be the first choice to experience the unique flavors of the Cherry plum.

rowan

sorbus aucuparia

 

September

The fruit, depending on the cultivar, can actually be toxic in some cases, but most of that toxicity fades if heated or frozen for extended periods of time. Commonly, the berries are used in alcoholic beverages or liqueurs, but can also be used as a bitter side flavoring of certain game dishes. They are also commonly pressed into jams and jellies.

red sentinel crab apple

malus x robusta

 

September

Make crabapple jelly

blackberry

rubus fruticosus

 

September

35 blackberry recipes

wild plum

prunus domestica

 

September

Tart Wild plums can be eaten fresh, but are often canned and preserved as jams, jellies, sauces, or syrups. They make great pies, tarts, and buckles. Wild plums are used to flavor liqueurs and wines.

pied de mouton (Hedgehog Mushroom)

hydnum repandum

 

October

I will simply crumble them into sizzling foamy butter with a slivered shallot and serve them on toast, to begin. Then I will toss some into the pot with some chicken that I have browned and crispened and then combined with some wilted onions, shallots, pine nuts and spices, and smother them, top tight on the pan, with a splash of white wine, until the juices mingle and caramelize at the bottom. This will be nice with some courgettes.

wood avens

geum urbanum

 

October

I make a rich, clove scented syrup by simmering the cleaned roots in 2:1 sugar:water solution for 5 minutes then leaving to infuse for a few weeks. The resulting syrup will keep well if you add a wee glug of neutral spirit. I then use it to sweeten cocktails, aromatised wines, desserts etc.

horn of plenty

craterellus cornucopioides

 

October

Horns of plenty woodland mushrooms have a deliciously rich flavour that works well with creamy sauces or in soups or stews with chicken, polenta or pasta. Clean them carefully before use to get rid of any grit.

dog rose

rosa canina

 

October

Rose hips are used for tisanes, jam, jelly, syrup, rose hip soup, beverages, pies, bread, wine, and marmalade.

Emergency Outdoors details many more edible wild plants

common sorrel

rumex acetosella

 

October

10 recipes for soups, salad and main dishes

procumbent yellow sorrel (Creeping Wood Sorrel)

oxalis corniculata

 

October

Refreshing drink, raw leaves or flowers can be used in salads.

hawthorn

crataegus monogyna

 

November

Jelly, sauce and soup

sweet chestnut

castanea sativa

 

November

Vacuum-packed chestnuts are of variable quality. The best are made from whole, unbroken nuts and work well in soups, stuffings, stews and sauces.

wood blewit

clitocybe nuda

 

November

See difference between edible Wood Blewit Mushroom and poisonous Cortinarius violaceous. Unfortunately there are some similar species that are very poisonous, so please see my Edible Mushrooms A-Z page for full description and pictures of Wood Blewits. And visit Wild Mushrooms Online, and Mushroom-Collecting.com for more.

Recipes for pickled or frying these mushrooms.

field blewit

lepista saeva

 

November

Blewit mushrooms can be eaten as a cream sauce or sautéed in butter, but it is important not to eat them raw, which could lead to indigestion. They can also be cooked like tripe or as omelette filling

scots pine

pinus sylvestris

 

November

Gather pine nuts, make pine needle tea and male pine cone flour.

juniper

juniperus communis

 

November

Recipes using juniper berries

quince

cydonia oblonga

 

November

Quince jelly and other recipes.

winter chanterelle

craterellus tubaeformis

 

December

These mushrooms grow during the pheasant shooting season and fit naturally in any game casseroles, pies or stews – see the recipe for Pheasants with winter chanterelles and root vegetables.

blackthorn

prunus spinosa

 

December

The berries are known as ‘sloes’ and these are very popular for making ‘sloe gin’, a potent alcoholic drink which if made with lots of sugar is more like a liqueur.

yarrow

achillea millefolium

 

December

Yarrow with pasta

wall bellflower

campanula porten-schlagiana

 

December

Leaves and flowers. An evergreen plant, the mild flavoured but rather chewy leaves can be eaten all year round, whilst the flowers are produced in late spring and early summer - The flowers have a pleasant sweet flavour and make a decorative addition to the salad bowl.

salad burnet

sanguisorba minor

 

December

Salad and soup garnish.

hairy bittercress

cardamine hirsuta

 

December

Risotto

cockspur

crataegus persimilis 'Prunifolia'

 

December

Cockspur jelly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hot Peppers

 

Hot peppers can make you feel like your mouth is on fire. The American Chemical Society explains the science behind that burn and why drinking water is one of the worse things you can do to ease that pain.

The chemical compound responsible for the burning sensation you can get when eating spicy foods is called capsaicin. It binds to pain receptors in your mouth, which then can trigger a reaction like your eyes tearing up or your nose running. The video explains that capsaicin is a non-polar molecule and dissolves in other non-polar molecules, so drinking milk, which contains non-polar molecules, will give you relief. (No wonder that Thai and Indian cuisines, often so spicy, incorporate a lot of dairy into their meals.)

Water on the other hand? It’s a polar substance and it will just spread the capsaicin around your mouth making the heat even worse.

A few other ingredients can help you cool your mouth after eating spicy foods:-
Milk helps by mixing with the capsaicin (that hot-tasting chemical), so you can swallow it and get it away from the heat receptors on your tongue that are going haywire. Other dairy products have the same effect, which explains why sour cream is a popular taco topping and why you can order a yogurt-based lassi to drink with your favorite curry.

Oils work the same way, which means foods like peanut butter will help. High-proof alcohol can do the same. Carb-heavy foods like rice and bread can mop up the capsaicin, while sugar and honey interfere with your ability to feel the heat (even though the capsaicin is still in your mouth.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

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