Ivydene Gardens Ivydene Gardens Azalea, Camellia, Rhododendron Gallery:
Site Map


You can select
0 of the Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons described within
a page of the 1000 Groundcover Plants A; being Plant Selection Level 5 in the
Plants Topic.

You can select
0 of the Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons described within a page from Camera Photo Galleries, which is not used in the Rock Garden by clicking on the centre of its thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Comparison page within this gallery.

You can select
10 Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons in the list below

You can select an Azalea, Camellia or Rhododendron by clicking on the Thumbnail to see its Plant Description alongside from the:-

  • Flower Colour
  • Leaf Colour
  • Form
  • Shape
  • Fruit Colour
  • Bed Pictures Comparison Pages from the menu on each page on the right

or clicking on the Botanical Name link from one of the:-

The mail order nursery link to obtain the plant is in the Comments Row of its Plant Description Page.

or you can select an Azalea, Camellia or Rhododendron by clicking on the name of their:-

  • Azalea, Camellia or Rhododendron Description Page

Site Map for Plant Description pages
Azallea Index A
Azallea Index B
Azallea Index C
Azallea Index D
Azallea Index E
Azallea Index F
Azallea Index G
Azallea Index H
Azallea Index I
Azallea Index J
Azallea Index K
Azallea Index L
Azallea Index M
Azallea Index N
Azallea Index O
Azallea Index P
Azallea Index Q
Azallea Index R
Azallea Index S
Azallea Index T
Azallea Index U
Azallea Index V
Azallea Index W
Azallea Index XYZ
azalea indicum macrantha pink
azalea viscosum
camellia japonica
rhododendron blue peter
rhododendron elizabeth
rhododendron macabeanum
rhododendron peace
rhododendron pink pearl
rhododendron sappho
rhododendron yakushimanum
GREEN FOLIAGE
MAT-FORMING FORM
CUSHION OR MOUND-FORMING FORM
SPREADING OR CREEPING FORM
ERECT OR UPRIGHT FORM
ROUNDED OR SPHERICAL SHAPE
Azalea Camellia Rhododendron Gallery Introduction
Site Map for Azalea Rhododendron and Camellia Individual Plants

I have transplanted a 6 feet diameter rhododendron in flower from a garden to its neighbouring garden. I dug the hole first outside the drip-line of the trees alongside, inserted a wooden stake at 45 degrees and watered the hole. Using a spade I cut under the rootball of about 15 inches depth and its width to the drip-line before hauling it onto a tarpaulin. I tied the tarpaulin round the rootball and pulled it round. Having planted it, I tied the main trunk to the stake about 18 inches above ground to stop it rocking in the ground if wind became a problem. I soaked the rootball and covered it with a thin layer of grass mowings to keep the moisture in this mass of fibrous root rootball. The flowering then continued. Once a month, I topped up the thin mulch of grass-mowings and watered it as part of the fortnightly maintenance of my client's garden.

Note: The preparation of the hole and of its refilling material needs to be done before digging up the plant. There is about 30 minutes before the bare roots of any plant that you are planting or transplanting starts to suffer drought stress. I could not soak the rootball of the rhododendron before I moved it, since even I cannot lift or drag that extra amount of weight. It is worthwhile inserting any plant into a bucket of water for 15 minutes after lifting it and before planting it to ensure that the rootball has water all the way through it. If the plant is in peaty soil or just bought from a nursery with a peat-based compost mixture, then if any of the peat is dry; when water is applied it runs straight off it as if it was a non-stick pan and only soaking it will persuade some of the water to adhere to its peat surface.

Having purchased plants from Glendoick Gardens I found them to be excellent:-

The nursery of Glendoick Gardens Ltd
(Glendoick, Perth. PH2 7NS, Scotland.
Web https://www.glendoick.com and
Mail Order Nursery) was started in 1953 by Euan and his son Peter Cox V.M.H. (now the world's leading authority on rhododendrons).

Glendoick Nursery sells Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons, which can be collected from the Nursery or sent by them to you.

Ordering Plants: The nursery sends out plants between 10 October and 1 April ONLY, but orders/reservations may be made at any time. On April 1, all remaining stock is containerized for the Glendoick Garden Centre 0.5 miles away, where you can collect them.

Glendoick Gardens: The woodland gardens - next to the Nursery - feature one of the world's finest collections of rhododendrons and azaleas.
"Situated 1/2 mile behind the Glendoick Garden centre on the southern slopes of the Sidlaw Hills. Glendoick's Woodland Gardens are open in April and May from 10am to 4pm. Out of season you can visit by arrangement. Due to steep paths, steps and gravel, the gardens are not suitable for wheelchairs.
Glendoick was included in the Independent on Sunday's exclusive survey of Europe's Top 50 Gardens, and boasts a unique collection of plants collected by three generations of Coxes from their plant-hunting expeditions in China and the Himalaya.
You can see one of the finest collections of rhododendrons and azaleas, hydrangeas and bulbs in our woodland gardens.
Many of the Rhododendron and azalea species and hybrids have been introduced from the wild or bred by the Cox family and the gardens boast a huge range of plants from as far afield as Chile, Tasmania and Tibet.
Three waterfall viewing platforms have been built in the woodland gardens. 
Peter and Kenneth Cox have written numerous books on rhododendrons and gardens. Kenneth Cox's book Scotland for Gardeners describes 500 of Scotland's finest gardens.
To visit the gardens, buy tickets at the garden centre. It is 1/2 mile to the gardens so most visitors drive up and park at the drive side. Please close all gates behind you.

Glendoick Nursery is the only United Kingdom nursery to still grow most rhododendrons in the open ground because:-

  • it allows much better and quicker establisment of plants in the garden: container-grown plants are usually supplied in pots which are too small and the resultant plants are pot-bound. The roots cannot break out of the pot shape and establishment is poor. Pot-grown plants generally require more watering when planted and take longer to acclimatize to wind.
  • open ground plants are hardier and suffer less disease - mildew, phytophera etc - than those grown indoors in tunnels etc.
  • some varieties sush as Rhododendron souliei hate to be container-grown.

it allows easier packing and posting, together with cheaper postal charges.

 

Azalea and Rhododendron Cultivation Requirements:

The Expert Advice page on the www.glendoick.com website provides a concise summary of the summary of the salient points about how and what Rhododendrons and Azaleas to grow.

The many Cox books are probably the best source of in depth information about how to grow Rhododendrons and azaleas. But the fundamentals are pretty straightforward and this is a concise summary of the salient points from Glendoick Nursery:-

SITE & SOIL. Soil pH (acidity of soil) is ideally pH 4.5-6. Almost all soil in Scotland is acidic. If it is not, it may have been limed for growing vegetables etc. This is easily remedied by adding a percentage of peat into the soil. One alternative is to use sulphate of ammonia. (you can’t use much of this when plants are in situ as it will burn lvs, so it is best done a few months before planting.)

SOIL PREPARATION. Rhododendrons need an open soil mixture. Very heavy (clay) and very fine particles are not suitable. To render soil more open (i.e containing air pockets) organic matter is added: leafmould is the best. Alternatives are compost (own or bought), composted bark, conifer needles etc. There is no point in spending money on rhododendrons and azalea if you are not prepared to do some soil preparation. Improve the soil in an area much bigger than the rootball so there is room to grow. If drainage is good, then soil preparation need be less than 12” (30cm) deep. You do not need peat: it has no structure, no feed and no mulching value. It is useful as an acidifier and for containers.

CLAY SOIL. If you have heavy clay soil, the best thing to do is make up a bed on top of the clay soil with compost, bark, peat etc and plant into this. This is what we did in the Glendoick Garden Centre Pagoda garden.

DEPTH OF PLANTING. Rhododendrons must not be planted too deep. The rootball should be just below the surface and no more. If you bury the rootball, you will kill the plant.

PLANTING Make sure plant is well-watered before planting. For bare rooted stock, October to early April is the planting time. Container stock can be planted at any time but if planted May-August must be well watered in the first growing season. Soil must be firmed up around the roots but do not stamp on the rootball. This only compacts the soil and buries the plant

CONTAINERS: Evergreen azaleas, yak hybrids and compact hybrids are best subjects for containers. Tender scented varieties can be grown in conservatory and brought in to house in flower. Use ericaceous compost with added perlite. Rhododendrons do not like central heating and will die if kept as house plants whereas Indica Azaleas are of course perfect. Make sure you have good drainage and do not allow compost to get too dry. Feed and repot when plant becomes rootbound. Do not over pot.

SHADE: Rhododendrons will not grow and flower well under trees: the roots will take the moisture and the lack of light will make plants straggly and shy flowering. The worst trees are greedy ones such as Beech and Sycamore. The roots of the tree will reach as far as the dripline (where the branches extend to). So you should be able to look up and see sky. If you can’t, you have a problem. If you live in Scotland, ignore all books/advice which say shade or part shade. Maximum light = maximum number of flowers. Good trees to grow with rhododendrons: Maples, Japanese and others, Cherries, Sorbus, Conifers such as Larch and Spruce, Hawthorn, Eucryphia.

Plant dwarf rhododendrons and evergreen azaleas in full sun in Scotland. Deciduous azaleas, larger hybrids and species can take some shade.

DEADHEADING & PRUNING. This is largely a cosmetic exercise: only a few varieties produce seed at the expense of growth. Rhododendrons and azaleas to not require any regular pruning. All azaleas and small-leaved rhododendrons can be pruned. This is best done immediately after flowering. You can prune most other rhododendrons back to where there is a circle of leaves (and therefore growth buds). Single growth buds can be pinched out in Spring to encourage bushiness.

WHAT CAN I PLANT WITH MY RHODODENDRONS? Anything you like as long as it does not take all the moisture from the roots: so avoid greedy ground covers like heathers, grasses. In the wild rhododendrons grow with other Ericaceous plants such as Enkianthus, Kalmia (USA), Vaccineum, Gaultheria, Pieris, other shrubs such as Berberis, climbers such as Clematis, and perennials such as Aquilegia, Primulas, Meconopsis, Lilies, Rheum, Orchids, etc. For late summer colour, use Hydrangea, Eucryphia, (Sorbus and other berrying plants).

WIND & SHELTER Varieties with large leaves, early growth or which are on the tender side for your climate tender require shelter from wind, particularly from south westerlies and north easterlies. If you have no shelter there are several options. 1. Plant a shelter belt of vigorous trees and shrubs. 2. Use rokolene or similar material to help plants establish. 3. Plant hardy wind-tolerant rhododendron varieties on the windward side and less hardy varieties inside these.

FEEDING Rhododendrons & azaleas do not need much feeding. If they look healthy and flower well, don’t bother. If you are in a hurry or plants look yellow or sparse, you can feed with almost any fertiliser but beware of high nitrogen mixes as they can burn foliage. A small handful (granular) around the roots of each plant in early May and late June should be enough. Don’t fertilise later as it encourages soft growth at the expense of flower buds. You can also use liquid feed. We don’t use sequestrene: it is not required unless there is iron deficiency.

CAN I PROPAGATE MY RHODODENDRONS AND AZALEAS?
Dwarf rhododendrons & evergreen azaleas are quite easily rooted in a propagator. With heat rooting will be quicker. In a cold frame rooting may take up to 6 months or more. Deciduous azaleas, hardy hybrids and species are difficult. Some need to be grafted. Don’t waste time with seed unless it has been control-pollinated, otherwise it will be hybridised.

HARDINESS Measured in our catalogue as H1-5. H1 for frost free/greenhouse, to H5 the hardiest.

H5. Hardy hybrids, some species & dwarfs, yak hybrids and most evergreen and deciduous azaleas. H5 areas tend to be well inland and tend to suffer late (and early Autumn) frosts, so choose most varieties which flower in mid May-June to avoid damage to flowers.

H4 Glendoick, Perth, Dundee, Coastal Fife, Edinburgh etc, not too far from the sea or with plenty of shelter inland: woodland garden, or on slope with good frost drainage. Lots of hybrids and species are H4.

H3. Glendoick in sheltered woodland site. Some protection from trees, or on a south or west wall. May suffer damage in severe winters or bark split from late frosts. Many big leaved species are H3.

H2. Indoors on east coast, fine outdoors in Argyll and similar mild climates. Scented Maddenii species for conservatory/greenhouse.

H1 Indoors (frost free) only. This is for the Vireyas.

 

MOST COMMON RHODODENDRON PROBLEMS

Why has my rhododendron got yellow leaves?

  • drainage is poor: solution: lift plant and improve soil structure (see soil preparation) or move to better drained spot.
  • plant is starved. Apply fertiliser May to Late June. (see under feeding)
  • soil is too alkaline (unlikely in Scotland) apply sulphate of Ammonia and plant with plenty of peat. Water with rain water, not tap water.

Why has it got crinkly leaves?

  • This can be caused by late Spring or early Autumn frosts or sap sucking insects.

I have spots on the leaves. What causes it?

  • mildew: pale spots on upper leaf surface, brown/grey patches underneath: use fungicide. (Any rose fungicide will do: systhane, fungus fighter, roseclear etc.)
  • rust black spots on upper surface, lower surface with orange patches: use fungicide
  • black spots with no patches on leaf undersurface: some varieties eg Mrs GW Leak suffer from this; it is nothing to worry about and is not a disease.

Why does my rhododendron not flower?

  • if flower buds are formed and then turn brown, cause is usually frost. To avoid frosted buds, protect opening buds with fleece or plant later flowering varieties. Esp. azaleas. There is also a disease: bud blast fungus which is characterised by black bristles on the dead buds)
  • if flower buds do not form (flower buds are fatter than growth buds):
  • some varieties, especially species, take many years to flower.
  • if planted in too much shade, will not flower well: move to sunnier spot.
  • fertiliser applied after late June: this encourages leaves, not flowers.

Why has my rhododendron died?

  • drainage/depth of planting: soil too heavy or compacted or rhododendron planted too deep. Dark brown dead roots = phytopthora caused by poor drainage. Some varieties require really sharp drainage. Larger yellow hybrid rhododendrons require particularly good drainage.
  • vine weevils? Examine the stem at ground level. Vine weevils tend to girdle the stem, eating off the bark. They can also eat the roots.
  • honey fungus (roots are full of black bootlaces with white core) comes from old treestumps.
  • the variety may not hardy enough? Check the hardiness rating and look for signs of bark split.

Why have my old rhododendrons reverted to ponticum (wild rhododendron)?

  • This is because prior to 1950 all were grafted onto R. ponticum which sends up numerous suckers. If these are not cut or broken off, the R. ponticum will eventually take over. No Glendoick rhododendrons are or have been grafted onto R. ponticum For the few varieties we graft, rootstocks which throw few suckers are used.

Can I grow rhododendrons without peat?

  • Yes you can, though I would not recommend growing in containers without a percentage of peat added. At Glendoick in our nursery cultivation we use very little peat. We prepare soil by adding a mix of organic matter including composted bark, needles, leaf-mould and topsoil which encourages rhododendrons to produce very healthy root-systems. Peat is an acid, moisture-retentive substance and is cheap. But it is certainly not a requirement for happy, healthy rhododendrons.

 

CHOOSING VARIETIES FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES

EASY DWARFS: To 2ft Curlew, Crane, Dora Amateis, fastigiatum, Intrifast, calostrotum ssp. keleticum, Patty Bee, Ptarmigan, Ramapo, Scarlet Wonder.

EASY SEMI-DWARFS & 'YAKS': 3-4ft Bruce Brechtbill, Elisabeth Hobbie, Fantastica, Linda, Percy Wiseman, Praecox, Unique.

EARLY-FLOWERING: Nobleanum, dauricum Midwinter, Christmas Cheer. The following have frost-hardy flowers or buds: lapponicum, Ptarmigan, hippophaeoides, Blue Silver, anwheiense.

LATE-FLOWERING: hemsleyanum, Polar Bear, Azaleas: occidentale, nakaharae, Lemon Drop, Sparkler, Racoon.

BEST FOLIAGE: colour & leaf shape: Graziela, roxieanum, (narrow leaves), Elizabeth Red Foliage (red new growth), lepidostylum, campanulatum ssp. aeruginosum, pronum (blue leaves), Ever Red, Wine & Roses, (red leaves) Bluecalypytus (blue leaves)

BEST FOLIAGE: indumentum: bureavii, pachysanthum, rex, Golfer, Ken Janeck, Viking Silver, yakushimanum, falconeri ssp. eximeum.

BEST WHITE: decorum, Crane, Alena, Cunningham's White, Loderi (with shelter), Lucy Lou, Dora Amateis, Ptarmigan, Glendoick® Glacier, Panda (azaleas)

BEST PINK: Christmas Cheer, dendrocharis, orbiculare, Linda, Pintail, Fantastica, Canzonetta (azalea).

BEST YELLOW Dwarf/semi dwarf: Curlew, Chiff Chaff, Patty Bee, Swift, Loch Earn.

BEST YELLOW LARGER: campylocarpum, wardii, Goldkrone, Nancy Evans, luteum, Klondyke, Lemon Drop. (dec. azaleas) Note: larger yellow rhododendrons need perfect drainage. Add grit or coarse bark or plant on top of rather than in heavy soil.

BEST RED: Dopey, Elisabeth Hobbie, Erato, Grace Seabrook or Taurus, Jean Marie de Montague, Vulcan. Evergreen azaleas: Squirrel, Glendoick Crimson, Glendoick Garnet, Racoon.

BEST BLUE-PURPLE dwarf: fastigiatum, calostrotum ssp. keleticum, russatum, augustinii, Night Sky, Penheale Blue.

BEST DEEP PURPLE, Azurro, Glendoick TM Velvet.

BEST ORANGE: citriniflorum Horaeum orange, cinnabarinum Concatenans, Fabia, September Song, Sonata, calendulaceum, Gibraltar (azaleas). The only true orange is in the azaleas.

BEST EXOTIC MULTICOLOUR: Lem’s Cameo, Jingle Bells, Naselle, Many vars of Vireya (indoor) species & hybrids.

SCENTED +/- hardy: decorum, fortunei, glanduliferum, hemsleyanum, Loderi, Tinkerbird, Polar Bear. Deciduous azaleas: arborescens, atlanticum, luteum, occidentale, Lemon Drop, Exquisita, Irene Koster, Rosata. Mild gardens or conservatory: edgeworthii, formosum, 'Lady Alice Fitzwilliam'.

NEUTRAL OR SLIGHTLY ALKALINE SOIL: decorum, hirsutum, rubiginosum, vernicosum, Cunningham's White.

COLD/EXPOSED SITES, Cunninghams's White, Fastuosum Flore Pleno, Gomer Waterer, Azurro, Goldflimmer. Hardy deciduous azaleas such as exbury hybrids.

In this economic climate of 2006-2013, I can fully understand why mail-order nurseries throughout the world are unwilling to receive free advertising of their plants through the sharing of photos and growing details to the home-owner, but being an idiot in 2023:-

I am requesting since January 2007 the donation of the following colour photographs of plants for display in this section:-

  • Flower - to show the shape and colour of the whole flower.
  • Foliage - to show the shape of the leaf and its colour. If its colour changes in the year, then a picture of each changed colour.
  • Form - to show the natural shape/growth habit of the whole plant. If the plant is deciduous, then one with foliage and one without.
  • Fruit - to show the shape and colour of the whole fruit/nut/seed produced after it has flowered.
  • Flower Bed - to show the overall effect of a group of plants together, preferably with the names of each of the plants displayed.

Each main photograph will be displayed in a 150 x 150 pixels graphic item. Each thumbnail photograph will be displayed in 50 x 50 pixels graphic item. Freeway allocates 72 pixels per inch. The photographs require to be in JPEG Format and send to Chris Garnons-Williams at 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, Moor Street, Rainham, Kent, ME8 8QE England.

Please give the Latin name of the plant and your contact details (It would be preferable that it is either your website or email address rather than your phone number). These will then appear with the relevant photograph. If you happen to be a Nursery, then this link could provide a means for people getting that plant; that they require.

 


Topic

Case Studies
Companion Planting
Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
Soil
Tool Shed
Useful Data

........

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries


Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods


Rhododendron *


Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

......

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour Colour Wheel Galleries
Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours

All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further

All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

......

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

.......

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK, covering 435,000 ha, gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats. And, with a bit of planning and a few tweaks, they can indeed be wonderful places for a whole host of creatures, from birds to bees, butterflies, frogs and toads, as well as many less obvious creatures. Wildlife-friendly gardens can be beautiful too, and a colourful garden full of life can lift the spirits and give immense pleasure, and can also help to connect people, both young and old, with our wonderful wildlife.
The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden

• Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract.
• Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
• Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
• Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures.
• Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
• Feed the Birds And other creatures too.
• Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
• Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden. Follow the links below to explore our show gardens, and when you visit, be sure to pick up a copy of our Wildlife Gardening Trail guide

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden

 

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-
"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

 

 

Flack Family Farm:-
", in the Vermont hills, is a biodynamic farm using organic practices. Natural minerals and planned grazing with American Milking Devon cattle rejuvenate the soil, sequester carbon and yield nutrient dense foods and medicines including milk, grass fed meats, eggs, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut and kimchi / kim-chi), and herbal tinctures. We offer educational opportunities, farm visits, and seminars on nutrition, growing and preparing nutrient dense food, diversified farming and fermentation.
AMERICAN MILKING DEVON, breeding stock, semen (shipped directly to you), bulls, bred cows, exclusively grass fed beef.
GRASS-FED BEEF and PORK are raised naturally on pasture and sold in farm shop and through bulk order.
LACTO-FERMENTED VEGETABLES, traditional foods are produced on farm and sold in Vermont natural food stores and in farm shop (no mail order). Workshops on the lacto-fermentation process available.
MEDICINAL HERBS are propagated, harvested and tinctured. For herbal list, which includes Motherwort above.
FARM FRESH RAW MILK available on farm, call to get on schedule. We do not feed grain. We test our cows for several milk quality components, details available on request.
EDUCATION THROUGH HANDS-ON LEARNING, DISCUSSIONS, AND PRACTICE are the core of farm life. Doug Flack and farm family share their knowledge through farm work opportunities, classes and farm tours. Raw Milk Theater
THE FARM IS SEASONAL IN NATURE. Grazing, milking, birthing, planting and harvesting take place from March - November."

 

 

Edible Plants Club website
"has been created largely from the point of view of a plantsman interested in the many different resources available in the plant world, especially edible and medicinal plants.
What started me off on this path was reading Robert Harts book Forest Gardening and then Ken Fearns Plants for a Future and also Richard Mabeys 'Food For Free' along the way. This also led to me to change my career and become a gardener."

'Sort out your soil' - A practical guide to Green Manures, and Frequently Asked Questions from the Receptionist Myrtle of Cotswold Grass Seeds.

Saltmarsh Management Manual from the Environment Agency informs you about:-

  • What is Saltmarsh,
  •  
  • Why manage Saltmarsh and
  •  
  • Saltmarsh Management
     

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 


Bees under Bombardment
from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.

"In mid summer, our gardens awash with colourful seas of showy blooms, may appear to be a haven for bees. Over the last few decades there has been a garden centre boom in cheap and cheerful bedding plants or cultivars which produce ever more stunning flowers. The trouble is that many of them are of little or no use to honey-bees or bumblebees. Double blooms and many cultivars contain neither pollen nor nectar. Their sole purpose seems to be for us, for that glance across a splash of colour whilst we sip a cool summer drink.

Outside our cities and gardens the situation is not much better; there has been a staggering decline in flower-rich hay meadows, wild spaces and wildflower leys. About 97% of our original flower-rich habitats have been lost in the past 60 years. And with these, fast disappearing from our landscapes, are flowering plants which have evolved over millennia alongside bees and in perfect symbiosis with them. These provide bees with the absolute ideal in terms of pollen, nectar and propolis, with different species flowering in succession throughout the year.

Add to this, bees have their fair share of parasites and diseases; and for a final blow, a new generation of insecticides originally developed in the 1990’s to protect fruit trees from aphid attack are, ironically, apparently harming bees. There is science-based evidence coming out of France which proves that many pesticides, in sub-lethal doses, are harmful to bees.


Bees urgently need our help!

Luckily there is much we can do: Think of bees when you garden. This is so easy because many of bees’ favourite plants are also culinary or medicinal herbs, wildflowers or fruits of every kind. Most of them are unadulterated species plants. These don’t just look good, they do us and the bees good too. We can provide many of these kinds of herbaceous perennials, shrubs and trees. The bees’ favourites are our priority

Checklist for Plants for Bees

There are a just a few keys points to remember when choosing plants for bees:

• Approved by bees - Anecdotal evidence has been collected from all over the world, from many people, beekeepers, entomologists, wildlife enthusiasts and gardeners who have observed bees' foraging preferences. We are also planning scientific field studies for 2012 to confirm which garden plants do prove the most popular with our bees.

• 100% safe for bees - Plants that are grown without the use of pesticides (especially neonicotinoids such as 'Clothianidin', 'Imidacloprid', 'Thiacloprid' or 'Acetamiprid') or other chemicals that may harm bees. Organic (or Biodynamic) plants are 100% safe for bees.

• Species plants - You can't go wrong with natural, 'species' plants that have evolved with bees over millennia. Many artificially bred cultivers or clones, are sterile and often do not produce nectar (for example, the nectaries having been bred into extra petals). Though most fruit cultivars are fine.

• Produces plenty of nectar or pollen - Some of the bees' favourite plants produce greater quantities of pollen or nectar than others - that is the kind of information we will try to include in our plant descriptions - especially after the scientific studies being carried out in our bee sancturay have concluded in 2012.

• Flowers throughout the times of greatest need - There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed: Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen); All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens."

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

Azalea, Camellia or Rhododendron INDEX link to Plant Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower

Flowering Months

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Foliage

Azalea indicum 'Macrantha Pink'

Deep Pink

cazaleaflotmacranthapink

May, June

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

cazaleafoltmacranthapink

Azalea viscosum

White with Pinkish-tinge

azaleaflotviscosum1

July, August

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

azaleafoltviscosum

Camellia japonica

Red

camelliajaponicaflott

April

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

cameliajaponicafolt9

Rhododendron 'Blue Peter'

Light Lavender

crhododendronflotbluepeter

June

60 x 72
(150 x 180)

crhododendronfoltbluepeter

Rhododendron 'Elizabeth'

Red

crhododendronflotelizabeth

April, May

48 x 48
(120 x 120)

RhodoElizabeth

Rhododendron macabeanum

Yellow

rhododendronflotmacabeanum

March, April

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

rhododendronfoltmacabeanum

Rhododendron 'Peace'

Creamy-White

rhododendronflotpeace

April

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

rhododendronfoltpeace

Rhododendron 'Pink Pearl'

Soft Pink

rhododendronflotpinkpearl1

May, June

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

rhododendronfoltpinkpearl

Rhododendron 'Sappho'

White

rhododendronflotsappho1

June

84 x 84
(210 x 210)

rhododendronfoltsappho

Rhododendron yakushimanum

White

rhododendronflotyakushimanum

May, June

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

rhododendronfoltyakushimanum

 

I have transplanted a 6 feet diameter rhododendron in flower from a garden to its neighbouring garden. I dug the hole first outside the drip-line of the trees alongside, inserted a wooden stake at 45 degrees and watered the hole. Using a spade I cut under the rootball of about 15 inches depth and its width to the drip-line before hauling it onto a tarpaulin. I tied the tarpaulin round the rootball and pulled it round. Having planted it, I tied the main trunk to the stake about 18 inches above ground to stop it rocking in the ground if wind became a problem. I soaked the rootball and covered it with a thin layer of grass mowings to keep the moisture in this mass of fibrous root rootball. The flowering then continued. Once a month, I topped up the thin mulch of grass-mowings and watered it as part of the fortnightly maintenance of my client's garden.

---------

Note: The preparation of the hole and of its refilling material needs to be done before digging up the plant. There is about 30 minutes before the bare roots of any plant that you are planting or transplanting starts to suffer drought stress. I could not soak the rootball of the rhododendron before I moved it, since even I cannot lift or drag that extra amount of weight. It is worthwhile inserting any plant into a bucket of water for 15 minutes after lifting it and before planting it to ensure that the rootball has water all the way through it. If the plant is in peaty soil or just bought from a nursery with a peat-based compost mixture, then if any of the peat is dry; when water is applied it runs straight off it as if it was a non-stick pan and only soaking it will persuade some of the water to adhere to its peat surface.

Having purchased plants from Glendoick Gardens I found them to be excellent:-

The nursery of Glendoick Gardens Ltd
(Glendoick, Perth. PH2 7NS, Scotland.
Web https://www.glendoick.com and
Mail Order Nursery) was started in 1953 by Euan and his son Peter Cox V.M.H. (now the world's leading authority on rhododendrons).

Glendoick Nursery sells Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons, which can be collected from the Nursery or sent by them to you.

Ordering Plants: The nursery sends out plants between 10 October and 1 April ONLY, but orders/reservations may be made at any time. On April 1, all remaining stock is containerized for the Glendoick Garden Centre 0.5 miles away, where you can collect them.

Glendoick Gardens: The woodland gardens - next to the Nursery - feature one of the world's finest collections of rhododendrons and azaleas.
"Situated 1/2 mile behind the Glendoick Garden centre on the southern slopes of the Sidlaw Hills. Glendoick's Woodland Gardens are open in April and May from 10am to 4pm. Out of season you can visit by arrangement. Due to steep paths, steps and gravel, the gardens are not suitable for wheelchairs.
Glendoick was included in the Independent on Sunday's exclusive survey of Europe's Top 50 Gardens, and boasts a unique collection of plants collected by three generations of Coxes from their plant-hunting expeditions in China and the Himalaya.
You can see one of the finest collections of rhododendrons and azaleas, hydrangeas and bulbs in our woodland gardens.
Many of the Rhododendron and azalea species and hybrids have been introduced from the wild or bred by the Cox family and the gardens boast a huge range of plants from as far afield as Chile, Tasmania and Tibet.
Three waterfall viewing platforms have been built in the woodland gardens. 
Peter and Kenneth Cox have written numerous books on rhododendrons and gardens. Kenneth Cox's book Scotland for Gardeners describes 500 of Scotland's finest gardens.
To visit the gardens, buy tickets at the garden centre. It is 1/2 mile to the gardens so most visitors drive up and park at the drive side. Please close all gates behind you.

Glendoick Nursery is the only United Kingdom nursery to still grow most rhododendrons in the open ground because:-

  • it allows much better and quicker establisment of plants in the garden: container-grown plants are usually supplied in pots which are too small and the resultant plants are pot-bound. The roots cannot break out of the pot shape and establishment is poor. Pot-grown plants generally require more watering when planted and take longer to acclimatize to wind.
  • open ground plants are hardier and suffer less disease - mildew, phytophera etc - than those grown indoors in tunnels etc.
  • some varieties sush as Rhododendron souliei hate to be container-grown.

it allows easier packing and posting, together with cheaper postal charges.

 

Azalea and Rhododendron Cultivation Requirements:

The Expert Advice page on the www.glendoick.com website provides a concise summary of the summary of the salient points about how and what Rhododendrons and Azaleas to grow.

The many Cox books are probably the best source of in depth information about how to grow Rhododendrons and azaleas. But the fundamentals are pretty straightforward and this is a concise summary of the salient points from Glendoick Nursery:-

SITE & SOIL. Soil pH (acidity of soil) is ideally pH 4.5-6. Almost all soil in Scotland is acidic. If it is not, it may have been limed for growing vegetables etc. This is easily remedied by adding a percentage of peat into the soil. One alternative is to use sulphate of ammonia. (you can’t use much of this when plants are in situ as it will burn lvs, so it is best done a few months before planting.)

SOIL PREPARATION. Rhododendrons need an open soil mixture. Very heavy (clay) and very fine particles are not suitable. To render soil more open (i.e containing air pockets) organic matter is added: leafmould is the best. Alternatives are compost (own or bought), composted bark, conifer needles etc. There is no point in spending money on rhododendrons and azalea if you are not prepared to do some soil preparation. Improve the soil in an area much bigger than the rootball so there is room to grow. If drainage is good, then soil preparation need be less than 12” (30cm) deep. You do not need peat: it has no structure, no feed and no mulching value. It is useful as an acidifier and for containers.

CLAY SOIL. If you have heavy clay soil, the best thing to do is make up a bed on top of the clay soil with compost, bark, peat etc and plant into this. This is what we did in the Glendoick Garden Centre Pagoda garden.

DEPTH OF PLANTING. Rhododendrons must not be planted too deep. The rootball should be just below the surface and no more. If you bury the rootball, you will kill the plant.

PLANTING Make sure plant is well-watered before planting. For bare rooted stock, October to early April is the planting time. Container stock can be planted at any time but if planted May-August must be well watered in the first growing season. Soil must be firmed up around the roots but do not stamp on the rootball. This only compacts the soil and buries the plant

CONTAINERS: Evergreen azaleas, yak hybrids and compact hybrids are best subjects for containers. Tender scented varieties can be grown in conservatory and brought in to house in flower. Use ericaceous compost with added perlite. Rhododendrons do not like central heating and will die if kept as house plants whereas Indica Azaleas are of course perfect. Make sure you have good drainage and do not allow compost to get too dry. Feed and repot when plant becomes rootbound. Do not over pot.

SHADE: Rhododendrons will not grow and flower well under trees: the roots will take the moisture and the lack of light will make plants straggly and shy flowering. The worst trees are greedy ones such as Beech and Sycamore. The roots of the tree will reach as far as the dripline (where the branches extend to). So you should be able to look up and see sky. If you can’t, you have a problem. If you live in Scotland, ignore all books/advice which say shade or part shade. Maximum light = maximum number of flowers. Good trees to grow with rhododendrons: Maples, Japanese and others, Cherries, Sorbus, Conifers such as Larch and Spruce, Hawthorn, Eucryphia.

Plant dwarf rhododendrons and evergreen azaleas in full sun in Scotland. Deciduous azaleas, larger hybrids and species can take some shade.

DEADHEADING & PRUNING. This is largely a cosmetic exercise: only a few varieties produce seed at the expense of growth. Rhododendrons and azaleas to not require any regular pruning. All azaleas and small-leaved rhododendrons can be pruned. This is best done immediately after flowering. You can prune most other rhododendrons back to where there is a circle of leaves (and therefore growth buds). Single growth buds can be pinched out in Spring to encourage bushiness.

WHAT CAN I PLANT WITH MY RHODODENDRONS? Anything you like as long as it does not take all the moisture from the roots: so avoid greedy ground covers like heathers, grasses. In the wild rhododendrons grow with other Ericaceous plants such as Enkianthus, Kalmia (USA), Vaccineum, Gaultheria, Pieris, other shrubs such as Berberis, climbers such as Clematis, and perennials such as Aquilegia, Primulas, Meconopsis, Lilies, Rheum, Orchids, etc. For late summer colour, use Hydrangea, Eucryphia, (Sorbus and other berrying plants).
My comments:-

WIND & SHELTER Varieties with large leaves, early growth or which are on the tender side for your climate tender require shelter from wind, particularly from south westerlies and north easterlies. If you have no shelter there are several options. 1. Plant a shelter belt of vigorous trees and shrubs. 2. Use rokolene or similar material to help plants establish. 3. Plant hardy wind-tolerant rhododendron varieties on the windward side and less hardy varieties inside these.

FEEDING Rhododendrons & azaleas do not need much feeding. If they look healthy and flower well, don’t bother. If you are in a hurry or plants look yellow or sparse, you can feed with almost any fertiliser but beware of high nitrogen mixes as they can burn foliage. A small handful (granular) around the roots of each plant in early May and late June should be enough. Don’t fertilise later as it encourages soft growth at the expense of flower buds. You can also use liquid feed. We don’t use sequestrene: it is not required unless there is iron deficiency.

CAN I PROPAGATE MY RHODODENDRONS AND AZALEAS?
Dwarf rhododendrons & evergreen azaleas are quite easily rooted in a propagator. With heat rooting will be quicker. In a cold frame rooting may take up to 6 months or more. Deciduous azaleas, hardy hybrids and species are difficult. Some need to be grafted. Don’t waste time with seed unless it has been control-pollinated, otherwise it will be hybridised.

HARDINESS Measured in our catalogue as H1-5. H1 for frost free/greenhouse, to H5 the hardiest.

H5. Hardy hybrids, some species & dwarfs, yak hybrids and most evergreen and deciduous azaleas. H5 areas tend to be well inland and tend to suffer late (and early Autumn) frosts, so choose most varieties which flower in mid May-June to avoid damage to flowers.

H4 Glendoick, Perth, Dundee, Coastal Fife, Edinburgh etc, not too far from the sea or with plenty of shelter inland: woodland garden, or on slope with good frost drainage. Lots of hybrids and species are H4.

H3. Glendoick in sheltered woodland site. Some protection from trees, or on a south or west wall. May suffer damage in severe winters or bark split from late frosts. Many big leaved species are H3.

H2. Indoors on east coast, fine outdoors in Argyll and similar mild climates. Scented Maddenii species for conservatory/greenhouse.

H1 Indoors (frost free) only. This is for the Vireyas.

 

MOST COMMON RHODODENDRON PROBLEMS

Why has my rhododendron got yellow leaves?

  • drainage is poor: solution: lift plant and improve soil structure (see soil preparation) or move to better drained spot.
  • plant is starved. Apply fertiliser May to Late June. (see under feeding)
  • soil is too alkaline (unlikely in Scotland) apply sulphate of Ammonia and plant with plenty of peat. Water with rain water, not tap water.

Why has it got crinkly leaves?

  • This can be caused by late Spring or early Autumn frosts or sap sucking insects.

I have spots on the leaves. What causes it?

  • mildew: pale spots on upper leaf surface, brown/grey patches underneath: use fungicide. (Any rose fungicide will do: systhane, fungus fighter, roseclear etc.)
  • rust black spots on upper surface, lower surface with orange patches: use fungicide
  • black spots with no patches on leaf undersurface: some varieties eg Mrs GW Leak suffer from this; it is nothing to worry about and is not a disease.

Why does my rhododendron not flower?

  • if flower buds are formed and then turn brown, cause is usually frost. To avoid frosted buds, protect opening buds with fleece or plant later flowering varieties. Esp. azaleas. There is also a disease: bud blast fungus which is characterised by black bristles on the dead buds)
  • if flower buds do not form (flower buds are fatter than growth buds):
  • some varieties, especially species, take many years to flower.
  • if planted in too much shade, will not flower well: move to sunnier spot.
  • fertiliser applied after late June: this encourages leaves, not flowers.

Why has my rhododendron died?

  • drainage/depth of planting: soil too heavy or compacted or rhododendron planted too deep. Dark brown dead roots = phytopthora caused by poor drainage. Some varieties require really sharp drainage. Larger yellow hybrid rhododendrons require particularly good drainage.
  • vine weevils? Examine the stem at ground level. Vine weevils tend to girdle the stem, eating off the bark. They can also eat the roots.
  • honey fungus (roots are full of black bootlaces with white core) comes from old treestumps.
  • the variety may not hardy enough? Check the hardiness rating and look for signs of bark split.

Why have my old rhododendrons reverted to ponticum (wild rhododendron)?

  • This is because prior to 1950 all were grafted onto R. ponticum which sends up numerous suckers. If these are not cut or broken off, the R. ponticum will eventually take over. No Glendoick rhododendrons are or have been grafted onto R. ponticum For the few varieties we graft, rootstocks which throw few suckers are used.

Can I grow rhododendrons without peat?

  • Yes you can, though I would not recommend growing in containers without a percentage of peat added. At Glendoick in our nursery cultivation we use very little peat. We prepare soil by adding a mix of organic matter including composted bark, needles, leaf-mould and topsoil which encourages rhododendrons to produce very healthy root-systems. Peat is an acid, moisture-retentive substance and is cheap. But it is certainly not a requirement for happy, healthy rhododendrons.

 

CHOOSING VARIETIES FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES

EASY DWARFS: To 2ft Curlew, Crane, Dora Amateis, fastigiatum, Intrifast, calostrotum ssp. keleticum, Patty Bee, Ptarmigan, Ramapo, Scarlet Wonder.

EASY SEMI-DWARFS & 'YAKS': 3-4ft Bruce Brechtbill, Elisabeth Hobbie, Fantastica, Linda, Percy Wiseman, Praecox, Unique.

EARLY-FLOWERING: Nobleanum, dauricum Midwinter, Christmas Cheer. The following have frost-hardy flowers or buds: lapponicum, Ptarmigan, hippophaeoides, Blue Silver, anwheiense.

LATE-FLOWERING: hemsleyanum, Polar Bear, Azaleas: occidentale, nakaharae, Lemon Drop, Sparkler, Racoon.

BEST FOLIAGE: colour & leaf shape: Graziela, roxieanum, (narrow leaves), Elizabeth Red Foliage (red new growth), lepidostylum, campanulatum ssp. aeruginosum, pronum (blue leaves), Ever Red, Wine & Roses, (red leaves) Bluecalypytus (blue leaves)

BEST FOLIAGE: indumentum: bureavii, pachysanthum, rex, Golfer, Ken Janeck, Viking Silver, yakushimanum, falconeri ssp. eximeum.

BEST WHITE: decorum, Crane, Alena, Cunningham's White, Loderi (with shelter), Lucy Lou, Dora Amateis, Ptarmigan, Glendoick® Glacier, Panda (azaleas)

BEST PINK: Christmas Cheer, dendrocharis, orbiculare, Linda, Pintail, Fantastica, Canzonetta (azalea).

BEST YELLOW Dwarf/semi dwarf: Curlew, Chiff Chaff, Patty Bee, Swift, Loch Earn.

BEST YELLOW LARGER: campylocarpum, wardii, Goldkrone, Nancy Evans, luteum, Klondyke, Lemon Drop. (dec. azaleas) Note: larger yellow rhododendrons need perfect drainage. Add grit or coarse bark or plant on top of rather than in heavy soil.

BEST RED: Dopey, Elisabeth Hobbie, Erato, Grace Seabrook or Taurus, Jean Marie de Montague, Vulcan. Evergreen azaleas: Squirrel, Glendoick Crimson, Glendoick Garnet, Racoon.

BEST BLUE-PURPLE dwarf: fastigiatum, calostrotum ssp. keleticum, russatum, augustinii, Night Sky, Penheale Blue.

BEST DEEP PURPLE, Azurro, Glendoick TM Velvet.

BEST ORANGE: citriniflorum Horaeum orange, cinnabarinum Concatenans, Fabia, September Song, Sonata, calendulaceum, Gibraltar (azaleas). The only true orange is in the azaleas.

BEST EXOTIC MULTICOLOUR: Lem’s Cameo, Jingle Bells, Naselle, Many vars of Vireya (indoor) species & hybrids.

SCENTED +/- hardy: decorum, fortunei, glanduliferum, hemsleyanum, Loderi, Tinkerbird, Polar Bear. Deciduous azaleas: arborescens, atlanticum, luteum, occidentale, Lemon Drop, Exquisita, Irene Koster, Rosata. Mild gardens or conservatory: edgeworthii, formosum, 'Lady Alice Fitzwilliam'.

NEUTRAL OR SLIGHTLY ALKALINE SOIL: decorum, hirsutum, rubiginosum, vernicosum, Cunningham's White.

COLD/EXPOSED SITES, Cunninghams's White, Fastuosum Flore Pleno, Gomer Waterer, Azurro, Goldflimmer. Hardy deciduous azaleas such as exbury hybrids.

References:-

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2007. Page structure amended November 2012. Index structure changed and links from thumbnail to another new page changed from adding that new page to changing page to that new page November 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

 

 

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in this gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

The following Extra Index of Rhododendron, Azalea and Camellia is created in this Gallery, to which the Rhododendron, Azalea and Camellia found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its Rhododendron, Azalea and Camellia flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in this gallery.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

AZALEA, CAMELLIA AND RHODODENDRON GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction

Extra Rhododendron, Azalea and Camellia Index is explained in the bottom row of the next table on the right
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)2 or More Colours
Orange
(o)Other Colours
(o)Pink
(o)Red
(o)White
(o)Yellow

LEAF COLOUR
Black
Blue
Brown
Bronze
(o)Green
Grey
Purple
Red
Silver
Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
White
Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

FORM
(o)Mat-forming
Prostrate
(o)Mound-forming
(o)Spreading
Clump-forming
(o)Upright
Climbing
Arching

SHAPE
Columnar
Oval
(o)Rounded
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shaped
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shaped
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping

FRUIT COLOUR
Fruit

BED PICTURES
Garden

 

Just to make sure that you realise that Ferns do not have flowers, I have inserted the info below to show you that when describing a flower not all descriptions are valid throughout the life from bud to death as can be seen below for a rose.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Copied from
Ivydene Gardens Fern Plants Gallery:
Fern Culture
from Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S. Published by John Heywood in Manchester in May, 1892
 

"The aim of the author has been to give simple and clear instructions - avoiding, as far as possible, technical phraseology - and to supply all necessary information, interspersing here and there such remarks as it is hoped may add to the interest and benefit of perusal.
It is not intended for the book to count as a botanical or scientific production, but simply as a practical guide.
The various subjects are necessarily treated briefly, but as the information given is the result of 25 year's experience in the cultivation of Ferns, and in the daily study of their requirements, the writer trusts that the remarks, though brief, may prove lucid enough even for the most inexperienced amateur to understand and profit by.
John Birkenhead. Sale, May, 1892"
from the Preface of the above book.
 

 

Rules for Fern Culture
These may be summarised thus:

  • The right kind of soil must be provided;
  • the plants must be potted or planted in a proper manner;
  • they must be watered carefully;
  • they must be kept at a certain temperature during winter and summer, according to that of the places of which they are natives;
  • they should have a moist, quiet atmosphere, free from either cold draughts or currents of hot dry air;
  • and they must have sufficient light at all times, with protection from scorching sun during summer.

 

Section 1 - Modes of Growth
Most tropical ferns are evergreen. The fronds of one season are retained until others are produced the following season, and in some instance fronds remain green on the plants for a number of years. There are a few tropical species which are deciduous - that it, they lose their foliage at a given time, and remain without for a longer or shorter period - but it is among the species of colder climates that the deciduous kinds are most numerous. These, during their period of rest, must not be neglected. It is sometimes thought, by inexperienced cultivators, that when ferns have lost their foliage they may be put on one side and left without water for weeks. Thus they become dust dry, the roots are injured if not killed outright, and the plants cannot possibly make the vigorous growth the following season that they would if they had been kept continually damp. Those which have lost their foliage should be supplied with water enough to keep them always moist.

All ferns consist of 3 distinct parts, viz.

  • roots,
  • stem, and
  • foliage.

 

Roots
It may seem unnecessary to many to draw attention to this fact, but among those who have not given much thought to the matter the roots and the stems are often confused. Roots are the thin, wiry-looking fibres produced from the stem which hold the plant in its place, whether in the soil, on rocks, trees, or elsewhere, and they are also the food-seekers of the plant. They spread about, creeping into crannies and chinks, their peculiarly-pointed tips inserting themselves in the interstices of the soil, rock, bark of trees, or wherever they may be growing.
aspleniumadiantumnigrumpplatewikimediacommons

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum.
Plate from book.
Date 1857.
Source The ferns of Great Britain and Ireland.
By Thomas Moore ;
edited by John Lindley ; nature-printed by
Henry Bradbury, via Wikimedia Commons.


(showing fibrous roots, stem and fronds).

 

By means of numerous fine, hair-like organs with mouths they take up moisture and other elements within their reach which are suitable for them. The crude matter thus taken up passes in the form of sap through the stems and into the foliage, where, being acted upon by the light, it is digested and prepared for assimilation by the plant.

 

Stems
Stems are of various characters, specified by the names

  • caudex - the trunk of a tree fern,
  • rhizome - a modified underground stem from which the fronds are produced - and
  • stolon or sarmentum - horizontal elongated stem rooting at the nodes

Caudex

dicksoniaexternapforwikimediacommonsThe foliage of the "Lady Fern" (Athyrium filix-femina) and the "Male Fern" springs from a central crown. This crown is the top of the caudex or stem, which slowly increases in thickness and length year by year. In these Ferns the stems are of upright growth, and occasionally rise above the ground a few inches.

Dicksonia externa.
Conservatoire botanique national de Brest
August 2012
By
Citron / CC-BY-SA-3.0
via Wikimedia Commons.  

 

Other species - Lomaria gibba, for instance - attain a height of 24 inches (60 cm) or more, producing at the top a head of spreading fronds. These are miniature tree-ferns, but Dicksonias, Alsophilas, Cyatheas, and other genera, frequently rise to a height of 50 feet = 600 inches = 1500 cms, producing immense heads of fronds, 20-30 feet - 240-360 inches = 600-900 cms across. These are gigantic specimens - veritable Tree-ferns.

 

Some species have a creeping, sideways habit of growth, and thus slowly change their position; but they still belong to the section whose stems are each styled a caudex.

Rhizome
davalliacanariensispforwikimediacommons

The next division may be represented by the "Squirrel's Foot", or "Hare's Foot" Ferns. These belong to the genus Davallia. The "feet", as they are commonly called, are often taken to be roots. This, however, is a mistake; they are not roots, but stems, botanically known as rhizomes. They correspong to the stem of Tree-ferns, so conspicuous in their majestic height. The roots are produced underneath these creeping stems, and the fronds from their sides or tops.

Español: Davallia canariensis. Detalle del hábito. Ejemplar cultivado.
Davallia canariensis. Cultivated, UK. May 2006.
By
No machine-readable author provided. MPF assumed (based on copyright claims).
via Wikimedia Commons.

By these stems the Ferns travel over large spaces, spreading in all directions, and producing large quantities of foliage. Not only do they creep over the level ground, but over stones, up moist rocks, stems and branches of trees; and thus they completely clothe with their beautiful foliage spaces which otherwise be blank and unsightly. The rhizomes of some species of Hymenophyllum are like thin black thread, delicate and easily injured.

The rhizomes of others, such as the Gleichenias, are thicker, stronger, and very wiry, spreading in their native homes to such an extent that they cover acres of ground. Others are much thicker and slower in growth, their peculiar appearance giving rise to many common names, as, for instance, the "Bears Paw" fern (Aglaomorpha Meyeniana).

Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Davallia solidavar. fejeensis (Hook.) Noot., Fiji davallia, Lacy hare's-foo Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Davalliaceae > Davallia > Davallia solida fejeensis.
Date 30 march 2006.
By David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons

(showing creeping rhizomes, with a mature frond and several juvenile fronds)

davalliasolidavarfejeensispforwikimediacommonsThe rhizomes of this species are covered thickly by a light brown, woolly-looking substance. When they divide into 3 or 4 side growths, their appearance warrants the application of the common name.

 

These creeping stems are not all above ground; some species produce them underground, often like dark-coloured twine, as in the Oak Fern (Polypodium dryopteris) and the Beech Fern (Polypodium phegopteris). They work their way along, creeping between stones and other obstructions, and send up their delicate-looking foliage in profusion. These underground stems produce roots below and fronds above, just as those do which are above ground. If the growing points of those stems are broken off or injured, the growth is at once checked, and some kinds are a long time before they make a fresh start.

Stolon or sarmentum
There is another kind of stem called a sarmentum or stolon, which is produced from the caudex of certain species.

 

 

nephrolepiscordifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

 

The Nephrolepis are conspicuous examples of this mode of growth. From the plant rooted in a particular spot, numbers of this cord-like growth are produced, and spread to an amazing extent. They send out roots like the rhizomes already noticed, and these take hold of any damp surface with which they come in contact. Here and there a bud is formed.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia.
Beknopt leerboek der plantkunde voor Nederlandsch-Indië / door Z. Kamerling.
Date 1923
Source https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pageimage/11325144
This file comes from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. By Kamerling, Z. via Wikimedia Commons.

 

This soon develops into a plant, and is prepared to take up an independent existence, while the sarmentum is rambling about seeking for fresh space of which to take possession.
The buds formed on these stems provide a ready means of propagation, and they may be used to any extent without interference with the parent plant.

 

Fronds of Ferns
The fronds are what many people call leaves. The fronds in most cases have 2 functions to perform

  • one the exposure to the light of the materials taken up by the roots, whereby it is prepared and fitted for assimilation by the plant, and which is afterwards changed into frond, stem, or root;
  • the other is the production of spores, commonly called seeds, for the perpetuation of its kind. In addition to spores some fronds bear upon their upper surface numbers of tiny bulbils, which develop into plants much more quickly than spores do.

aspleniumbulbiferumpbulbilwikimediacommons

Asplenium bulbiferum in Mount Ngongotaha Scenic Reserve by Rotoroa (New Zealand). By AuthorKrzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

(showing bulbil on frond)

Ferns also breathe through their fronds as trees do through their leaves, so that cutting off fronds injures them, just as human beings are injured when by disease their lungs and digestive organs are unable to perform their functions. From these causes weakness, and eventually death, ensues.

Osmundaclaytonianapforwikimediacommons

In some species the sterile and fertile fronds are entirely distinct from each other, having so different an appearance that they do not appear to belong to the same plant. In the majority the fronds do not differ, the spores being produced on the under surface of the fronds without affecting their form.

 

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

(Showing fertile and barren fronds)

 

 

Section 2 - Compost
Ferns grow in many different kinds of soil, and in different positions. The principal ingredients required for the preparation of suitable compost are

  • fibrous loam,
  • leaf mould,
  • peat and
  • sand.
  • Other materials of benefit to certain kinds are sandstone, charcoal and moss.

Loam
Loam is of various kinds and qualities. That with which most people are acquainted is the common garden soil, which is harsh and destitute of those qualities necessary for the well-being of plant life. Good loam is rich, greasy-looking and full of body. The best type is that found in old pasture fields which have lain uncultivated year after year, and been overflowed occasionally by some stream bringing with it and depositing upon the land a rich sediment. Some loam is dark brown, some red, some yellow. Perhaps, of the three, the yellow, such as is found in Kent, is the best, but the dark brown is also excellent.
Fibrous loam is that which has more or less fibrous roots in it. The more there is the better for the plants, as, when dead, these fibrous parts consist of vegetable matter of great value to living plants. To obtain it, grass sods should be taken from a field, stacked up grass side down, layer upon layer, and allowed to remain so for a few months. It will then be found that the grass and the roots are dead. It should be chopped sufficiently small for potting purposes, and it will form the basis of a grand compost for Ferns. When the sods are cut from the field, they should be only so thick as to include the roots, 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) being the depth of soil to be taken from the surface; thus a mass of fibre is secured without the looser material into which the roots had not penetrated, and which, though often good, is not nearly so valuable as the fibrous part. Any stray living roots found in the loam when about to be used should, of course, be thrown out. Whenever loam is mentioned in this gallery, the term applies to the kind here described.

Leaf Mould
Leaf mould, or leaf soil, consists of decayed leaves. In woods, when the leaves fall from the trees in autumn, they are often blown into hollow places or ditches. There they gradually decay and form a rich light, spongy mass of mould, containing the very elements in which Ferns revel. This is a natural production of the highest value. The best is that made up of oak and beech leaves. These should be obtained if possible; if unprocuable, then any other kind may be substituted. In places where the fallen leaves have been left undisturbed for a long time, this rich mould may be found of considerable depth. The number of fibrous roots and plants growing in this deposit testifies to its value. Those who are not in the vicinity of woods, where leaves have accumulated naturally, may provide a supply by having the leaves in their gardens or along the sides of the roads and lanes, collected and placed in a heap in some out-of-the-way corner, where, exposed to the weather, they will decay, and in the course of a year or less will be decomposed for use. The leaves, when collected, should either be in an enclosure, or have some branche plaed over them to prevent their being blown about. All sticks, pieces of wood, and other foreign substances, should be thrown out, and the leaf soil kept pure.

Peat
At one time peat was considered to be the one necessary and all-sufficient material for Ferns, but observation and experience are convincing many that it is not of such paramount importance. The value of leaf mould is now generally acknowledged (this book was published in May 1892 during the Queen Victoria Period), for most species will grow equally well in it, and in some cases better than in peat. On the other hand, it must be conceded that some species are naturally bog or marsh plants, and these should have a special supply of peat.
There are different qualities of peat. The common bog found in many parts will do for Ferns planted out of doors, but for those indoors, whether in pots or rockwork, the peat should be of a different kind. That already mentioned is almost entirely decayed moss, with very little fibre if any. The best is that commonly known as orchid peat, containing sand, fibre, and fern roots. This, while it will hold moisture, also contains nutritive matter not found in the other, neither is it of so spongy a nature, but is more solid, has more substance, and is admirable as a constituent in fern compost. It is found in the South of England, especially in Kent and Hampshire, though here and there in the more northern parts of the country a good quality is also obtainable - this may have been true in 1892 but in 2018 the government is attempting to strip out the topsoil and replace with houses, roads and businesses, thus depriving the population with both water from the rain (sent down storm drains and out to sea) or oxygen from the plants which were growing on that land.

Sand
The coarse silver sand found in Bedfordshire is the best; it is clean, sharp, and serves the purpose intended better than any other. Sand is used to keep the compost open, and to facilitate the passage of all surplus water through the soil. Silver sand, although the best, is not indispensable. Any clean, sharp sand will do as an inferior substitute. Clean, coarse, river sand is very good, and for the more robust free-growing Ferns suitable sand may often be procured at building excavations. If not sufficiently clean and sharp it may be washed, and when dry it will be much improved.

Sandstone
This is of 2 kinds, the red and the white. Of the 2, white is preferable for mixing with the compost for Filmy Ferns, some of the Cheilanthes, Nothocloenas, and Pellaeas. It must be broken into small pieces, and if made very small it may be used instead of ordinary sand, if there is difficulty in procuring that material.

Charcoal
For certain Ferns this is very valuable. It should be broken small and mixed with that compost, which has to be kept very open and porous for the ready escape of surplus water.

Moss
Spagnum moss grows in wet places, and no doubt to a large extent forms common bog. When alive and in a growing condition it is much used for orchid culture. It may be chopped small and mixed with some kinds of fern compost.
Wood moss is found in large flakes. It is useful for lining baskets, wire netting for walls, cylinders, etc, and it is also serviceable for putting over the drainage of pots, to prevent the soil washing down and stopping up the outlet.

Crocks
These are broken terracotta plant pots used for drainage. They must be of various sizes, according to the pots for which they are required. Bricks broken small, rough cinders, or pieces of charcoal, will answer the same purpose.

Potting Sticks
These may be mentioned as accessories to the potting materials. Their use is to facilitate the pressing of the new soil regularly and firmly round the old ball of a plant when being re-potted. For example, when a plant from a 6 inch (15 cm) pot is being put ino a 7 or 8 inch (17.5 or 20 cm), without one of these sticks there would be difficulty in getting the new soil all round the ball in a proper manner. By means of the stick there is no difficulty whatever.
 

  • One stick should be 14 or 15 inch (35-37.5 cms) long, 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, and 1 inch thick, rounded at the bottom, and the rough edges smoothed;
  • another should be 10 or 12 inches (25-30 cm) long, 1 inch wide and o.5 inches (1.25 cm) thick; and
  • one 8 or 9 inches (20-22.5 cms) long, 0.5 inches wide and 0.25 inches (6mm) thick, made slightly thinner at the bottome for small pots.

When these are used the potting is better performed, and there is no risk of breaking the roots. A piece of slater's lath will for the largest, a double thick plasterer's lath for the medium, and an ordinary lath for the smallest. They should be smoothed at the top, so that they may be handled with comfort.

 

 

Section 3 - Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets.
 

 

The British species of these genera grow in meadows in pure loam, therefore they simply require fibrous loam. When these are being collected from their native homes, they should be taken up with a piece of the grass sod in which they are growing, as they are difficult to establish if their roots are disturbed. The exotic species should be potted in equal parts of loam and peat. Minor point, you are not allowed to take these plants from somewhere that you do not own as stated in Any Person removing any native plant in the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

 

Botrychium

 

Ophioglossum

 

Fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal quantities. Adiantum Farleyense frequently fails to grow satisfactorily, owing to having peat in its compost. Some of the strong-growing species may do with a little, but all are better without it.

 

Adiantum

 

 

These all do well in loam, leaf mould, peat, and sand in equal parts.

 

Adiantopsis
Aglaomorpha
Aleuritopteris
Alsophila
Anemia
Balantium
Blechnum
Brainea
Campyloneurum
Ceratodactylis
Ceterach (Exotic)
Cibotium
Cyathea
Cyrtomium
Dennstaedtia
Dicksonia
Dictyogramma
Disphenia
Doodia
Doryopteris
Elaphoglossum
Fadyenia
Goniopteris
Gymnogramma
Gymnopteris
Hemionitis
Hemitelia
Hymenodium
Hypoderis
Hypolepis
Lastrea
Lepicystis
Lomaria
Lomariopsis
Woodwardia

 

Anemidictyon
Angiopteris
Arthropteris
Aspidium
Athyrium
Lindsaya
Lonchitis
Litobrochia
Llavea
Lygodictyon
Lygodium
Meniscium
Microsorum
Mohria
Nephrodium
Olfersia
Onoclea
Phegopteris
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Platyloma
Pleocnemia
Pleopeltis
Pleuridium
Poecilopteris
Polybotrya
Polystichum
Pteris
Sadleria
Salpichloena
Selliguea
Stenosemia
Struthiopteris
Trichiocarpa

 

Loam and sand equal parts, with half as much more leaf-mould and a little chopped spagnum moss.

 

Drynaria
Platycerium

 

Polypodium
Selaginella

 

For these, loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal parts, with a double quantity of peat

 

Acrophorus
Acrostichum
Actiniopteris
Anapeltis
Asplenium (Exotic)
Callipteris
Camptosorus
Didymochloena
Diplazium
Drymoglossum
Goniophlebium
Thyrsopteris

 

Lopholepis
Leucostegia
Marattia
Neottopteris
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Onychium
Osmunda
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena

 

The same compost as the in the preceding row, but coarser and more lumpy

 

Davallia
Gleichenia

 

Humata
Nephrolepis

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, in equal quantities, with half as much old mortar, and for Scolopendriums some oyster shells broken small. One needs to assume that old mortar in 1892 was made from the following:- "Mortar consisting primarily of lime and sand has been used as an integral part of masonry structures for thousands of years. Up until about the mid-19th century, lime or quicklime (sometimes called lump lime) was delivered to construction sites, where it had to be slaked, or combined with water. Mixing with water caused it to boil and resulted in a wet lime putty that was left to mature in a pit or wooden box for several weeks, up to a year.
Traditional mortar was made from lime putty, or slaked lime, combined with local sand, generally in a ratio of 1 part lime putty to 3 parts sand by volume." from Repointing mortar joints in historic masonry buildings.

 

Asplenium (British)
(British)

 

Cystopteris
Scolopendrium

 

Equal quantities of loam, sand, sand, and leaf mould, with a small quantity of slaty shale or broken sandstone

 

Allosorus (Parsley Fern)

 

Woodsia

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal quantities with a little small charcoal and sandstone

 

Cheilanthes
Nothochloena

 

Pellaea

Loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities, with half as much charcoal and sandstone, all very rough and open in order to allow a free passage of water. A little chopped spagnum moss may also be added.

 

Hymenophyllum
Todea

 

Trichomanes

 

Although manure is not necessary for Ferns, many do not object to it; the strong growing kinds particularly appear to like it. That from an old mushroom bed may be mixed in moderate proportion with the compost. A small quantity of Ichthemic guano, (the Ichthemic Guano Company was wound up on 6 April 1944) or a little powdered cow manure, may be added, but with caution.

The foregoing arrangement will be a guide to those anxious to have their plants in the best possible condition. If the arrangement is adhered to, other conditions being also favourable, the results will be entirely satisfactory.

 

Wardian Cases
The compost for Wardian cases should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal proportions, with half as much charcoal, and if for Filmies, a little broken sandstone, all rather rough and open.

wardiancasesphotowikimediacommons

Deutsch: Ward’sche Kästen, verschiedene, teils elegante Ausführungen zur Zimmerkultur tropischer Pflanzen

English: Wardian cases
This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art, and This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States.
By ‪Greenhorn~commonswiki‪ (talk | contribs)‬ via Wikimedia Commons

 

Walls. Pockets
Compost for Ferns planted against wired walls should be rougher than that in pots and pans, but of the same ingredients. For small receptacles like cork pockets and fern tiles fastened against walls it should be similar to that used for pots. Whenever good peat is unobtainable an extra quantity of leaf mould should be put in the compost.

 

Rockwork
Compost for this, whether indoors or out, should be specially rough and open, the roughest being used for the bottom and the finer for the upper portion of the pockets in which the Ferns are planted. Compost for outside ferneries should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities,

  • giving to Polypodiums a little extra leaf mould;
  • to Osmundas, extra peat;
  • to Scolopendriums a little old mortar or oyster shells crushed small.
  • Blechnums cannot do with lime in any form. The should therefore be planted quite apart from Scolopendriums and others of similar tastes.

 

 

Section 4 - Various Habits of Ferns
Ferns are so diverse in their habits of growth and in the character of their foliage that a knowledge of the particulars in relation to the more distinct kinds will materially assist the cultivator in providing the conditions under which the plants will be most at home.

 

The majority grow on the ground, on raised banks, in gullies, glens, ravines, in forests, woods, and some in open country exposed to the full sun.
These have usually upright foliage foliage of a more or loose drooping habit. They are suitable for pot culture or for planting in rockwork. Others grow in elevated positions, on the ledges of rocks, on trees, and in places where their pendent fronds hang unobstructed. These are suitable for cultivation in baskets suspended from the roof of the fernery. If in pots they should be raised up sufficiently to allow the foliage to develop naturally and show to advantage.
Among these the following may be enumerated:-

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Asplenium longissimum
most of the Davallias
Goniophlebium chnoodes
Goniophlebium
sybauriculatum
Goniophlebium verrucosum
most of the Nephrolepis
Platyceriums and
Woodwardia radicans

 

Others creep along the ground, over damp rocks, up the stems of trees, round and round the branches, and in every conceivable position of growth.
These are suitable for planting on blocks of virgin cork for suspending, at the foot of Tree-ferns, on rockwork, or in other positions where they may freely ramble about.
Members of the following genera belong to this class:-

 

Anapeltis
the smaller species of Davallia
Drynaria putulata
Hypolepis amaurorachsis
Hypolepis distans
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium venosum
Pleopeltis
the smaller species of Polypodium,
Stenochloena
and some of the Selaginellas

 

Most of the Cheilanthes, Nochochloenas, and Pellaeas grow in crevices of the rocks fully exposed to the weather, unless they happen to be protected by some overhanging projection.
Their roots go deeply into the cracks and fissures, obtaining moisture and nutriment, wile their foliage is exposed to the elements. These should be placed in light, airy positions, many of them in cool houses, just protected during winter from the frost. They must be attended to carefully, so that they may not suffer from lack of water, as their compost, being very porous, will allow the water to escape quickly. In summer, they will require an abundant supply, but in winter only enough to keep them just damp.
The British Aspleniums, Ceterach and Cystopteris, have the same habits, and should be treated in like manner when cultivated in pots.

 

Cheilanthes
Nochochloenas
Pellaeas

 

 

 

 

British Aspleniums
Ceterach
Cystopteris

 

Lygodiums, Lygodictyon and Salpichloena volubilis are climbers.
They usually grow among bushes and trees, producing fronds many yards = 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms in length, taking hold of and climbing round any twig or branch with which they come in contact. They soon produce great tangled masses of foliage, while some of the fronds, taking an upward course, reach the tops of the trees. Most of the species form buds in the axils of the branches and at the apices of the fronds. From these fresh growth takes place the following year. As this is repeated again and again the fronds attain an indefinite length. This habit of growth necessitates support for the foliage. They may be trained

  • up sticks or twine in pyramidal form;
  • on wire netting in the shape of acylinder 3 or 4 feet = 36-48 inches (90-120 cms) high, and the width in proportion to the size of the pot in which the plant is growing;
  • on wire balloons;
  • up perpindicular wires leading to the roof, and then horizontally along other wires.

If planted at the base of pillars or of wire archways, they may be trained so as to form a beautiful verdant covering; and if in a border, with stakes driven into the ground and wires stretched to the roofs, they may be employed to hide many an unsightly wall.

 

Lygodium
Lygodictyon
Salpichloena volubilis

 

Filmy Ferns, consisting of the genera Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, and Todea (excepting one or two of the latter), are a most beautiful and interesting section.
Their fronds are thin and membranaceous in substance. Their peculiarly delicate nature necessitates their being constantly in a moisture-laden atmosphere. They are found in both tropical and temperate climates, but always in positions where it is cool, shaded, and damp.
In the warmer climates they abound in moist forests on the mountains, covering the damp rocks and clothing the stems of trees. The heavy rain and mist cause their foliage to be in a continually dripping condition, the moisture hanging in drops at the tips of the divisions of the fronds, like myriads of diamonds. In the cooler climates they grow in ravines and gullies and on dripping rocks, rarely in exposed situations.
To imitate these conditions of growth they require a cool house, shaded from the rays of the sun, and either glazed very tightly so as to keep the house closed and free from draughts, or the Ferns must be covered by glass shades or frames. Many of the species, notably the Todeas, are so hardy that they will bear many degrees of frost without injury, although it is unquestionably better to keep the temperature from falling below 35F (2C). The Todeas have upright stems, and in time form miniature Tree-ferns. They may be planted in pots, pans, or rock-work. The Hymenophyllae and Trichomanes are nearly all creepers. Their thin rhizomes spread freely, and necessitate their being in pans, or rockwork, or on the stems of Tree-ferns. For Wardian cases these are unequalled by any other class of plants.
If the atmosphere of the house or frame can be densely laden with moisture, so as to keep the foliage always damp, the Filmies will not require watering overhead. This may sometimes be accomplished by sprinkling plenty of water on the paths, walls, stages, and rock-work. If this is not sufficient they will require dewing overhead with the fine rose of a syringe. Sometimes this causes discolouration of the foliage. When it does it is probably the result of some injurious element in the water. Only soft, tepid water should be used, and with just sufficient frequency to keep the foliage always damp.

 

Hymenophyllum
Trichomanes
Todea

 

Tree-ferns are very tropical-looking, and so distinct that specimens should be in every collection. The Alsophilas, Cibotiums, Cyatheas, Dicksonias, and some Lomarias are comparitively hardy and easily managed.
The stems should be frequently syringed or watered to keep them damp. They produce many roots from the bases of the fronds at the top of the stems, and when the stems ae kept damp these roots work their ay down to the soil, adding thickness to the stems and strength to the plant. If a thin layer of spagnum moss be bound round the stems with fine copper wire, it will retain the moisture and preserve the roots in their downward course; besides, many seedling Ferns will come up on it, adding much to the appearance of the tree.
If the smaller species of Davallias, such as bullata, dissecta, decora, Mariesii, also Anapeltis nitida, drynaria pustulata, and other creeping ferns, are planted at the base of each stem, they will creep up and clothe it with foliage in a very interesting manner. Brainea insignis, Lomaria gibba, and the miniature Lomaria L'Herminierii, with some of the Alsophilas and other genera, should have a warm greenhouse temperature, or they will not grow satisfactorily.

 

Alsophila
Cibotium
Cyathea
Dicksonia
Lomaria

 

The Gold and Silver Ferns are not only interesting but exceedingly beautiful. The bright yellow, silvery white, or cream-coloured, farinose powder more or less coating their fronds above and below, gives them a specially-attractive appearance.
They are found in various climates, hence some require stove temperature, others warm greenhouse, while a few will do nicely in cool houses with a winter temperature of 35-40F (2-4C). They belong to the genera Adiantum, Cheilanthes, Gymnogramma, Nothochloena, and Pellaea. The tropical or stove species require a dry atmosphere, so if there is any part of the house dryer than another they should be placed there. They should have an abundance of light, their roots should never be allowed to become dry, and their foliage must never be wet, either by syringing, watering, or drip from the roof.
All require the same treatment in respect to damp roots and dry foliage. If the fronds are wet by any means, the water washes off the powder, causing an insightly appearance on the soil, and, worse still, decay of the fronds, which, of course, injures the plants.

 

Adiantum
Cheilanthes
Gymnogramma
Nothochloena
Pellaea

 

Elk's Horn and Stag's Horn Ferns belong to the genus Platycerium, and are most remarkable of the whole family. They have received their common appelation on account of their striking resemblance to the antlers of the animals whose names they bear.
They grow upon trees, in the forks of the branches or on the stems, to which they attach themselves by their roots. The sterile fronds or shields, as they are commonly called, grow upwards, at the same time turning backwards and wrapping round the roots and body of the plant. It looks then almost like a lage, green, open fan, the horizontal parts turned completely back, the other parts more or less erect and deeply lobed. The fertile fronds of some species are also erect, but entirely different in form from the sterile. At first narrow and firm, they gradually flatten, spread out, and divide into deeply-cut lobes, more or less drooping. In other species, such as grande, they are pendent; in biforme they hang down several feet = 12 inches = 30 cms. Their appearance is remarkable in the extreme. The best way to cultivate this genus is by fastening the plants on pieces of charred wood, blocks of virgin cork, or pieces of Tree Fern stems suspended from the roof or against a wall.

 

Platycerium

 

Flowering Ferns, so called, form a curious but not a large section. That which gives rise to the term is the peculiar arrangement of the spore cases.
In the majority of Ferns the spore cases are produced underneath the fronds, occasionally at the edge, and in one notable instance, Polystichum anomalum, on the top as well as underneath. In the Flowering Ferns the spikes bearing the spore cases stand erect, in some species they spring from the sterile portion of the frond, in others the fertile fronds are entirely destitute of leafy portion. the section includes Anemia, Anemidictyon, Botrychium, Ceratodactylis, Llavea, Onoclea, Osmunda, and Struthiopteris. Other genera are sometimes included in the section, but these named are the most distinct. They do not require any special treatment, and they form a feature of interest among the Ferns.

 

Polystichum anomalum

Anemia
Anemidictyon
Botrychium
Ceratodactylis
Llavea
Onoclea
Osmunda
Struthiopteris

 

 

Section 5 Various Modes of Cultivation
On account of the varied modes of growth the manner of cultivation has to be varied.

Ferns having an upright or a slowly-creeping rootstock (stem), or those growing from a cluster of crowns, are suitable for cultivation in pots. As they usually send their roots further down than others, the depth of soil in a pot is acceptable, and necessary to hold the tall-growing species in their places.

 

Those with rhizomes do not usually root so deeply, but as they spread quickly, either under or above ground, they require more surface and less depth. This is obtained by using round pans.
The principal genera and species of this class are:

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Adiantum diphanum
Adiantum venustum
Aglaomorpha
Anapeltis
Arthropteris obliterata
Asplenium obtusilobum
Camptosorus
nearly all the Davallias
Drymoglossum
Drynaria
Gleichenia
Goniophlebium
Hymenophyllum
Leucostegia
several Litobrochia
Lomariopsis
Lopholepis
Nephrolepis
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Pleopeltis
many Polypodiums
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena
Trichomanes
and nearly all Selaginellas

 

For rockwork, properly constructed, nearly all Ferns are suitable, judgement being exercised in planting the different varieties in the places best adapted for them, considering their habits of growth, size, vigour, and other necessary matters.

 

Section 10 gives lists for rockwork

 

For baskets, some kinds are specially fitted. Many with creeping rhizomes, and others which do not creep but have drooping fronds, are suitable. A list appears further on in Section 10, giving the most desirable kinds for this purpose.

 

Section 10 gives lists for baskets

 

Blocks of cork suspended from the roof, planted with suitable kinds, are exceedingly ornamental. For various reasons they are superior to baskets, and they look a great deal more natural. Davallias, Anapeltis, and others twine round and round them, just as they grow in their native homes, appearing to find exactly the conditions in which they delight.

 

Section 10 gives lists for cork

 

Unsightly walls can be covered with Ferns and made to look very attractive, if properly done and planted with suitable varieties. Walls may also be covered with virgin cork pockets, arranged so that the Ferns planted in them may almost hide the wall. Fern tiles are used for the same purpose. They are made to fasten against the wall, joined end to end, and forming a trough to hold compost. Arranged one height above another they are better for Ferns than cork pockets, because they hold more soil. Ferns do very well in them, but until the plants have made good growth, and to a considerable extent hidden the tiles, the effect is not so pleasing as when cork is used to hide the brickwork. Narrow borders under the edges of stages, with a little rock worked in, and planted with the smaller-growing varieties, will often make a great improvement in the appearance of a house.

 

Section 10 gives lists for walls

 

Dead Tree-ferns, with a nice drooping Fern planted on the top, and smaller ones fastened on with a little soil and moss, wrapped round with wire to hold them in position, look very ornamental.

 

 

Upright cylinders, of various diameters, made of wire netting lined with moss, filled with compost, and secured by a stake through the centre, form a foundation upon which may be planted creeping Davallias, Anapeltis, Lomariopsis, Oleandras, Pleopeltis, Stenochloenas, and similarly habited species. These will soon cover the foundation by their luxuriant foliage. A pillar of this kind may be utilised for the training of Selaginella willdenovii, with its abundant and most beautiful irridescent foliage, and it will constitute a splendid ornament of nature.
Iron pillars, sometimes indispensable in ferneries, and yet eyesores, if surrounded by wire netting, with room left for lining of moss and a quantity of soil, may be converted into ornaments by planting small Ferns in the moss and keeping the whole damp. They will soon grow, and pay well for the little expense and trouble incurred.

 

creeping Davallias
Anapeltis
Lomariopsis
Oleandras
Pleopeltis
Stenochloenas

Selaginella willdenovii

 

Potting
The time for potting stove and warm greenhouse varieties is February or the beginning of March; for hardier kinds March. It is advisable to attend to this matter just as the Ferns are beginning to grow, and before their new foliage is developed. At this stage those to be divided may be operated upon with least injury or check to them; those which require their balls reducing, and to those to be put into larger pots, can all be manipulated with the least risk of injury. Large plants should be examined and potted if they require it; but it is not necessary to repot such every year. It is advisable not to do so. When they actually need it they must be carefully turned out of the pots, and if the ball will admit of reducing this should be done by means of a sharp pointed stick, worked carefully among the roots, retaining them as intact as possible, and removing the old exhausted unoccupied soil in the middle of the ball. This operation will possibly allow the plant to be put back into a pot the same size as before. Under any circumstance the plant must not be put into a pot larger than actually necessary. Smaller plants should be treated in a similar way. If they can safely be reduced let it be done, and the plants put back into pots the same size, or a little larger, as they may be required. Small plants, in 3 or 4 inch (7.5 or 10 cms) pots, if pot-bound, should have their roots carefully loosened, and e put into larger sizes. The following matters cannot receive too much attention:-

  • Ferns must not be overpotted.
  • They must not have their roots torn away or broken off.
  • A plant with its roots matted together in a hard mass should not be put into a larger pot until they have been carefully loosened as much as possible.
  • The overpotting of plants is unquestionably the cause of the death of thousands every year, and it must be avoided. Roots that have filled the bottom of the pot and become matted among the crocks, unless they can be safely disentangled, had better be left without disturbance at all, leaving the crocks in. The roots must not be torn away to remove the crocks, or the plant will be deprived of the best part of its feeders, and will suffer accordingly. Small plants may require potting several times during the year, as, in the growing season, under favourable conditions, they make roots very quickly.
  • It is by far the better plan to repot several times as required, giving a slightly larger pot each time, than to put a plant out of its pot into one much larger, with the object of saving the trouble or repotting in a month or two. The first plan will result in the plant obtaining the full value from each small supply of new soil, while the latter plan - which is really overpotting - will probably cause sickness and death. The reason for this is difficult to understand, yet it is a stubborn fact; therefore, amateurs may take warning, and professional gardeners, too, for overpotting is a very common practice.
  • Plants require repotting less frequently the larger they become and the larger the pots are in which they are growing. This operation may be continued through spring and summer, but it as well to cease at the end of September. After that time little growth will be made, and the adding of new soil, if it did not cause injury to the plant, would be of no use, for its properties would be washed away before the spring by the continued watering in the meantime.
  • Terracotta Pots must be clean when used. If new, they should be dipped in water until they cease to absorb it. Those used before must be scrubbed with a brush and hot water both inside and out, then allowed to dry before being used again. Pots dirty on the outside look slovenly; if dirty inside, they are sure to cause injury to the plant when next it has to be removed. A wet or dirty pot will cause the new soil to adhere so tenaciously that it will be impossible to turn the plant out, for repotting, without leaving behind a lot of soil and roots, and breaking up the ball, thereby causing injury. If a new pot is used without first being dipped to a sufficient degree in water, when the plant has been put in, it will quickly absorb moisture from the soil, and probably cause the plant to suffer before the evil is detected; the soil will also adhere to a new dry pot, as it will to a dirty old one, and lead to mischief in that way.
  • Pots become green when in use as the result of vegetation growing upon their damp surfaces. This should be removed by frequent washing with a scrubbing brush and hot water. The result will be two-fold - improved appearance and benefit to the plant by opening the pores of the pot and allowing the passage of air to the roots.
  • Healthy plants having filled their pots with roots may be repotted thus:
    • From 3 to 4.5 inch (7.5 to 11.25 cm)
    • from 4.5 to 6 inch (11.25 to 15 cm)
    • from 6 to 8 inch (15 to 20 cm)
    • from 8 to 10 or 11 inch (20 to 25 or 27.5 cm)
    • and from 10 to 13 inch (25 to 32.5 cm)
    • and so on. The measurements given are those across the pot inside the top.
  • The soil and the pots being ready, the latter should be crocked, that is drained, by putting a piece of broken pot, large enough to cover the hole, hollow side downwards, with a number of others over and around it to the depth of an inch (2.5 cm) or so, according to the size of the pot. On the top should be placed a layer of moss or leaves. The object of the crocks is to allow the surplus water to drain away, and the moss is to prevent the soil washing among the crocks and stopping up the drainage, which would soon cause the soil to turn sour. The plant to be repotted may be turned out by placing the left hand over the ball of the plant, turning it upside down, and giving the edge of the pot a sharp knock on the bench. The pot may then be removed with as much soil and drainage as possible without injuring or breaking off the roots. A little soil should be put in the fresh pot on the top of the moss, the plant placed upon it,pressed down, and filled all round the ball with fresh soil, making it firm, but not hard, with the potting stick. The top of the ball should be low enough to allow a good supply of water being given - for example, in a 4.5 inch (11.25 cm) pot it should be 0.5 inch (1.25 cm) below the rim, the depth being increased according to the size of the pots used.
  • The crowns of Ferns should be kept well out of the soil, and never buried, otherwise there is danger of their rotting. Some grow with underground rhizomes, which should be buried; others have rhizomes running on the surface, and these should be fastened down with small pegs of wood or wire.
  • This brings to view the necessities of those spcies for which pans have been recommended. Lke pots, they must be clean, not wet, yet not as dry as from the kiln. They should be drained, covering the holes with large crocks, and filling up an inch (2.5 cm) or more with smaller pieces. The drainage being covered with moss r some substitute, there should be put in a layer of very rough compost, higher in the middle than the sides, then some a little finer, and so on, until there is sufficient to plant the Ferns. When this is firmly done, and all the rhizome pegged down and well watered, it will require little further attention, except watering, for some time.
  • As the rhizomes grow they will have a tendency to come over the side. This should be prevented by carefully turning them on to the soil and pegging them securely. The rhizomes will then continue to root and add strength to the plant; but when they gey beyond the damp soil, and stretch over the side, they cease sending out roots, and instead of adding to the strength of the plant they have supported by it, which results sooner or later in unnecessary exhaustion
  • The compost in the centre of the pan may be raised in the form of a cone, using rough pieces of peat as a foundation, all being made quite secure. This provide greater surface, and a congenial position for the rhizomes of the smaller Davallias, Anapeltis, etc, which will creep up, over, round and round, and make specially beautiful specimens. A little extra care will be required to prevent these becoming dry.
  • Ferns to be repotted must not be wet and sodden, nor yet very dry. The operation cannot be performed satisfactorily in either case. The soil should be just in want of water. If too wet, it will become very hard in the process of repotting; if too dry, the water will not afterwards penetrate the old ball, it will become dust dr, and the plant is sure to suffer.
  • The roots should be spread out as much as possible, not crammed together in a bunch, as is sometimes done.

 

Baskets
Baskets should be made up every spring, as the large amount of water given to them during the previous season is sure to have washed away all the good qualities of the soil not absorbed by the Ferns. Baskets are to be seen in various shapes, and made of various materials - the highly-ornamental wire basket, and the plainer kinds of galvanized wire; the square wood and the terra-cotta baskets, such as are often used for orchids.
The very ornamental ones are often difficult to deal with, and they have also a tendency to look artificial, and not in character with the plants. The plain, galvanized baskets, with stiff suspending wires, are for some reasons preferable. The wooden ones, when not too heavy, look still better and more rustic; the terracotta are sometimes passable, and at others objectionable. Individual taste must decide the kind to be used; so far as the Ferns are concerned all are much alike to them.
The best material wherewith to line the baskets is green wood-moss, in as large thick flakes as can be procured. The next is living spagnum. A good thick lining should be placed in large baskets, and a few large pieces of charcoal, to partially fill the basket, so that it will not be so heavy as if filled entirely by soil. Smaller baskets will require less moss and will do without charcoal. If moss is not procurable, pieces of fibrous peat may be used, but this looks clumsy compared with the other. The wood-moss, or spagnum, if in good condition, and placed green side out, will often grow, adding materially to the appearance of the basket.
When the Ferns are planted, the centre should be lower than the sides, otherwise when water is given it will run off instead of through the soil.
There are many beuatiful ferns suitable for this style of culture, lists of which is given in Section 10.If small Ferns and Selaginella are planted in the sides and bottom of the basket the appearance is omproved.

 

Hanging Blocks of Virgin Cork
To prepare these,

  • various sizes of slightly-curved or semi-tubular pieces should be selected;
  • copper tacks, one inch (2.5 cm) long;
  • thin copper wire, like thread, to secure the plants on the cork, and
  • thicker copper wire for suspending the blocks;
  • some larger flakes of moss and ordinarily open compost, such as is recommended for Davallia.

The piece of cork should be laid ornamentall side down; copper tacks should be driven into it just below the edges, 2 inches (5 cms) apart. One large or several pieces of moss must then be laid on the cork, green side down, a little compost put upon it, and the Ferns put in position. The whole should be pressed firmly down, the moss hanging over the sides must be turned over the soil and worked round the crowns of the plants and under the rhizomes of tose of that mode of growth. A length of thin wire must be fastened to a tack at one side and carried over to a tack on the other side, giving it a turn round that, and so backwards and forwards until the network is sufficient to hold the moss, soil, and Ferns firmly in position.The tacks shoud each be driven up to the head and all will be secure. The hangers must be formed of thicker wire, pushed through the cork, turned up and knocked in to be quite firm, the tops drawn together and united by a hook, as in the case of ordinary wire baskets. All rhizomes should be pegged down on the moss, the plants watered, and the operation will be complete.
The first result obtained is as much more natural-looking mass of Ferns that can possibly be in any kind of basket - the ultimate result is a very beautiful object when the creeping Davallias and others have twined round and hidden the whole block by their lovely foliage.
For suspending from the roof 3 or 4 hangers should be attached, but if to hang against a wall 1 only is necessary. In the latter case the position of the plants on the cork will have to be considered, so that they may hang gracefully and to the best advantage. When, by oversight, these or baskets of other descriptions have become very dry, it is advisable to dip them in a pail of water for a few minutes. Ordinarily they may be watered in the usual way by a can with a rose.

 

Ferns in Rockwork
When planted in rockwork, indoors or out, Ferns require much less attention than when in pots. They do not need watering so frequently, neither do they require re-planting nearly so often; but when the compost is good and the drainage perfect they will grow for years without having to be disturbed. They attain a size and luxuriance rarely seen under other modes of cultivation. When rockwork is being planted there must be due consideration of the size to which the plants will grow; also their habits, so that overcrowding may be avoided. They must have room to develop their fronds perfectly, and the large ones must not bury or keep the light unduly from the smaller species. All should be so arranged that light may penetrate to every plant, otherwise the result will not be satisfactory.

 

Moss-covered Walls
One way of hiding unsightly walls is by stretching in front lengths of wire netting of 2 inch (5 cm) mesh. This must be secured by hooks driven into the wall of sufficient strength and number to hold the wire in position, about 5 inches (12.5 cms) from the wall. When the lower length is fixed it must be lined with moss, on the same principle and for the same purpose as the wire baskets. The space behnd should be filled with rough open compost. The Ferns should be planted as the work proceeds, this being much more easily done than when left to the last. As one height is completed the next may be taken in hand, and so on till the whole wall is covered. Each height of wire must be fastened by its lower edge to the one below it to prevent its bulging, or the trickling out of compost. If moss is unprocurable, the lining may be of thin flt pieces of peat, filled behiond in the usual way, but this does not produce so pleasing an effect.

 

Walls covered in Cork
This method requires patience and perseverance, but by its adoption walls may be made very rustic-looking. The flattest pieces of cork are most easily put on. They must be pressed close to the wall, and firmly secured by means of strong nails driven through the cork and between the bricks ( I beleive that the use of Rawlplugs and Screws would do less damage). The more circular pieces should be used to form pockets to hold Ferns. The pockets should be 12 or 14 inches (30 or 35 cms) deep, fitting close at the bottom, projecting at the top. Such pieces as cannot be pressed to the wall easily may be made more pliable by cutting a slit in the inner surface to weaken it, and to allow of its being flattened. When the wall is covered, the crevices should be filled with green moss; the holes in the pockets should also be plugged with moss or peat, to prevent the compost trickling or being washed out. Allformality of arrangement should be avoided, and there should be sufficient pockets, so that when the Ferns are growing the cork will be fairly well hidden.

 

Wall Tiles
When these are used they must be very securely fastened, as the soil in them is very heavy when wet. They give more room for the roots than the cork pockets. After fixing them according to the instructions given by the manufactureres in 1892, they should be filled with compost to such a height that when the plants are in the surface may be an inch (2.5 cms) below the rim.

 

Rockwork (Indoors)
It is impossible to give more than a few general directions on this subject in the space at disposal.
The construction of a rock fernery in a natural manner requires great experience, combined with a knowledge of the various requirements of Ferns.
The stone suitable for the purpose is of 3 kinds - sandstone, tufa, and limestone. Sometimes clinkers, or large pieces of coke dipped in thin cement, are used. These, however, are but a poor substitute for stone.
The plan of construction in all cases must depend largely upon the space at command. Where it is possible to go down into the ground the effect will be much finer than when the rockwork is all above the ground-level. The beauty of Ferns is seen to best advantage when looked down upon. The walks should undulate and wind to and fro; they should be made of stone or concrete with rugged steps here and there, the stone rising on each side, as though the whole were cut out the solid rock. Bold projections may be arranged at intervals, and so cause an entirely new view eact step that is taken. Ibuilding the stone together large pockets should be provided, to hold a good supply of compost, and these should be so arranged that they may be connected with the bulk of the soil on which the body of the rock is built. The arrangement of the stone should be irregular and free from any appearance of artificiality. The receptacles for the plants should recede as they rise, and the rock should be fixed so that the light may get to the lowest part without obstruction.
Arches may be oranamental, but they are not natural, and though to a limited degree they may be tolerated in a large place, the fernery will look better and more natural without them, and certainly the Ferns will grow more satisfactorily.
However large or small the fernery may be, it should continually be kept in mind that vegetation below the eye should be in equal or better condition than that above. This can be secured only by allowing full access of light to every plant, therefore all undue obstruction must be avoided.
The rockwork in a house must always be on a proportionate scale to the house. Too much spoils the whole - better have too little than it have it overdone.
 

 

Outdoor Ferneries
There are many places in gardens where flowering plants will not live, and in some of these Ferns will grow beautifully, and convert an uninteresting spot into a source of interest and much pleasure.
But there are so many exceedingly lovely varieties of Hardy Ferns that it would be a great mistake to plant them merely to fill a vacant space. They are worthy of special attention, and of the most favourable position that can be provided for them.
Hardy Ferns are easy to manage - in fact, there are no other plants so easy of culture, and certainly none which present so large a variety of graceful habit and curious forms.
The easiest and most satisfactory mode of culture is to plant them in borders, beds, or rock ferneries.
Many Fern lovers are so placed that they have not even a small garden in which to make a fernery. When such is unfortunarely the case, so unlikely a place as a back garden may be utilised. A few rough boxes, 6 or 8 inches (15 or 20 cms) deep, covered with pieces of thin virgin cork, will make suitable and rustic-looking receptacles for them. The boxes should have holes bored through the bottoms, and inch or two (2.5 or 5 cms) of broken pots placed inside for drainage, next a layer of moss or leaves, and then the compost. Some of the common British Ferns planted in these contrivances will yield much pleasure and serve to add no little charm to an otherwise dreary outlook.
A Fernery on a larger scale may be made by building and edging of burrs 2 layers in height filled in with compost. This would prove suitable, and may be provided with little trouble and expense. Those who have gardens should select a shaded and sheltered position, as little exposed to the sun as possible, and protected from strong winds. The fernery may take the form odf a border or bed. A position with a north aspect is the one most suitable, so that the plants may have a maximum of light without scorching sun.
Ferns may be planted among shrubs, but it is better to have the border or bed entirely of Ferns, so that there may nothing to interfere with the special characteristics of these plants. There should be a mixture of proper compost put into the border, to enable the Ferns to grow satisfactorily.
The most pleasing kind of fernery is that constructed of stone in the form or rockwork. It may be on the level ground, with mounds of soil and stone built up like miniature hills, with intervening valleys; or in the form of a glen, or ravine, excavated to a greater or less depth. In either case the paths should undulate, wind in and out, and should approach in appearance as near as possible a wild rocky pathway.
An excavated fernery will present a better appearance than one on the level ground; the vegetation and its surroundings being below the eye from various points of observation will be seen to greater advantage. Still, a very beautiful arrangement is possible without excavation.
In the construction of an outdoor fernery, as with an indoor, experience, combined with a knowledge of natural rock formation and the requirements of Fern-life, is necessary before anyone can undertake and carry through successfully the building of a large rockwork fernery.
The following suggestions will help those who desire to attempt the work:-

  • In whatever form the fernery may be arranged, drainage shold be provided for the escape of surplus moisture. When it is a mound or ridge raised on the level ground, holes may be dug down to the sand, filled with broken bricks, clinkers, or stones covered with sods, or other rough material, and the body of soil above. This will provide a ready means for all surplus moisture to passaway. If the fernery be sunk in the ground the water will drain to the lowest part, and therefore provision must be made for its disposal, either by enabling it to sink into the sand below, or by constructing a drain to carry it elsewhere.
  • Sandstone is one of the best materials for rockwork. Its color harmonises with the various tints of foliage, and all Ferns grow well in association with it. This stone is found in strata having a gentle dip in a given direction, therefore when it is used the natural formation should be imitated.
  • Limestone is hard, and found in all sorts of curious shapes. By the action of water some pieces have holes through them, others channels washed in their surface, with numerous chinks, crevices, and inequalities of outline. With this material a very ornamental rockery may be constructed, in which Ferns will grow luxuriantly and with pleasing effect.
  • In commencing the construction, the paths should first be planned. From these the rockwork should rise in an irregular mass. Large pockets should be formed in communication with the bulk of the soil constituting the foundation of the fernery.
  • The general outline should take the form of a series of terraces, rising tier above tier, receeding farther and farther from the path. Blocks of stone here and there should be placed to give character to the construction, and to prevent the view being too extended from any one point.
  • Every stone must be made perfectly secure, so that rain, frost, and other influences may not destroy or cause injury to the erection.
  • When the building is complete, some good compost for the Ferns should be put into the pockets, in which to plant the Ferns. Sometimes tree roots are used, but they soon commence to decay, so they are not at all suitable for a fernery which is to be of a lasting character.

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued at the top of the next table)
 

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FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

 

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden

 

TestPhoto

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword
....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds
 

All Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as useful websites.

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2
 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation 1, 2
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Grow in Coastal Region

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK) (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks
Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,
Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4


 

 

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued)
Rock-Fernery with Glass Protection
There is a wonderful difference between the condition of Ferns growing in the open air and those cultivated in a frame or unheated greenhouse. When protected from the extremes of heat and cold, wet and drought, storms, boisterous winds, and other injurious influences, their foliage develops more perfectly, is of greater beauty, and lasts much longer in nice condition. Not only are there these advantages, but species such as Adiantum capillus veneris, Asplenium lanceolatum, Asplenium marinum, and others, which rarely grow satisfactorily in the open air, may be successfully cultivated with the simple protection of a cold frame. When this form of fernery is being constructed, the walls should go well into the ground, the soil be excavated to the depth of 24 inches (60 cms), some good compost being put in. Aminiature rockery may be built with elevations, depressions, pockets, niches, and cosy corners for rare and beautiful little species.
Sandstone, limestone, or tufa may be used for the rockwork. The frame should have a northern aspect, the stone being built up inside to hide the walls, and to give the whole of the central part as diversified an arrangement as can be secured in the space.
This will form a perfect treasure-house to the Fern lover, for here, with the greatest ease, may be cultivated many dwarf kinds of various genera, which are more liable to be lost when fully exposed to the elements.
A frame should be occupied only by the smaller species - the larger and stronger would be out of place.
Built in the manner described, facing the north, abundance of light would be secured without the scorching rays of the sun. The frame should have a good elevation at the back, to give the glass at least an angle of 45 degrees. Being sunk in the ground, the temperture would be equable during both summer and winter. In the former the heat would have little effect, and during the winter it would be largely secure from the frost. If plante in good compost the roots would revel in the cool moist position among the stones, and the foliage, being hardened by a gentle and continued circulation of air overhead, provided by tilting the lights more or less according to the weather, would be more beautiful than even in their native rocks.
By carrying out this arrangement of rockwork in an unheated house an additional benefit may be obtained, as then the cultivator can walk about, and being under cover may enjoy the pleasure attending the cultivation of his plants, whatever the weather outside may be. Being on a larger scale, larger species may be accommodated and greater variety obtained also.
The cultivation of Ferns under these conditions is as simple as it possibly could be. Once planted the only attention necessary for a long time would be the giving of water and the ventilation, while the results would be highly gratifying.

 

 

 

Section 6 - Light
It is a very common idea that Ferns grow best in dense shade. This, however, is altogether erroneous. It is true that some kinds of Filmy Ferns are found growing in comparitively dark places, but Ferns generally no only can do with an abundance of light but they are much better with it.
A fernery should have in every case possible a northern aspect. Asouthern aspect is not good, because, unless shaded in some manner by trees or buildings, during the summer it receives the full glare of the sun, and means must then be taken to protect the plants from the strong light and scorching rays. A span-roof fernery should be built with its length running north and south, and all roofs should have a pitch of 45 degrees or 50 degrees. A flatter roof than this is likely to cause drip, which is as injurious to Ferns as to other plants. A lean-to fernery, with northern aspect, will require very little shading, even during summer, and not any during the greater portion of the year. The nearer the aspect is to the south, the more shading will be required.
The rule is to provide the fullest possible amount of light at all times, merely shading, when actually necessary, to prevent very strong sunlight scorching or bleaching the foliage.
From the beginning of September to the beginning of March, shading will not be required on a fernery of any aspect; on the other hand, the glass should be repeatedly washed outside and in, to enable all the light to penetrate the fernery. The accumulation of soot and dirt (coal was burnt in many rooms of houses in 1892 to provide heating) on the glass during winter becomes very detrimental to the wellbeing of plants if allowed to remain. Fogs are a great cause of this deposit in 1892, and not only so but the ingredients of burnt coal fog deposit are much worse to remove than ordnary dirt if once allowed to become dry. It will be wise, therefore, to be lavish in the use of warm water and brush to the outside during the autumn and winter months. If the glass and rafters inside are washed occasionally with warm water and sponge the house will look cleaner and the plants will be muh better for the labout expended. In the beginning of March the atmosphere becomes much clearer, the sun gains strength, and a little shade soon becomes necessary for houses containing stove Ferns if expose fully to the sun. The hardier greenhouse kinds will not require shad for some time, and hardy Ferns not for 2 or 3 months. The position of the house and the character of its inmates will determine the time when shading becomes necessary.

 

Means of Shading
Shade may be provided by blinds, or by one of numerous preparations put upon the glass. Blinds form the best means of shading. They should be fastened on rollers, and so arranged that when the rope is released the blind will roll down, and when no longer required may be rolled up again and secured in its place.
There were in 1892 various kinds of material suitable for blinds. Thick Tiffany, Frigi domo, closely woven cotton netting, and "The Willesden" rot-proof scrim canvas, the latter being preferable to any of the others, as it combines shading qualities with durability. These vary in thickness. For a house greatly exposed the thicker material may be selected. Where little shade is required a thinner material will be more suitable. The great advantage connected with blinds over the permanent shading material is that on wet, dull days, when there is little or no sunshine, by keeping the blinds rolled up the full light is admitted to the plants, greatly to their advantage. Also, every day, until the sunlight becomes too strong, and in the afternoon and evening, when the sun is no longer a source of danger, the plants can have the full light. This is of the highest importance; it is the cause of health and vigour of plants, which under other conditions of shade would have been weakly and of far les beauty.
When permanent shading is used in the form of powder sold for the purpose, white should be selected; green may obscure the glass more and produce a heavier shade, but this is beneficial only for a small portion of the time it is on the glass. It keeps out too much light at other times, and even if only a thin coating is put on the colour is objectionable. Cream colouyr is better than green, but white is best of all, for it will allow more light to penetrate on a wet or dull day, a matter not to be despised.
Whatever colour is used, it should be put on neatly. The practice of syringing it on produces a most untidy appearance as well as imperfect shade, and should not be tolerated anywhere. As soon as it possibly can be dispensed with, all shading should be removed, and the plants allowed the unrestricted light. Ferneries should never be glazed with green glass, but always with the clearest that can be obtained.

 

 

 

Section 7 - Temperature
Ferns require more or less heat, according to their natural place of growth. Most of those from the Tropics require stove temperature. If however, they grow high up the mountains, where the temperature is much lower than near the sea level, they may be cultivated in a warm or cool greenhouse. Some species are found in both hot and cold climates, hence they may be cultivated in various temperatures.
For convenience of cultivation the whole family may be divided into classes - those requiring stove temperature, those suitable for a warm greenhouse, and those which may successfully cultivated in cool greenhouse; those more hardy for cold greenhouse or frame, and the perfectly hardy species.

 

Stove Temperature
This need not be so high for Ferns as is often supposed, neither must it be as high in winter as in summer. Taking December as the starting point, the night temperature should be 60 to 65F (15-18C), rising to 70F (21C) during the day. About the middle of January the days lengthen, ad as the light becomes stronger and of greater duration, the temperature should gradually rise and continue to do so until by the end of May the maximum is reached at 70F (21C) by night and 75-80F (24-27C) by day. This temperature should be mantained during June and July, when it should be gradually reduced, until by the end of November the lowest point is again reached, at the season when the days are short and the light faint. At ant time the temperature may rise 5 or 10F (3-6C) higher, as the result of sun heat, but it is not wise to give more artificial heat than is necessary to maintain a temperature indicated bt these figures.

 

Warm Greenhouse
The temperature in December will be sufficiently high at 45-50F (7-10C) by night, and 50-60F (10-16C) by day. A the days increase in length the temperature should gradually rise, until by the end of May it is 60-65F (15-18C) by night, and 70-75F (21-24C) by day. In August it should begin to decline, until the lowest point is reached in November.

 

Cool Greenhouse
In a cool greenhouse the winter temperature by night should be 40F (4C), though 35 F (2C) might not do any harm; during the day 45-50F (7-10C) should be maintained. In spring a gradual rise should take place, until artificial heat is dispensed with for the summer. The temperature, when dependent upon natural heat, may sometimes, even in summer, be so low, owing to a combination of wet, cold weather, that a little fire heat becomes advisable for a short time. On the other hand, there is occasionally such intensely hot weather that it becomes difficult to keep the temperature down. This may be done by extra shading, and a free use of water sprinkled on the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork.

 

Cold Greenhouse
The temperature of a house where there are no means of supplying artificial heat should be regulated during winter by outside covering. Perfectly Hardy Ferns are the only suitable kinds to have in a house where the frost may penetrate, and even for these it is well to use all possible precautions to keep out the frost. Hardy Ferns will bear many degrees without apparent injury, but it is certainly an advantage to them when kept above freezing point. When frost penetrates, it immdeiately affects everthing damp. It often breaks pots, and when it is severe it hurts the roots against the sides. By covering the place with mats or other materials, the effects of the frost may be reduced considerably, and by plunging all pots in cocoa-nut fibre or leaf mould the evils may be further reduced, resulting in undoubted benefit to the plants.

 

Ventilation
Means for ventilation should always be provided. Ferns must not be subjected to cold draughts, yet a gentle imperceptible supply of fresh air given at the proper time will prove of great benefit. There must be provision for the entrance of this at the lower part of the house, and for the escape of hot air at the top.
Often there are no means provided at the bottom for the entrance of air, and when the ventilators at the top are opened, a cold current at once rushs in, causing the moisture to condense upon the foliage. In winter this is particularly injurious to the plants, chilling them and leading to discolouration of the foliage. By opening ventilators at the bottom the fresh air enters at the proper place, while the hot air freely escapes at the top. An upward current is thus produced which prevents chilly down draughts.
Ventilation may be given whenever the temperature is high enough, care being excersided not to open the ventilators so wide that the temperature is suddenly reduced. On windy or cold days special care will be necessary. Air should be given as early in the morning as possible, and left on as long in the afternoon as is safe. This conduces to a sturdy growth, the foliage being harder and more enduring than would otherwise be the case.

 

Watering
There is more importance attaching to the watering of plants than many people imagine. It must be done in a haphazard or careless manner, for injurious watering causes a long train of evils. A clear and perfect knowledge of the proper way can be obtained only by experience, but a little care in following certain rules will enable the merest novice to steer clear of many dangers:-

  • The soil in which Ferns are growing should always be kept damp, but not in so thoroughly a wet conditionas to make it sodden. If it becomes very dry the plant drops, shrivels, and sometimes dies; if it is always very wet it soon becomes sour.
  • Plants should be examine every day; in the morning during winte, in the afternoon or evening during summer. Some plants will require water one day, others the next. Whenever a Fern is becoming dry it should be well watered, and not again until it requires it. It is a bad practice to water plants when it is not necessary; it is also a bad plan to give only a little at a time, as by that means the surface appears damp while at the roots the soil is often dust dry. If the pot receives a sharp rap the sound will at once indicate the condition of the soil. If it be a ringing sound like that of a bell the plant should have water, if it be dull and heavy, water is not needed. If the plant does not actially require water at the usual time of watering one daty, but appears likely to become dry before the ordinary time next day, it shuld be watered in a few hours, out of the usual course. If this is not practicable it will be better to water at once than run any risk of its suffering in the interval. The water given should be of the same temperature as the atmosphere of the house, or, at least, it should have the chill taken off.
  • Watering Ferns under glass by means of a hose-pipe attached to a cold water tap cannot be too strongly condemned. The water being colder than the air chills the plants, many receive water when they do not require it, and others may be missed; the foliage becomes drenched, and a state of sickness soon ensues. All Ferns, except Filies, should have their foliage kept dry, and should neither be watered overhead nor syringed. The foliage so treated soon becomes discoloured, and dies, or it has to be removed because of its objectionable appearance. This is a direct injury to the plant.
  • Sometimes, to save trouble or to cause a pretty(?) effect, perforated pipes are laid round the fernery, so that by turning a tap the whole place can be filled by sprays of water. This is a thoroughly bad practice and cannot possibly end in anything but disaster.
  • Whether in pots, baskets, planted in rockwork, in pockets, fern-tiles, or moss-covered walls, thee is nosafe way of watering but by means of a can with or without a rose. It certainly involves more time and labour, but the results far more than compensate for the extra trouble. Anyone refusing to spend the necessary time and care in properly watering the plants must be content to have less satisfactory results.
  • When a plant in pot or basket has become very dry it should be placed in a pail of water for 10 or 15 minutes until the soil is thoroughly wet.
  • Some cultivators have an idea that Ferns should be "dried off" in autumn to give them a rest; even evergreen varieties are treated so, while the deciduous kinds when they have lost their foliage are put away and do not receive water for weeks. This is wrong treament altogether. Deciduous as well as evergreen kinds should always be kept damp. The do not need water so frequently in winter as in summer, because they do not take up so much moisture from the soil, and there is not so much evaporation going on. Yet they must be watered with sufficient frequency to keep the roots always moist. Ferns growing wild in this country (UK) get a great deal more water in winter than in smmer; notwithstanding this they lose their foliage and rest. Their rest is not brought about by a lack of water, but to a large extent b a lowering of the temperature. So, under glass, if the temperature is reduced, this, with the dimunition of light, will bring a cessation of growth in a natural manner. When the days begin to lengthen and the temperature to rise, the plants will soon show vitality and grow vigorously after their rest.

 

Cutting Ferns Down
There is a common idea that Ferns should have all their foliage cut off in winter. This should not be done while the fronds are green. The dead foliage of the deciduous kinds should be removed when they are in greenhouses, as it looks unsightly, but the foliage of evergreen kinds should not be cut off until oit becomes discoloured, or is in the wa of the development of new foliage. In the case of such as the Miden Hair, where the new fronds are produced very thickly together, it is wise to remove the old just as the new oes begin to appear. If left on till the new growth is pretty well advanced, there will be more difficulty in removing them, and the new fronds might be damaged. But in the case of species producing only a few fronds in a season, and those at long intervals, the old foliage should be left until it becomes unsightly. As long as a frond is green it is of benefit to the plant, and every green frond cut off is a more or less severe loss to it.

 

Moisture in the Atmosphere
This should always be maintained, especially during the growing season. It can best be done by sprinkling the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork more of less freely with water. On hot dry days this will be most beneficial, not only to maintain the required dampness, but to keep down the temperature. In winter, when the coal fires are being pushed strongly to keep up the temperature, the artificial heat will cause a dry, parched air, which must be remedied in the manner recommended.
A dry atmosphere has not only a tendency to restrict development of foliage, but it encourages insect pests of various kinds; yet the other extreme must be avoided. Too much moisture mat cause the plants to damp off, and will thus prove an evil. Judgement must be exercised in order to obtain the condition most congenial to the plants by attention to temperature, light, shade, moisture, and ventilation, avoiding excess in everything.

 

 

 

See USE OF FERN - in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page for text of Section 8 and Section 9

Section 8 - Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
The condition of atmosphere and the lack of light in dwelling-houses are such that few Ferns can grow satifactorily.

 

Wardian Cases and Fern Stands

 

Window Boxes

 

Window Cases

 

 

 

Section 9 - Propagation
Ferns may be propagated from buds produced on the fronds, from tubers and buds on the roots, from bulbils formed on their creeping sarmentum, by division of their crowns and rhizomes, and from spores.

 

Spores
 

 

Collecting the Spores
 

 

Sowing the Spores
 

 

 

 

 

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

If you grow and sell ferns, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

 

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

 

 

Section 10 - Selections of Ferns

 

50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena, a large handsome species
Adiantum concinnum
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense, an exceedingly beautiful variety
Adiantum lathomii, specially handsome
Adiantum macrophyllum, young fronds deep pink
Adiantum neo caledoniae

 

Adiantum reginae
Adiantum sanctae catherinae
Adiantum speciosum
Adiantum trapeziforme, a splendid species of large growth
Andiantum villosum
Aglaomorpha meyeniana (the Bear's Paw Fern)
Anemis adiantifolia
Aspidium plumierii
Asplenium australasicum (the Bird's Nest Fern)
Asplenium belangerii

 

Asplenium formosum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Asplenium nobilis, a light, feathery, and graceful variety
Blechnum gracile
Cheilanthes elegans (the Lace Fern), very beautiful
Davallia dissecta
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia parvula, very small fronds, finely cut, exceedingly pretty
 

 

Davallia retusa
Drynaria musaefolia, the veining very distinct
Gleichenia dichotoma
Gymnopgramma alstonii (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma chrysophylla (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma decomposita, fronds very finely cut
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, very beautiful, fronds cut into fine segments, of graceful drooping habit
Lygodium dichotomum, a magnificent climbing fern
Nephrolepis davallioides

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis duffii
Nephrolepis exaltata
Niphobolus heteractis
Onychium auratum, a very handsome species, fronds erect, finely cut
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum, fronds large and deeply glaucous
Pteris tricolor
Pteris victoriae, very prettily variegated
Rhipidopteris peltata, small fronds, fan-shaped, deeply cut.

 

A second 50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aneitense
Adiantum collisii
Adiantum concinnum latum
Adiantum curvatum
Adiantum flabellatum
Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum pulverulentum
Adiantum rhodophyllum
Adiantum seemannii

 

Adiantum tenerum
Adiantum tetraphyllum gracile
Adiantum versaillense, dwarf fronds, branched and crested, very pretty
Adiantum victoriae
Adiantum weigandii
Anemia collina
Aspidium trifoliatum
Asplenium baptistii
Asplenium bifidum
Asplenium horridum

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium prolongatum
Asplenium pteropus
Asplenium viviparum
Blechnum latifolium
Campyloneurum brevifolium
Cheilanthes radiata
Davallia alpina
Davallia elegans
Doryopteris palmata

 

Elaphoglossum l'herminierii (the Silver Eel Fern)
Gymnogramma calomelanos (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma laucheana (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma muellerii
Gymnogramma parsonsii, a dwarf, crested gold fern
Gymnogramma pearceii d. fijiensis plumosa, a handsome variety, of large growth
Gymnogramma pearceii d. foeniculea
Gymnogramma pearceii d. polyantha
Gymnogramma pearceii d. pycnocarpa
Gymnogramma pearceii d. robusta, very beautiful, finely-cut fronds

 

Gymnogramma wettenhalliana (Crested Sulphur Fern)
Hymenodium crinitum (Elephant Ear Fern)
Leucostegia affinis
Lygodictyon forsterii (Climbing Fern)
Lygodictyon volubile (Climbing Fern)
Nephrolepis bauseii
Niphopsis angustatus
Phlebodium sporodocarpum
Pleopeltis fossa
Pleopeltis xiphias

 

25
basket ferns for stove

 

Adiantum amabile, sends its roots through the basket all round, young plants are produced on them, and their foliage soon forms a beautiful mass of green.
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum fragrantissimum

 

Adiantum peruvianum
Asplenium longissimum, produces long pendent fronds, bearing a young plant at the tip of each
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium chnoodes

 

Goniophlebium subauriculatum, one of the best Basket Ferns in cultivation, produce pendent fronds 72-120 inches (180-300 cms) long
Goniophlebium verrucosum
Gymnogramma chrysophylla, a Gold Fern, which shows its beautiful yellow powder to advantage when suspended
Gymnogramma dobryoydense (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, a very beautiful variety with drooping fronds, exquisetly cut

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Nephrolepis davalliodes furcans, a splendid variety, with crested fronds
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis pectinata
Phegopteris effusus

 

25 choice varieties for
planting on blocks of cork for suspending

 

Adiantum ciliatum, produces young plants at the tips of its fronds; these develop, and produce others at their tips, forming a graceful and pretty object
Adiantum dolabriforme is like the preceeding in habit, but its foliage is of deeper green
Asplenium nobilis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta

 

Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa

 

Davallia griffithiana
Davallia heterophylla
Davallia pentaphylla
Davallia pycnocarpa
Davallia tyermannii

 

Lopholepis piloselloides
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Nephrolepis philippinensis
Oleandra nodosa
 

 

Phymatodes vulgaris cristata
Phlebodium venosum
Platycerium grande
Platycerium stemmaria
Platycerium willinckii
The Platyceriums should be suspendee by 1 wire, the others by 1 or 4 wires, according to whether they are to hang against the wall or from the roof.

50
stove ferns for rockwork

 

Acrostichum osmundaceum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum funckii
Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum trapeziforme
Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Aspidium dilaceratum
Aspidum plumierii

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium belangerii
Asplenium horridum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Campyloneurum phyllitidis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia elegans polydactyla
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia ornata
Davallia polyantha
Davallia retusa
Drynaria coronans
Drynaria musaefolia
Goniophlebium neriifolium

 

Hypoderis brownii
Lonchitis pubescens
Marattis elegans
Meniscum oligophyllum
Microsorum irioides
Nephrolepis davalloides
Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis ensifolia
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis zollingeriana

 

Oleandra articulata
Olfersia cervina
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum
Phlebodium sporodicarpum
Ptymatodes nigrescens
Pleocnemia leuzeana
Pleopeltis xiphias
Polypodium leiorhizon
Stenochlaena scandens

 

25
stove ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum cuneatum

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum tenerum
Asplenium alatum

 

Adiantum planicaule
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium appendiculatum
Goniophlebium glaucophyllum

 

Leucostegia hirsuta
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Polypodium catherinae
Stenochlaena scandens

 

12
stove ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum farleyense

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum

 

Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum neo guinense
Adiantum scutum

 

Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia tyermannii

 

12
stove sellaginellas

 

Selaginella amoena, very pretty, light, and graceful
Selaginella atrovirides, distinct, brony brown in colour
Selaginella caesia, beautiful trailing species of deep metallic blue

 

Selaginella emilliana, a "Bird's Nest' moss, very pretty
Selaginella filicina, has large plumose fronds

 

Selaginella gracilis, very pretty and graceful
Selaginella grandis, exceedingly handsome, has large fan-shaped, spreading, bright green foliage

 

Selaginella haematodes, light green, glossy, crimpy fronds
Sellaginella inaequalifolia
Selaginella lyallii, has light green crisp foliage

 

Selaginella tassellata, very pretty and distinct
Selaginella willdenovii, commonly known as Selaginella caesia arborea and Selaginella laevigata, a most beautiful species, of climbing habit, producing large pinnae of a lovely metallic blue shade, the colour being most intense when the plant is growing in the shade, when its iridescence is very striking.

 

50
warm green house ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum luddimannianum

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum palmatum
Adiantum tinctum, young foliage beautifully tinted
Adiantum williamsii, a very handsome variety, with pea-green foliage, the stems slightly powdered
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Cheilanthes elegans
Cheilanthes hirta
Davallia bullata (the Squirrel's Foot Fern)

 

Davallia canariensis (the Hare's Foot Fern),
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana, a handsome large-growing species
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a most beautiful variety, with gracefully drooping finely-cut fronds
Doodia aspera multifida
Gymnogramma othracea (a Gold Fern)
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lomaria l'herminierii (a miniature Tree-Fern), young fronds a deep rose colour

 

Lygodium japonicum, a climbing Fern of very free growth
Lygodium palmatum, a climbing Fern of small growth but very pretty
Microlepia hirta cristata, a most handsome variety, produces large fronds, light green in colour, heavily crested
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera, a pretty, dwarf, crested, Royal Fern
Platycerium alicorne, a Stag's Horn Fern
Polypodium hastatum
Polystichum vivparum
Pteris argyrea, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica nobilis, a handsome, densely crested variety
Pteris mayii, very pretty, dwarf, variegated crested
Pteris semipinnata
Pteris serrulata densa, heavily crested, graceful and pretty
Pteris serrulata fastigiata
Pteris tremula
Pteris tremula smithiana, fronds branched and heavily crested, very distinct
Pteris umbrosa
Pteris victoriae, a pretty, light, variegated variety
Sadleria cyatheoides, a very handsome species, with large, gracefully-arching
fronds, coriaceous in texture, dark green

 

Second 50
warm greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum lawsonianum, fronds finely-cut
Adiantum excisum multifidum, a heavily-crested variety
Adiantum hispidulum (pubescens)
Adiantum mariesii, a handsome variety, very distinct
Adiantum pedatum, a beautiful variety of free growth
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum veitchii
Adiantum venustum
Alsophila rebeccae

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium caudatum
Asplenium flaccidum, has drooping fronds, very graceful
Asplenium lucidum, a handsome variety, with bright green glossy foliage
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Balantium culcita
Blechnum platyptera, a small Tree-Fern, of very fine appearance
Brainea insignis
Cheilanthes tomentosa
Cibotium barometz, a large growing species, of handsome appearance

 

Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia mariesii, a beautiful variety, with finely-cut fronds
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tyermannii
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Diplazium shepherdii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Doodia caudata
Doodia media crispa cristata
Hypolepis bergenia

 

Lastrea aristata variegata
Lastrea fragrans, the (Violet-scented Fern), a pretty dwarf species
Leucostegia chaerophylla
Lomaria ciliata, a miniature Tree-Fern
Lomaria gibba, a handsome small Tree-Fern
Lygodium scandens, a very pretty Climbing Fern, evergreen, has light green foliage and is of free growth
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Niphobolus longua corymbifera, a distinct, dwarf, heavily-crested variety, foliage very leathery
Nothocloena newberryii, distinct and beautiful, foliage covered with silvery-white hairs

 

Nothocloena sinuata, very pretty, long, narrow drooping fronds, silvery underneath
Osmunda palustris, a pretty, evergreen Royal Fern
Pellaea ternifolia, fronds narrow, very glaucous
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica alba lineata, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica magnifica, heavily crested
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata cristata plumosa, has dense drooping foliage
Pteris serrulata major, a large variety of the Ribbon Fern
Pteris serrulata major cristata, a large variety, crested
Pteris tremula crispa

 

12
basket ferns for warm greenhouse

 

Adiantum assimile, a beautiful variety, its underground rhizomes spread throughout the basket and produce on all sides a mass of lovely pale-green foliage
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps, a crested variety of the common Maidenhair, distinct and handsome
Adiantum gracillimum, foliage exceedingly fine, and, when young, has a lovely tint

 

Adiantum palmatum, a very beautiul variety, with gracefully-drooping fronds
Adiantum williamsii

 

Asplenium flaccidum, fronds drooping and graceful
Asplenium longissimum, produces pendent fronds 72 inches (180 cms) long, and makes a handsome specimen

 

Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia mooreana, has large frondsa of fine appearance
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a lovely variety, with graceful light foliage
Microlepia hirta cristata, has large, pale-green, heavily-crested fronds

 

12
warm greenhouse ferns for blocks of cork suspended

 

Adiantum assimile cristatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum aemulum

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum setulosum

 

Davallia tyermannii
Nephrolepis pectinata

 

Oleandra nodosa
Pellaea ternifolia

 

Platycerium willinckii
Pteris serrulata hendersonii
Pteris serrulata plumosa

 

50
warm greenhouse ferns for rockwork

 

Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Asplenium praemorsum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Blechnum atherstonii
Blechnum polypodiodes
Cibotium barometz

 

Davallia canariensis
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tenuifolia stricta
Dennstaedtia davallioides
Diplazium dilatatum
Drynaria pustulata
Hypolepis repens
Lastrea dissecta
Lastrea frondosa

 

Lastrea patens superba
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Lepicystis sepulta
Lepicystis squamata
Leucostegia immersa
Litobrochia vespertilionis
Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Microlepia platyphilla, a large handsome species
Microlepia strigosa

 

Nephrodium molle
Niphobulus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Phegopteris trichodes
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum capense
Pteris argyrea
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris longifolia nobilis
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Pteris umbrosa
Todea africana

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum assimile
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum pentaphyllum
Adiantum pubescens
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium colensoii

 

Asplenium flaccidum
Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Osmunda palustris
Pellaea ternifolia
Platycerium alcicorne
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum mucronatum

 

Pteris semipinnata
Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella stolonifera

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia mariesii
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Leucostegia immersa
Nephrodium molle
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda palustris
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris tremula
Selaginella pubescens

 

12
selaginellas for warm greenhouse

 

Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella delicatissima
Selaginella densa

 

Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella involvens

 

Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussiana aurea
Selaginella kraussiana variegata

 

Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella variabilis

 

50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Alsophila excelsa

 

Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium lucidum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Athyrium laxum
Cheilanthes clevelandii
Cheilanthes gracillima
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia mariesii
Dicksonia antartica
Dicksonia squarrosa
Doodia aspera
Doodia aspera multifida
Gleichenia dicarpa
Gleichenia flabellata
Gleichenia spelunciae
Gymnogramma triangularis
Lastrea erythrosora

 

Lastrea fragrans
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lygodium japonica
Microlepia platyphylla
Nephrodium molle
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Nothocloena lanuginosa

 

Nothocloena newberryi
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Platyloma cordata
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia crispa


A second 50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum chilense
Adiantum digitatum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum venustum
Aleuritopteris mexicana
Anemidictyon pyllitides
Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium hemionitsis cristatum
Asplenium monanthemum

 

Blechnum atherstonii
Cheilanthes fragrans
Davallia mariesii cristata
Davallia novae zealandiae
Dictyogramma japonica
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia semivestita
Hypolepis distans
Lastrea glabella

 

Lastrea opaca
Lomaria banksii
Lomaria discolor
Lomaria pumila
Lomariopsis heteromorpha
Lygodium palmatum
Microlepia strigosa
Mohria thurifraga
Nephrodium sangwellii
Niphobolus lingua

 

Nothocloena cretacea
Nothocloena marantae
Nothocloena sinuata
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea andromedaefolia
Pellaea ornithopus
Polypodium hastatum
Polypodium incanum
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum tsus-simense

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Todea africana
Woodsia mollis
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
basket ferns for cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum decorum

 

Elechum polypodioides
Leucostegia immersa

 

Osmunda palustris
Platycerium alcicorne

 

Pteris cretica
Pteris cretica cristata

 

Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
ferns for cork blocks in cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Cheilanthes elegans

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Davallia mariesii cristata
Hypolepis distans

 

Pellaea ternifolia
Polystichum triangularum laxum

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

25
cool greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiatum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum venustum
Adiantum williamsii
Blechnum polypodioides
Cyrtomium caryotidium

 

Cyrtomum falcatum
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum triangulum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Selaginella martensii

 

12
cool greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum mariesii

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum pedatum

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Onychium japonicum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

12
cool greenhouse selaginellas

 

Selaginella brownii
Selaginella denticulata
Selaginella douglassii

 

Selaginella involvens
Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella martensii

 

Selaginella oregana
Selaginella poulterii
Selaginella pubescens

 

50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris daphnites
Adiantum emarginatum
Adiantum pedatum
Aspidium cristatum floridanum
Asplenium angustifolium
Asplenium fissum
Asplenium fontanum
Athyrium goringianum pictum

 

Botrychium virginicum
Camptosorus rhizophyllus
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortunei
Cystopteris bulbifera
Davallia mariesii
Dennstaedtia punctilobus
Dicksonia antartica
Dictyogramma japonica
Gymnogramma triangularis

 

Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea proligica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lomaria chilensis
Lomaria crenulata
Lomaria pumila
Lygodium japonicum

 

Lygodium palmatum
Niphobolus lingua
Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea atropurpurea
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum setosum
Polystichum triangulum laxum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris scaerula
Struthiopteris germanica
Todea africana
Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

A second 50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Aspidium juglanifolium
Aspidium pilosum
Asplenium adulterinum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium seelosii
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii cristata

 

Davallia novae zealandiae
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea frondosa
Lomaria alpina
Platyloma falcata
Platyloma rotundifolia
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica recurva
Woodsia polystichoides veitchii
Woodwardia japonica

 

Woodwardia radicans crispa
Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea goldiana
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana
Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum

The following are British:
Asplenium lanceolatum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes confluens
Asplenium trichomanes incisum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix

The following are still British:

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo marginatum

 

12
basket ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina victorie

 

Osmunda palustris
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare divislobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare venustum

 

Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

25
cold greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Latrea aemula

 

Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Polybodium falcatum
Polypodium vulgare
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Selaginella oregana
Woodwardia radicans
Wodwardia radicans cristata

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
cold greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris

 

Adiantum pedatum

 

Asplenium adiantum nigrum

 

Onychium japonicum

 

Polystichum angulare
Polystichum angulare bayliae

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
selaginellas for cold greenhouse

 

Selaginella denticulata

 

Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussians aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella oregana

 

25
filmy ferns for cool greenhouse

In order to have Filmy Ferns in the greatest perfection, they should be in a very close, damp atmosphere; therefore, unless the house is such as to provide this, they should be enclosed in a frame, or placed under glass shades

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum, a beautiful variety, having a soft, downy appearance
Hyemenopyllum caudiculatum, has long tapering fronds, very pretty
Hymenophyllum chiloense, dwarf in habit, small fronds
Hymenophyllum crispatum, fronds 6 inchs (15 cms) long, erect, light green, crispy in appearance
Hymenophyllum demissum, light, graceful fronds, 9 inches (22.5 cms) in length

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens, smaller than the preceeding, compact, and very pretty
Hymenophyllum flexuosum, a beautiful variety, fronds 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) long, crimpy
Todea fraserii, very handsome, large, light green arching fronds
Todea grandipinnula, a splendid variety, with massive foliage, very pellucid
Todea pellucida, a free-growing species, produces fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long

 

Todea superba, a most beautiful species, the fronds thick, mossy, cut into fine segments
Todea wilkesiana, a handsome species, which forms a thin stem and becomes a Tree-Fern
Trichomanes alabamensis, a dwarf and pretty species
Trichomanes angustatum, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into fine hair-like segments
Trichomanes auriculatum, a beautiful species, with drooping fronds 6 inches (15 cms) long, deeply lobed
 

 

Trichomanes luschnathianum, resembles the preceeding, but is more cut
Trichomanes maximum, produces large handsome fronds
Trichomanes radicans (the "Killarney Fern"), has triangular fronds, several times divided, very beautiful
Trichomanes radicans andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans crispum
 

 

Trichomanes radicans dilatatum
Trichomanes radicans dissectum, 4 varieties of the "Killarney Fern", with various distinct characteristics
Trichomanes reniforme (the New Zealand Kidney Fern), a beautiful species, with kidney-shaped fronds
Trichomanes trichoidium, a lovely species, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into hair-like segments
Trichomanes venosum, a dwarf and pretty species

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
filmy ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Hymenopyllum demissum

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense

 

Hymenophyllum wilsonii

 

Todea pellucida
Todea superba
Although these 6 will bear a few degrees of frost, it is advisable to protect them, so as to keep the frost from them.

 

12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cardiochlaena
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum trapeziforme

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium longissimum

 

Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Goniophlebium subauriculatum
 

 

Gymnogramma chrysophylla
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis rufescens tripinnatifida
Platycerium grande

 

A second 12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum fragrantissimum
Adiantum lathomii

 

Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Asplenium laxum pumilum

 

Davallia fijiensis
Gymnogramma schizopylla gloriosa

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Phlebodium aureum

 

Phegopteris effusus
Platycerium stemmaria
Stenochloena scandens

 

12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana

 

Davallia tyermannii
Gleichenia flabellata

 

Gleichenia rupestris
Gleichenia spelinciae

 

Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Woodwardia radicans

 

A second 12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum pedatum

 

Adiantum veitchii
Blechnum platyptera

 

Brainea insignis
Davallia bullata

 

Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia mendellii

 

Gleichenia semivestita
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
hardy exotic ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum pedatum
Cyrtomium falcatum fensomii
Lomaria chilensis

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea

 

Osmunda claytonia
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris germanica
Struthiopteris orientalis

 

12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Asplenium germanicum
Asplenium lanceolatum microdon

 

Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichmanes confluens

 

Asplenium trichomanes cristatum
Asplenium trichomanes incisum

 

Athyrium filix-foemina edwardsii
Blechnum spicant cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant plumosum(serratum, Airey's No. 1)
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Polypodium vulgare trichmanoides

 

A second 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Asplenium marinum plumosum
Athyrium filix-femina crispum
Athyrium filix-femina veroniae cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant manderii
Lastrea montana congesta

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polypodium vulgar cristatum
Polystichum lonchitis

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

A third 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Asplenium marinum
Blechnum spicant lineare

 

Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris regia (alpina)

 

Cystopteris montana
Polypodium vulgare pulcherrimum

 

Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Lastrea montana ramo-coronans

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas ramulosissima
Scolopendrium vulgare conglomeratum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum

 

12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina acrocladon
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix
Athyrium flix-femina plumosum

 

Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea filix-mas grandiceps

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Lastrea pseudo-mas ramosissima

 

Osmunda regalis cristata
Polystichum angulare plumosum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum

 

A second 12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina craigii
Athyrium filix-femina fieldae

 

Athyrium filix-femina setigerum
Athyrium filix-femina todeoides

 

Lastrea filix-mas bollandiae
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata angustata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum majus

 

A third
12 british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina glomeratum
Athyrium grantae

 

Athyrium filix-femina pritchardii
Athyrium filix-femina ramo-cristatum

 

Osmunda regalis
Polystichum angulare cristato-gracile

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum stablerae

 

Ferns suitable for cultivation in
dwelling-houses

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Davallia canariensis
Cyrtomium falcatum

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Nephrodium molle
Nephrolepis exaltata
Platycerium alcicorne
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris cretica nobilis
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata

 

Pteris ouvrardii
Pteris tremula
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum munitum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps

Where there is no gas the following may be cultivated:-
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Ferns suitable for fern stands

As the stands are usually small, it is a good plan to have 1 nice sized Fern in the centre, and either a carpet of Selaginella or a few Dwarf Ferns planted round it

 

The following are all small-growing kinds.

Those with (c) affixed are suitable for planting in the centre

 

Adiantum capillus veneris (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris grande (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum (c)
Adiantum hispidulum tenellum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium inaequale (c)

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium fernandezianum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium monanthemum (c)
Asplenium praemossum laceratum (c)
Asplenium resectum
Asplenium rutaefolium (c)

 

Asplenium tenullum
Anapeltis nitida
Davallia alpina
Doodia caudata
Lomaria alpina
Pteris internata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

Selaginella amoena
Selaginella brownii
Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella emiliana
Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea (golden)
Selaginella kraussiana variegata (silvery)
Selaginella martensii

 

 

British varieties:

 

Asplenium marinum
Asplenium nigrum

 

Asplenium trichomanes
Polystichum angulare bayliae (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare densum

 

 

Filmy Ferns:

 

Hymenophyllum demissum (c)
Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense
Hymenopyllum wilsonii

 

Trichomanes alabamensis
Trichomanes angustatum

 

Trichomanes radicans (c)
Trichomanes reniforme (c)
Trichomanes venosum

 

Ferns suitable for wardian or fern cases

 

All those named as suitable for Fern stands, also

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum mariesii
Arthropteris oblitera
Asplenium attenuatum
Asplenium fragrans
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium zeylanicum
Blechnum gracile

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia canariensis
Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia novae zealandiae
Davallia pentaphylla
Doodia amoena
Doodia media crispa cristata
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Phlebodium venosum
Polypodium adnascens
Polypodium billardierii
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica and its varieties
Pteris internata

 

Pteris serrulata and its varieties
Rhidopteris pelata
Selaginella caulescens
Selaginella gracilis
Selaginella grandis
Selaginella umbrosa
Selaginella victoriae
Selaginella pubescens

 

 

British varieties:

 

Lastrea filix-mas cristata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare perserratum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium laceratum
 

 

Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

 

Filmy Ferns -
Those recommended for Fern stands also:

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum
Hymenophyllum caudiculatum
Hymenophyllum chiloense
Hymenophyllum flexuosum

 

Hymenophyllum pectinatum
Todea grandipinnula
Todea pellucida
Todaea superba
 

 

Trichomanes auriculatum
Trichomanes exsectum
Trichomanes humile
Trichomanes maximum

 

Trichomanes maximum umbrosum
Trichomanes radicans and its varieties
Trichomanes rigidum
Trichomanes trichoidium

 

Ferns suitable for window cases

The Ferns here named are hardy enough to bear a few degrees of frost without injury, but means should be taken to keep the frost from them, so as to preserve their foliage as perfect as possible

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina vernoniae cristatum
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Athrium goringianum pictum
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortuneii
Cystopteris bulbifera

 

Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lomaria alpina
Lygodium japonicum
Niphobolus lingua

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare gracile
Polystichum grandiceps
Pteris cretica
Pteris longifolia
Scolopendrium vulgare capitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum
Todea africana

 

Ferns for window boxes

 

12 dwarf:

 

Allosorus crispus
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes

 

Asplenium viride
Blechnum spicant
Ceterach officinarum

 

Cystopteris fragilis
Polypodium calcareum
Polypodium dryopteris

 

Polypodium phegopteris
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum onchitis

 

 

12 medium size:

 

Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea aemula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Lastrea rigida
Lastrea spinulosa

 

Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum braunii
Scolopendrium vulgare

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

12 large size:

 

Athyrium filix femina
Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix femina fieldiae

 

Lastrea dilatata
Lastrea filixmas
Lastrea filixmas fluctuosa

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea montana
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare
Polystichum munitum

 

Tree-ferns for greenhouses

 

Large-growing species:

 

Alsophila australis
Alsophila excelsa
Alsophila rebeccae
 

 

Cibotium regale
Cibotium schiedii
Cibotium spectabile
 

 

Cyathea dealbata (the New Zealand Silver Tree-Fern)
Cyathea medularis
Cyathea princeps

 

Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia fibrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa

 

 

Smaller-growing species:

 

Blechnum braziliense
Blechnum corcovadense
Blechnum platyptera

 

Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria ciliata
Lomaria discolor

 

Lomaria falcata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria gibba

 

Lomaria gibba tincta
Lomaria l'herminierii (very dwarf)
Sadleria cyatheoides

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Dwarf species and varieties growing from 4 inches to 12 inches (10-30 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense

 

Asplenium ebeneum
Cystopteri bulbifera

 

Lomaria alpina
Phegopteris hexagonoptera

 

Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

British:

 

Allosorus crispus (Parsley Fern)
Asplenium adiantum nigrum (the Black Maidenhair Spleenwort)
Asplenium ruta-muria (the Rue-leafed Spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (the Green-stemmed Spleenwort)
Athyrium filix femina crispum
Athyrium filix femina edwardsii

 

Athyrium filix femina findlayanum
Athyrium filix femina frizellae
Athyrium filix femina minimum
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae cristatum
Blechnum spicant (the Hard Fern)
Blechnum spicant imbricatum
Ceterach offinarum (the Scaly Spleenwort)
Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris fragilis (the Brittle Bladder Fern)

 

Cystopteris fragilis dickiena
Cystopteris montana (the Mountain Bladder Fern)
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lastrea rigida (the Rigid Buckler Fern)
Polypodium dryopteris (the Oak Fern)
Polypodium phegopteris (the Beech Fern)
Polypodium robertianum (syn. calcareum, the Limestone Polypody)

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare parvissimum
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum lonchitis (the Holly Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare (the Hartstongue Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare densum
Scolopendrium vulgare digitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare endivaefolium
Scolopendrium vulgare fissum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare marginatum tenuae
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Medium-sized species and varieties which grow from 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum
Aspidium noveboracense
Aspidium argutum
 

 

Asplenium thelypterioides
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Onoclea sensibilis
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Woodwardia virginica
Struthiopteris germanica (European)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina capitatum
Athyrium filix femina cristatum
Athyrium filix femina fieldae
Athyrium filix femina frizellae cristatum
Athyrium filix femina irdlestoneii
Athyrium filix femina kilmoryensis
Athyrium filix femina mooreii
Athyrium filix femina polydactylum
Athyrium filix femina princeps
Athyrium filix femina pulcherrimum

 

Athyrium filix femina smithii
Athyrium filix femina stipatum
Lastrea aemula (the Hay-scented Fern)
Lastrea dilatata cristato-gracile
Lastrea dilatata lepidota
Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crouchii
Lastrea montana (the Mountain Buckler Fern, syn Lastrea oreopteris)

 

Lastrea thelypteris (the Marsh Fern)
Polypodium alpestre
Polypodium alpestre flexile
Polypodium vulgare auritum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum (the Welsh Polypody)
Polypodium vulgare crenatum
Polypodium vulgare semilacerum (the Irish Polypody)
Polystichum aculeatum (the hard Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare acutilobum
 

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare grandidens
Polystichum angulare imbricatum
Polystichum angulare lineare
Polystichum angulare perserratum
Polystichum angulare polydactylum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare proliferum wollastonii
Polystichum angulare rotundatum
Polystichum angulare wakeleyanum
Scolopendrium vulgare captatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare multifidum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Large species and varieties growing 24 inches (60 cms) high and upwards

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum clintonianum
Aspidium spinulosum bootii
Athyrium michauxii
Lastrea goldiana

 

Osmunda cinnamomea, produces its fertile fronds in the centre of the plant, entirely distinct from the barren; the spore cases, when matured are cinnamon-coloured and very attractive

 

Osmunda claytonia (syn Osmunda interrupta), a very beautiful species

 

Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica
Lomaria chilensis (Chilean species)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum, a handsome crested variety
Athyrium filix femina craigii
Athyrium filix femina elworthii
Athyrium felix femina glomeratum
Athyrium filix femina grantae
Athyrium filix femina howardae
Athyrium filix femina multifidum
Athyrium fiix femina plumosum, a beautiful variety, with large graceful fronds
Athyrium filix femina pritchardii, a curious variety, with long narrow cruciate fronds
Athyrium filix femina ramo cristatum
Athyrium filix femina rheticum deflexum, pinnules curiously reflexed

 

Athrium filix femina setigerum, a very beautiful variety, the fronds having a bristly appearance
Athyrium filix femina thyssanotum
Athyrium filix femina todeoides
Lastrea dilatata (the Broad Buckler Fern)
Lastrea dilatata crispato cristata, a pretty variety, with crisp-looking and crested fronds
Lastrea filixmas barnesii
Lastrea filixmas bollandiae
Lastrea filixmas cronkleyense
Lastrea filixmas digitato jonesii
Lastrea filixmas grandiceps, very heavily crested
Lastrea filixmas ingramii
Lastrea filixmas iveryana
Lastrea filixmas lineare
Lastrea filixmas abbreviata cristata barnesii, a very distinct and pretty variety

 

Lastrea pseudomas cristata, a handsome variety, finely crested
Lastrea pseudomas cristata angustata, fronds narrow, crimpy, and crested, a distinct variety
Lastrea pseudomas pinderii
Lastrea pseudomas polydactyla, an ornamental crested variety
Lastrea spinulosa (the Spiny Buckler Fern),
Osmunda regalis (the Royal Fern), one of the largest British Ferns - in a congenial position the fronds often attain a height of 6 feet = 72 inches = 180 cms
Osmunda regalis cristata, a very handsome crested variety, of large growth and pleasing appearance

 

Polystichum angulare (the soft Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare cristato gracile
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare multilobum (syn. Polystichum angulare venustum), a beautiful variety
Polystichum angulare proliferum crawfordianum
Pteris aquilina (the Brake Fern, or Bracken), grows to a large size when planted in a damp, shaded, and sheltered position
Pteris aquilina congesta, a peculiarly congested form
Pteris aquilina cristata, a crested variety of distinct appearance

 

Specially choice species and varieties

 

North American:

 

Lastrea fragrans, a dwarf, compact, pretty species, well named "The Violet-scented Fern"

 

Polystichum acrostichoides grandiceps, a heavily-crested variety, sturdy and compact in habit

 

Woodsia glabella

 

 

 

British:

Asplenium

 

adiantum nigrum acutumm, fronds lighter in texture, larger, and more pointed than the species

 

nigrum grandiceps, bears a comparitively large crest at the apex of each frond

 

Germanicum (syn. alternifolium, the Alternate-leaved Spleenwort)

 

septentrionale (the Forked Spleenwort)

 

 

Among these Lady Ferns there are some of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, and they will bear comparison with any of the Exotics. Their beauty is most ighly developed when cultivated in a cold greenhouse.

Athyrium filix femina

 

acrocladon, fronds much branched, and densely crested, is of compact habit, and very distinct...
caudigerum, fronds long, narrow, and peculiarly congested...
conglomeratum, a nice compact variety, heavily crested...
cristulatum, a pretty, dwarf, crested variety...

 

curtum multifidum, a dwarf variety, narrow fronds, crested, specially neat in appearance...
frizellae coronare, a most beautiful variety of the frizellaea section, fronds very narrow, and surmounted by a large round yet light-looking crest...
frizellae gracile, fronds narrow, slender, graceful, divided into two near the bottom...
ramo-cristatum, a very pretty variety, fronds branched and crested...

 

gemmatum, very beautiful, fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long, rather narrow, each pinna and the frond at the tip bearing crisp crests... girdlestoneii cristatum, a handsome depauperated crested form, light and graceful...
Kalothrix, a lovely variety, the foliage very thin in texture, delicate green in colour, finely cut and possessing quite a Filmy-Fern appearance...
plumosum elegans, a most beautiful variety, the fronds, 18-24 inches (45-60 cms) in length, very pale green, cut into exceedingly fine segments...

 

plumosum multifidum, exceedingly pretty, the fronds light green, finely divided, plumose, and heavily crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
setigerum capitatum, a dwarf variety, possessing the bristly character of setigerum, and bearing a small dense crest at the apex of each frond...
setigerum percistatum, a strikingly beautiful variety, cristate throughout the whole frond, the crests at the tips of the pinnae and the end of the frond all arranged in regular order...
victoriae, often styled "The Queen of the Lady Ferns, is certainly unique. Its fronds attain a length of 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms; the pinnae arranged along the midrib are very narrow, crested, and in pairs on each side of the stem.They branch at an angle of 45 degrees, one upwards, the other downwards, so that there is a continual series of crossing pinnae from bottom to top, forming a delicate lattice-work of green frondage. The apex of each frond is crested, the plant has a symetrical graceful habit, ad is very beautiful...

 

 

Blechnum spicant

 

concinnum, very narrow crimpy fronds...
cristatum, a pretty crested variety...

 

lineare, fronds long and very narrow, being regularly contracted and neat in appearance...maunderii, a densely ramose, crested variety, grows like a green ball...

 

plumosum (syn. Blechnum spicant serratum, Airey's No. 1), a beautiful variety, with deeply-serrated and sometimes tripinnate fronds, which aatain a length of 18 inches (45 cms)...

 

trinervo-coronans, a very pretty crested variety, one of the nicest of the genus...

 

 

Cystopteris

 

alpina (the Alpine Bladder Fern, syn. Cystopteris regia), a handsome species, fronds finely cut...

 

 

 

 

 

Lastrea

 

dilatata spectabile, a dwarf and very pretty variety, the fronds finely and distinctly cut...

 

pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata (syn. Lastrea pseudo-mas plumosissima), a very handsome variety, fimbriated, crested, much lighter in appearance than the old cristata, compact in habit, graceful, and makes a very pretty specimen...

 

pseudo-mas ramosissima, a distinct variety, much branched and crested...

 

montana coronans, a beautiful variety, fronds narrow, crested, and compact in habit...
montana ramo-coronans, similar to the preceeding, but the fronds branched and the whole appearance of the plant more pleasing...

 

 

Polypodium vulgare

 

cambricum prestonii, a beautiful plumose form of the Welsh Polypody...

 

grandiceps, a heavily crested and a very handsome variety...

 

multifido-cristatum, fronds much branched and crested...

 

trichomanoides, fronds dense, cut into numberless fine segments, light green, and very pretty...

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
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O 1, Photos
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X 1 Photos
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Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
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Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose

 

 

Polystichum angulare

 

congestum, dense, overlapping foliage...
divisilobum decorum, produces large, broad, drooping fronds, divided into small pinnules...
divisilobum laxum, a very handsome variety, finely divided and graceful...

 

divisilobum plumosum, one of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, the fronds long, very broad at the base, pinnules densely overlapping, producing a moss-like appearance, finely cut, and elegant in the extreme...

 

foliosa crispum, fronds dense, foliose, and crisp in appearance...
foliosa multifidum, a pretty variety, fronds very leafy, crested...
gracile, a very pretty graceful variety...

 

grandiceps, erect in habit, narrow fronds, bearing a dense crest, very handsome...
pateyii, a plumose form of considerable beauty...
plumosum, a large and exceedingly handsome plumose variety, makes a grand specimen...
plumosa divisilobum gracile, very beautiful, finely cut, and graceful...

 

Scolopendrium vulgare

 

crispum fimbriatum, a very beautiful variety, with large, deeply-frilled fronds, fimbriated and dense - one of the most lovely of this family...

 

crispum robustum, a large and exceedingly handsome form of this pretty variety...

 

crispum willsii, a specially pretty broad-fronted variety...

 

ramo-cristatum majus (Jones), a densely-branched and crested variety, of fine appearance....
ramo-marginatum, a very pretty crested variety, distinct and attractive...

 

Of Hardy Ferns, the following are
Evergreen
when protected from the frost

 

Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Aspidium (in part)

 

Asplenium (in part)
Blechnum

 

Ceterach
hymenophyllum
Lastrea (in part)

 

Polypodium (nearly all)
Polystichum
Scolopendrium

 

Deciduous

 

Adiantum pedatum
Allosorus
Aspidium (in part)
Asplenium (in part)

 

Athyrium
Botrychium
Cystopteris
Dennstaedtia

 

Onoclea
Ophioglossum
Osmunda
Phegopteris

 

Polypodium (in part)
Pteris
Struthiopteris
Woodsia
Woodwardia

 

The species and varieties enumerated in the preceeding sections are suitable for borders, beds, or rock ferneries, but the varieties should be selected according to the space at disposal for their development.

 

 

Companion Plants

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

and

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

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