Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4:
Page 43 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 12601
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Item is
Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section IMG 0141.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour ferns and palm IMG 0144.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour view up road IMG 0145.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base IMG 0146.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base IMG 0148.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots IMG 0149.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots IMG 0150.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged rootsIMG 0152.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base IMG 0151.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base with concrete IMG 0153
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots IMG 0155.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely
important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants
require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why
they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of
Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done
by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out.
The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every
possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other
country in the world!
On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A.
and the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized,
tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or
practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of
work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden,
therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the
soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty
of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the
soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open.
It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower
growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic
matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy,
properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate
of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or
50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should
be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots
a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that
the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually
applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base
are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2
(3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal
mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These
plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made
but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which
a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied
at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to
success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help
the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better,
for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity
is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing
its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It
helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the
soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It
should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be
sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been
done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be
slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone,
only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most
convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.The quantity
of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you
will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles,
nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds
and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different
organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth
of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate
required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then
grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or
anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic
fertilizers and the lime. Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent
mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so
you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken
instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by
another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top,
then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top
are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to
their original levels, since water is the only transport system down there, which
unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further
detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden
area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds
    are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops
    to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which
    becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties
    are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent
plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding.
This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants
together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the
lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired
by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the
ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the
other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored. The ecosystem is
like a fast-food restaurant where much of the menu are the others in the soil, but
each organism eating has a particular range of organism that he/she eats -
unfortunately it is usually only the other organisms that live at the same level in
the soil as they do and so if the soil is totally mixed up, then they are likely to
starve and die out.
There are 31 species of earthworm known to occur in natural environments within
the British Isles, each of which has a different job, so that if you transfer 1 from
its environment to a different environment of a different earthworm it may
well die out. Further details from The Earthworm Society of Britain.




Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



Pages 29-31 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Those who engage in tree work should have a full knowledge of the recommendations set out on this subject by the British Standards Institution and to able to work to these standards - B.S.I. 3998:1966. Recommendations for Tree Work (this has been replaced by BS 3998:1989, which has also been replaced by the current BS 3998:2010).
"BS 3998:2010 Tree work. Recommendations
Trees are dynamic, continually self-optimizing organisms, they maintain both their physiological functions and their structural integrity. Thus, the often massive structure of a mature tree above ground, consisting of the stem, branches, twigs and the attached foliage, is highly efficient in intercepting, using and storing solar energy, while also bearing its own weight and dissipating the potentially damaging forces of the wind.
Below ground, although far less obvious, the extensive root system is equally efficient both in providing anchorage and in pervading the soil in order to absorb the water and mineral nutrients that are essential for survival, growth, flowering and fruiting.
This standard gives general recommendations for tree work. It gives guidance on management options for established trees (including soil care and tree felling) and overgrown hedges.
The principles of this standard may also be applied to some shrubs, which can have similar characteristics to trees.
This standard considers the impact of work on an individual tree in relation to neighbouring trees, but does not cover overall management of tree populations.
The need for tree work will sometimes become self-evident to tree owners and site managers in the course of their regular duties. Tree work ideally forms part of a planned programme of management, which includes the successional planting of trees well-suited to their surroundings.
Principles for assessing the potential advantages and disadvantages of various aspects of tree work are stated, where appropriate, in this standard. Where work is required, it is important for clients to be aware of both the advantages and disadvantages before deciding the course of action to follow.
This is a full revision of the standard, which has been updated and expanded to incorporate changes in the law and working practice concerning established trees, especially with regard to:

• Safety of people and property
• Decision-making criteria for tree work
• Wildlife and habitats
• Veteran trees.

This revision also takes account of underlying issues such as tree longevity, value for local amenity, landscape, biodiversity and heritage."

The leading man in a tree gang is the climber. He is supported by one or more as necessary, who work from the group helping him to secure the ropes and ladders, holding the safety line attached to his harness when necessary, clearing the fallen branches and generally assisting him in his work. It is important that they work together as a team and that they all understand and are fully conversant with the nature of the work. A climber can only work effectively and safely when he is well supported from the ground. Never should climbing and ladder work be undertaken by one man on his own.
My comments: I have pointed out to my ground assistants that each other's life is in the other's and therefore full consentration is required all the time the climber is going up the ladder to the time when he is down from it. With the rope over the shoulder of the ground assistant, he/she can instantly feel any difference in the pressure and advise the climber of it, so that the climber can decide as to when to stop cutting.

'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems:-

The removal of the lower branches is also essential on roadside trees to allow head-room for the traffic, which may include double-decker buses, furniture vans, loaded lorries, etc. In addition to a definite clearance being necessary, allowance should be made for the sway of the branches caused by wind and gales and the local turbulence which results from the speedy passage of large vehicles beneath the trees.

This operation may also be justified when the lower branches are close to a building and thus liable to cut light off from certain windows. Again, there may be plants nearby whose well-being is important enough to warrant the removal of the lower branch system.

The best time for this work is during the late summer, for the branches are weighed down with foliage at this time, and this gives a better picture of the extent of the problem. Callus formation will also start before the winter sets in, when the rate of healing will be much slower. There is also little danger of bleeding at this period.

The removal of the branches flush with the main trunk is straightforward (My Comments: the cut must be beyond the branch collar which means the cut is not flush with the trunk of the tree. The callus can then grow over the branch collar and prevent the trunk from being rotted). The crown and the tree as a whole must be left well balanced, both in appearance and weight. In other words, a branch moved on one side means that some balancing may be needed on the other.

It should be noted that the term 'lifting' is generally thought of as applying only to mature trees, but this operation may be also be undertaken on younger specimens as part of their training. It may, for example, be desired to train a young feathered tree into a specimen with a clear stem or trunk. In this case, as the young tree becomes established in its permanent quarters the lower branches are removed, ideally spreading this over several seasons as the tree develops."


Pages 31-33 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Crown Thinning
It is of little use experimenting without any thought and far too many undertake thinning because it is something which they think should be done to trees, especially young ones, 'to assist in the formation of a shapely crown'. Thinning is not a means of beating time and of improving upon natural growth which includes branch shed. It is, however, a different matter if branches are removed which have started to decline in health and which are obviously dying. Crossing branches, especially on a young tree, may be corrected by the removal of one or both of the offending pieces, but it should be remembered that a full branch system has a strengthening effect upon the framework as a whole, while a strong and vigorous root action is also encouraged.

The reasons for crown thinning may be outlined as follows:

  • The operation allows light to penetrate the crown. This could be an advantage where there is heavy shading, for example near a builing, to allow sunlight to reach windows, or over plants which are considered valuable and which should have more light.
  • Wind resistance is reduced and this may be important to a tree which has a weak branch system.
  • Weight is reduced and this may also help such a weak system. It should be remembered that the fall of heavy limbs may not only be dangerous to life, but often other branches on the trunk itself may be split or injured. This may ruin one entire side of a branch system.

    (See Fig 13 Good and bad methods of dealing with a mature tree which is unsafe and is in need of attention. It should be borne in mind that only the main branches have been shown. The broken lines on the 4 trees indicate branches which are to be cut out. The first tree shows the correct pruning, the other 3 show it incorrect and wrong.)
  • It may be necessary as a means of restoring balance. It must be emphasised, however, that experience is needed to decide whether or not thinning is really necessary and, if it is, how extensive it should be.

Once it is decided upon, the procedure should be carried out in the following order:

  1. Remove any dead limbs and also those which show definite signs of dying through lack of light. It is to be expected that many of these will be found on the inside of the tree.
  2. Remove badly shaped limbs, those with a narrow crotch angle and also any other dangerous limbs. Crossing and rubbing branches should be attended to.
  3. The remainder of the branch system should be thinned to the required amount.

It should be noted that the work carried out in stages 1 and 2 is really obvious, but while it is being undertaken the operator will naturally become more acquainted with the nature of the branch system and a decision upon the remainder of the work will thus be easier. As experience is gained it is possible to complete all the stages in one area before removing the ladder and equipment. The cuts should be made almost flush with the other side of the branch collar and the wounds carefully painted, taking care not to weaken the remaining framework.

The work will often be easier when it is carried out in the dormant season for deciduous trees/shrubs. The late winter or spring should be avoided with subjects that bleed, for example birch, maple, hornbeam and many of the Leguminous speces.

Crown thinning, which may result in the removal of one third or more of the branch system, is generally confined to deciduous trees. It is seldom necessary or desirable to treat hardy evergreens or conifers in this manner."


Pages 29-31 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Crown Reduction
See Fig 14. in the above book - Part of the branch system under consideration for thinning. The broken lines indicate 2 branches which would be removed under a moderate thinning, the cuts being made at (a). Whole lengths are removed, making the cut as close to its branch collar as possible. Under a severe thinning policy, 3 additional branches are suggested for removal by making cuts indicated by (b).
My Comments: None of the remaining branches on this tree have been reduced to stumps.

Thinning in the normal way does not result in a reduction of the overall size of the crown. Wth crown reduction, however, the branches are shortened, the cuts being carefully positioned just above a substantial limb growing in the right direction - See Fig 2 on page 4 of the above book. It is carried out over the entire main branch system if need be with the result that the tops of leading branches are taken away and selected laterals form the outline to the crown. It is important to maintain a balanced appearance and condition.

Where the cut-back is extensive, this is obviously a drastic treatment, but it is justified where the branch system is considered to be inadequate for the full height and weight to be carried, or where the tree as a whole is failing in health and has, as a result, become 'stag-headed'. Good husbandry should always form the basis of programmes connected with the management of trees, but a more definite feeding and watering programme is necessary as a means of overcoming the condition of poor health.


Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting

18, Naturalize

19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-

...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watershoots pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watershoots (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watershoot).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

Information about this yew tree on 22 March 2020 from rainhamchurch.co.uk website.


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.


I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.


"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - "In 2013 a new estimate of 1050 early deaths as a result of just PM2.5 air pollution across Kent & Medway in 2010 was calculated by the Kent and Medway Air Quality partnership (K&MAQP) Health Sub Group. Figure 4 shows a figure between 11 and 12 of PM2.5 for Medway with 50 early deaths from PM2.5 pollution in 2010 per 100,000 population. It had a population in 2014 of 274,016. Each year if you live in Medway you may die early as 1 out of 2.74 x 50 = (2.74 x 50)/100000 probabability - remember the stupidity of the stiff upper lip of the British as your parent with heart and lung problems, spouse or child kicks the bucket." This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.


Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 4 Page 38

Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal view next road section IMG 0084.JPG
This and the following problems are detailed in Plant with Photo Index Gallery.

Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal view next road section IMG 0085.JPG

Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0081.JPG

Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0082.JPG

Tree 134 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree
IMG 0088.JPG

Tree 134 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree
IMG 0089.JPG

Tree 135 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree view next road section IMG0090.JPG

Tree 135 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree view next road section IMG0091.JPG

Tree 136 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree
IMG 0092.JPG

Tree 137 from funchal roundabout to cathedral shreddings round tree base
IMG 0093.JPG

Tree 138 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new branch growth
IMG 0094.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 39

Tree 139 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0095.JPG

Tree 139 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
IMG 0096.JPG

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights
IMG 0097.JPG

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights and lighting cables
IMG 0098.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new beanpole tree
IMG 0099.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new beanpole tree
IMG 0100.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new beanpole tree
IMG 0101.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new beanpole tree
IMG 0103.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new beanpole tree pollarded
IMG 0102.JPG

Tree 141 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
IMG 0104.JPG

Tree 142 from funchal roundabout to cathedral larger gridded area
IMG 0105.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 40

Tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe
IMG 0106.JPG

Tree 144 from funchal roundabout to cathedral gridded base area
IMG 0107.JPG

Tree 145 from funchal roundabout to cathedral damaged branch
IMG 0108.JPG

Tree 146 from funchal roundabout to cathedral crossing branches
IMG 0109.JPG

Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lighting cables
IMG 0110.JPG

Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lwater manhole
IMG 0112.JPG

Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
IMG 0113.JPG

Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral water manhole
IMG 0111.JPG

Tree 148 from funchal roundabout to cathedral double trunk
IMG 0114.JPG

Tree 149 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0115.JPG

Tree 150 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0116.JPG






Some suggestions:-

  • I worked in the defense industry on the Nimrod aircaft doing the Routine Tabular Display and the Tactical Tabular Display while somebody else did the Tactical Situation Display. The Routine Tabular Display could have every row and column filled with numbers and letters of the alphabet, but the Tactical Tabular Display could not, because every character had to be drawn. That meant that in the worst scenario you could only display one third of the screen with information. Since you had to have the abilty to show the same page on both screens, then that cut down the other screen to also a third of information. Add to that the Tactical Situation Display and Tactical Tabular Display had to split up a section of memory in a display computer and the computing time, then you were limited as to what both displays could show. If you attempted to show more then a flashing graphics show would occur. The Ministry of Defense then had 2 committess from 2 defense commercial firms to talk to instead of one. This whole design was absolutely crazy -
    get one idiot to do the overall management so that each of the departments have a hope of working together.
    The following would be useful:-
    • Site survey of the roads (the main road splits between the Lido and The Forum Shopping Centre before coming back tgether again) from the Cathedral to the Forum Shopping Centre. The position etc of every tree/shrub/plant within the public area between these points needs to be identified and numbered.
    • This needs to go on a public website, so that the population can identify exactly what is what, where it is, its current and future state as well as when it will be replaced.
    • The seaweed production system requires setting up and linking with the recycling waste food etc to create this liquid feed and its drained solids.
    • The other solutions have to be assessed and the decided way detailed for every section of this length of road.
    • It might be best to allocate a certain length of road to a certain school and the parents of that school can help their children to carry out the work with the government personnel set up to oversee this.
    • If the pavement solution is accepted then that needs to be done as quickly as possible. Once done those trees will be fed, watered and have access to the air for root gases exchange. Then, you can repair the trees once the cullet is available etc. All of this work would be recorded on the website with photos, so that decisions for instance can be made on the frequency of using the made up fertiliser. Maybe somebody could design a Y drain junction that the arm used to branch off to the p-trap and french drain has a 2 way tap on it, so that if the road is to have salt on it to melt the snow or the fuel leakage from a vehicle crash is going down the storm drain, you can quickly stop it going near the tree roots. The schools could work together as to when between midnight and 06:00 they can have their irrigating time, etc. A safer way of dealing with the holes and damage to each tree is to have scaffolding round it so that every section of it can be inspected and dealt with safely by the children as well as the parents in collaboration with trained experts. This is especially true of the trees overlooking the valley (crossed by the main road just before Pestana Mirimar Hotel) with the cooking gas canisters for the hotel nearby, so that there is no extra weight of people on those trees while they are being repaired
    • Then the replacement trees can be decided on and what they should be and the schools would then still have an input as to their section of road in the future as well as learning the advantages of dealing sympathetically with climate change on the public roads, their home and their school.
    • You can improve it further by making sure that all plants in public places are bee-pollinated to prevent your hay-fever sufferers from the pollen in the air and that as far as possible grass is replaced with a bee-pollinated green manure in certain areas so that if walking their dog, then they can do so safely in that area.
    • The design on each school's pavement area can be changed on a decided regular interval quite easily by using a vacuum cleaner to take the material out of the CEDAdrive and replacing it with the decided marble, cullet, green manure picture etc. Seating round the trees or elsewhere can then also be used by the local lacemakers, painters, artists, jewellery makers etc creating their products at a regular time of the week and having space next to them for the buyers to sit and chat to them.
    • You could mix native plant seeds with wallpaper paste and the liquid from the made-up fertiliser and spray your cliffs and other inhospitable areas. Then irrigate lightly each night for 9 minutes after midnight until germination. After that, put the made-up drained fertiliser at the top of the area and repeat the same light irrigation system. Repeat the fertiliser application at the same rate as for the trees/shrubs/flower beds in the pavement in the future. Then you could end up with stabilised cliffs and plenty of vegetation/flowers.
      If possible it would be useful if the flowers were bee-pollinated for the benefit of hay-fever sufferers.
      See how a rose is existing with other vegetation without any help except for irrigation on
      Page 45.

Gallery 4 Page 41

Tree 151 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0117.JPG

Tree 151 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0118.JPG

Tree 152 from funchal roundabout to cathedral proper tree in lawn
IMG 0120

Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0121.JPG

Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
IMG 0123.JPG

Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral might be irrigated
IMG 0122.JPG

Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
IMG 0124.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
IMG 0125.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
IMG 0126.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
IMG 0127.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 42

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
IMG 0128.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view down to harbour
IMG 0129.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view to cathedral IMG 0130.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view to cathedral IMG 0131.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate cathedral
IMG 0139.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate drainage channel IMG 0137.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate drainage channel IMG 0138.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
IMG 0135.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate irrigation system IMG 0134.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
IMG 0136.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
IMG 0140.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 43

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
IMG 0141.JPG

Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour ferns and palm
IMG 0144.JPG

Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour view up road
IMG 0145.JPG

Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0146.JPG

Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0148.JPG

Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
IMG 0149.JPG

Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
IMG 0150.JPG

Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
IMG 0152.JPG

Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0151.JPG

Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base with concrete
IMG 0153

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
IMG 0155.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 44

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0154.JPG

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0157.JPG
Please look at this crime of permeable paving which was not carried out by The Resinmill
The ResinMill is the UK's largest of Resin Bonded & Resin Bound Gravel Suppliers.
From the
Best Base for Resin Bound Gravel, there should have been the following:
0.5 mm of crushed glass, casted as antislip on top of
surface course of 16mm permeable resin bound gravel.
This is above the Base (binder course) of 70 mm of AC14 open textured tarmac, grade dependant on temperature, which is above the
sub base of Frost resistant MOT Type 3 100-250mm dependant on the application, and that is
above the sub grade.

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0158.JPG

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base loose IMG 0156.JPG

Tree 161 from golden gate to harbour permeable base view up road
IMG 0159.JPG

Tree 162 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0160.JPG

Tree 163 from golden gate to harbour permeable base new tree
IMG 0161.JPG

Tree 164 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
IMG 0162.JPG

Gallery 4 Page 45

Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0190.JPG

Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0191.JPG

Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG

Tree 166 from lido to forum
IMG 0193.JPG

Tree 166 from lido to forum
IMG 0194.JPG

Improvements due to trees
IMG 0292.JPG

mobilane info
IMG 0765.JPG

mobilane info
IMG 0766.JPG




The following is from "The Hidden Life of Trees - What they feel, How they communicate: Discoveries from a Secret World" by Peter Wohlleben. This English translation was published William Collins in 2017.
ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0 -
"Friendship - look up into the forest canopy. The average tree grows its branches out until it encounters the branch tips of a neighbouring tree of the same height. It doesn't grow any wider because the air and better light in this space are already taken, However, it heavily reinforces the branches it has extended, so you get the impression that there's quite a shoving match going on up there. But a pair of true friends is careful right from the outset not to grow overly thick branches in each other's direction. The trees don't want to take anything away from each other, and so they develop sturdy branches only at the outer edges of their crowns, that is to say, only in the direction of "non-friends". Such partners are often so tightly connected at the roots that sometimes they even die together."

My comment "The canopy that he is writing about is in a natural forest. Unfortunately in Madeira and elsewhere, trees are incorrectly pruned and this leads to watershoots and watersprouts. Unfortunately both of these are not directly connected with the central nervous system of the remainder of the tree and thus they grow in an uncontrolled way interfering with that tree's own canopy as well as any other neighbour with the growth from the watershoots. If the tree is not pollarded but correctly pruned so that a juvenile branch no matter how small can take over the tip leader position, then the central nervous system can continue to function for the entire tree."



"When a caterpillar takes a hearty bite out of a leaf, the tissue around the site of the damage changes. In addition, the leaf tissue sends out electrical signals, just as human tissue does when it is hurt. However, the signal is not transmitted in milliseconds, as human signals are; instead, the plant signal travels at the slow speed of a third of an inch per second. Accordingly, it takes an hour or so before defensive compounds reach the leaves to spoil the pest's meal. Trees live their lives in the really slow lane, even when they are in danger."

My comment "Due to those watershoots and watersprouts not being connected to this nervous system, only the nervous system within the watershoot or watersprout can try to deal with the problem, which is unlikely."



"Trees can mount their own defense. One of these ways is to warn each other using chemical signals sent through the fungal networks around their root tips, which operate no matter what the weather. Surprisingly, news bulletins are sent via the roots not only by means of chemical compounds but also by means of electrical impulses that travel at the speed of a third of an inch per second. Once the latest news has been broadcast, all the oaks in the area promptly pump tannins through their veins to put off the chewing insects."

My Comment" If my solution for the mosaic pavements was used not just on the pavements but also the drives alongside of the domestic dwellings, drives on commercial properties and pavements in public gardens, then the fungal network could be linked everywhere and trees suffering from one problem in one area could warn the others, who could try out their solution, until the pest can be obliterated or scared off. As it stands at the moment every tree in a pavement is a loner and due to being starved, dehydrated and gassing its own roots with carbon dioxide and nitrogen compounds, it has nothing to help it.

Unfortunately as human beings, we no longer care about nature and quite happily say that we are breathing, so what is the problem? and ignore our destruction of the plant kingdom which provides us with oxygen by pouring concrete/tarmac on it."

This book is very good in connecting us back to nature, like we were before the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and the country folk worked with nature.



When a tree is taken out of the nursery ground to be put into a black pot or a white pot, 80% of its roots are cut off and that makes it difficult for the tree in its later life. Barcham with its white pot persuades the remaining roots to travel down the pot instead of circling within it. When the trees from pots where the roots have circled are transplanted, the planters do not re-arrange the roots so that those roots in a circle continue to grow in that circle and not leave it. So, within 10 years the tree runs out of water etc because it has no roots outside that circle to provide water, nutrients or gas exchange. Because the roots go down the pot, then when their trees are transplanted, they can be persuaded not to go under the road by using a geotextile and if the 2 inches (5 cms) of Heicom Tree Sand was there then its roots would go into that medium and be accompanied by fungi etc to grow a healthy tree.
explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Barcham is Europe's largest tree specialist, who are growing over 200,000 instant impact trees near Ely, Cambridgeshire


Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on Page 27 -
PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).


If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.




This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.




USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).

The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.





I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.



Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.



A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.




It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season."
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.



"When the experiment is made with the stem and the leaves in the free air, whilst the roots are in a limited atmoshere of oxygen, then they absorb several times their own volume of this gas. This is because the carbonic acid formed and absorbed is carried into the general system of the plant, where it is elaborated by the leaves, if exposed to the same light, or simply exhaled if the plant be kept in the dark.
The presence of oxygen in the air which has access to the roots is not merely favourable; it is absolutely indispensable to the exercise of their functions. A plant, the stem and leaves of which are in the air, soon dies if its roots are in contact with pure carbonic acid, with hydrogen gas or azote. The use of oxygen in the growth of the subterraneous parts of plants, explains wherefore our annual plants, which have largely developed roots, require a friable and loose soil for their advantageous cultivation. This also enables us to understand wherefore trees die, when their roots are submerged in stagnant water, and wherefore the effect of submersion in general is less injurious when the water is running, such water always containing more air in solution than that which is stagnant. " from Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, phsics, and meterology; or.



The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with
    legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as
    green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.


Nearly 1,000,000 tourists visited Madeira last year.
They enjoy looking at nature like trees and gardens, but they can look at their own tarmac and concrete buildings at home instead of coming to Madeira to see more of them,
so please do not ignore them by denying to repair these roadside trees and then providing:-

  • 1 inch (2.5cms) depth of irrigation water per week,
  • food using green manure
  • food with compost using animal manure, restaurant /hotel food waste, plant waste and seaweed 3 times a year in water solution and the drained solids applied within 3 inches (7.5 cms) of the tree/shrub trunks
  • access for gaseous exchange to complete the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle all the time. Oxygen is absolutely essential to the roots all the time as shown at the bottom of the previous row.
    System A - Full infiltration of Topmix Permeable from Lafarge Tarmac Design Options would provide the drainage required and the access for gaseous exchange. Since it is a concrete solution, then perhaps that surface could be manufactured under licence in Madeira since it has a concrete factory. It is suggested that the existing top surface (either pavers, concrete or tarmac) and sub-base is removed, then a 2 inch (5 cm) thick layer of Heicom Tree Sand applied before that is covered with a geotextile to prevent the tree roots from migrating to the air above and also prevent the sub-base from mixing with that sand. Then, apply the sub-base before completing with the Topmix Permeable. This could be used on all pavements and straight driveways in Madeira. It would reduce the volume of water going to storm-drains. If you combine this with my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside then the rainwater on the road is also used by the tree roots instead of overflowing the storm-drains.. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage.

for the whole tree/shrub root area,
with protection of that root area and top growth from vehicles and people/animals.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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