Ivydene Gardens Cream Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Common Name with Botanical Plant Name and Form: DA-DO 14

What is PL@NTNET?
Pl@ntNet allows you to identify thousands of species of plants thanks to your pictures. The images you send are automatically compared to the thousands of images we have in our botanical databases. A list of plants is then proposed. The last word is yours! Currently, Pl@ntNet has 22 projects: 16 geographical projects, 3 thematic projects on ornamental and cultivated plants, and 3 microprojects.
If you wanna know everything about how to use the app: https://plantnet.org/en/how-why/
Frequently Asked Questions provides answers:-
1. What is the project "World Flora"? - "The Plant List (TPL) was a working list of all known plant species produced by the botanical community in response to Target 1 of the 2002-2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). TPL has been static since 2013, but was used as the starting point for the Taxonomic Backbone of the World Flora Online (WFO), and updated information can be found at www.worldfloraonline.org."
2. Can I use Pl@ntNet on my computer? - "Yes! the Web version of Pl@ntNet is available at the following address: identify.plantnet.org. "

 

 

 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

 

 

 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

 

"SEASONS AND MONTHS

SPRING
Early: March
Mid: April
Late: May

SUMMER
Early: June
Mid: July
Late: August

AUTUMN
Early: September
Mid: October
Late: November

WINTER
Early: December
Mid: January
Late: February

" from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993 (ISBN 0 7153 0033 4).

 

 

 

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges
 


 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Site design and content copyright ©January 2016.
New Common Names and
Botanical Names added February 2021.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.

 

The wild flowers in this book (Wild Flowers of Britain by Sarah Garland). Published in 1978 by ARTUS Publishing Company Limited for Marks and Spencer Ltd) have been grouped under chapter headings according to where they grow. Each plant is seen against its natural background and the influences that shape it: the weather, rich and poor soils, animals and man:-

  • The history of British Flowers
  • Chalk and limestone flowers
  • Arable and wasteground flowers
  • Flowers of the woods and hedgerows
  • Grassland and roadside flowers
  • Freshwater flowers
  • Fen and marshland flowers
  • Heath, moor and bogland flowers
  • Mountain flowers
  • Flowers of the sea coast


John Chambers' Wild Flower Seeds
- "John Chambers Wildflower Seed has a 35 year history of supplying native British produced wildflower seed and mixes to landscape and garden lovers across the UK. John Chambers is one of the leading authorities on native wildflower seed, distributing a comprehensive range of products that protect, enhance and improve the landscape environment. See Case Studies."
and
plant from British Wild Flower Plants - "We are the largest grower of British native plants in the UK and have been in operation since 1986, including Biodiversity Enhancement, Green Roofs and Reed Beds."

 

 

 

The English Flower Garden Design, Arrangement, and Plans followed by A description of all the best plants for it and their culture and the positions fitted for them By W. Robinson Author of the "Wild Garden". Fourth Edition. Published by John Murray in London in 1895 is a useful source of culture and positions for them, as is
The Gardener' Golden Treasury incorporating Sanders Encyclopedia of Gardening. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer and published in 1960 by W.H. & L. Collingridge Limited.

 

 

 

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914 contains information about UK Native Wildflowers with 1 per chapter. I have summarised some of these chapters and put those into this website, but most will simply have a reference to which book it is in for you to read it yourself.

Common Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Underlined Common Name in black is linked to its description in its Botanical Name row only.

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape --->

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
 

Flowering Months
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Flowering Months to view photos
 

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged
--->

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms
The above conversions from inches to centimetres are not accurate, but make it easier for me)

WildFlower Family Page
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Wildflower Family Page to view remainder of other Wildflowers in this Family within Great Britain, Ireland and the Channel Islands.

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Flower Colour
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Flower Colour to view other wildflowers with the same flower colour.

Habitat
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe; plus the distribution of this flora in the USA and Canada.

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant --->

Form from
The Concise British Flora in Colour by W. Keble Martin, MA, FLS.
Designed and produced by George Rainbird Limited and Second Impression (with revisions) June 1965.

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1

irishcflobladderwort1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Wild-flowers

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1

melancholycflothistle1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

Form for Wildflowers:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.
Wildflowers from Shrub/Tree page will be inserted into these Shapes for Evergreen Shrubs pages.

Dandelion
(Common Dandelion)

is Edible,
Used within lifecycles of
Butterfly Holly Blue,
Butterfly Marsh Fritillary,

dandelionfflo

Flower

dandelionffru1a

Seedhead

Taraxacum officinale
(Crepis Taraxacum officinale,
Taraxacum dens-leonis)

Throughout the year, but in greatest profusion in April-May

dandelionfflos1

Flowers

dandelionffru2

Seedhead

The above 8 small photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord.

 

Daisy Hawksbeards Family

dandelionffol1

Foliage

dandelionffor2

Dandelion field

dandelionffor3

Form

 

These tap-rooted perennial herbs occur in a very wide range of habitats, but prefer disturbed sites. Some microspecies are associated with natural or semi-natural habitats, including sand dunes, chalk grassland, fens, flushes and cliffs, but most occur in disturbed habitats such as pastures, roadside verges, lawns, tracks, paths and waste ground.

Native in all Europe.
The young leaves are eaten as a salad; the roots are used in place of chicory in coffee. Abitter stomachic and diuretic plant.

dandelionffor1a

Form

dandeliontaraxacumdensleoniscorke Dandelion Taraxacum dens-leonis from Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914:-

The slightly acrid leaves, if bleached after the fashion of endive, make an excellent salad. The Dandelion is at home in all parts of the north temperate zone; so plentiful, indeed, is it, that farmers find it everywhere a troublesome weed and their one anxiety is to get rid of it.
From this thick tap root - acrid and almost black on the outside - the long jagged leaves rise directly and radiate from it, forming a rosette, and we notice that each leaf is grooved and so constructed that all the rain that falls upon it is conducted straight to the centre of the rosette, and hence to the root, just as the spouting of a building leads the rain to a cistern. Thus the root is alwys kept well watered.
The margin of each leaf is cut into great jagged teeth, either upright or pointing somewhat backwards, and these teeth are themselves cut here and there into lesser teeth.
The tawny blooms are borne singly on hollow stems. These blooms are very sensitive to weather conditions. In fine weather all the parts are outstretched, but directly rain threatens the whole head closes up at once. So, too, does it close against the dews of the night. By 5 o'clock in the evening it has prepared itself for it's night's "sleep", to awake at the moderate hour of 7 o'clock in the morning.
If the seed escapes buildings and water, and falls on suitable ground, its little pointed seed pushes gradually into the earth, aided thereto by minute barbs round its top, and there it germinates, and there a new generation has its day.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Taraxacum officinale with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Danewort
(Dwarf Elder,
Dwarf Elderberry)

 

dwarfelderfflo1

Flower

Sambucus ebulus

July-August

 

dwarfelderfflos

Flowers

The above 3 small photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

Honeysuckle Family

 

 

dwarfelderffor

Form

 

A robust perennial rhizomatous herb occurring infrequently in hedgerows, on roadsides and waste ground, usually in small numbers but locally forming thickets (Lavin & Wilmore, 1994). Lowland.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland, Norway and Finland.
The fruit, inner part of the stem and the leaves are purgative. The leaves have been used externally in the treatment of rheumatism.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Sambucus ebulus with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Dark-green Mouse-ear
(Sea Mouse-ear,
Dark Green Chickweed,
Fourstamen Chickweed)

Cerastium diffusum
(Cerastium atrovirens,
Cerastium tetrandrum)

April-July

 

Pink Family

 

An annual of light, dry, sandy or gravelly soil. Coastal habitats include open grassland, fixed dunes, sandy banks and sheltered rock crevices. Inland, it occurs in a range of open habitats, including dry grassland, by paths, on wall-tops, road verges and railway ballast.

Native as a locally common plant of sandy and stony places near the sea, rarely inland, all round the British Isles.
Native in Western Europe from Spain to Norway and Sweden; Sardinia, Corsica, Capraia. Commonly on dunes.

 

See other photos of
Cerastium diffusum
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Cerastium diffusum with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Dark Mullein
(Black Mullein)

 

 

 

 

 

 

darkfflomullein1

Flower

Verbascum nigrum

June onwards

 

 

 

 

 

darkfflosmullein

Flowers

The above 4 small photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

Figwort - Mulleins Family

 

 

 

 

 

darkffolmullein

Foliage

 

This biennial or short-lived perennial herb is found on road verges and embankments, in hedge banks and other grassy places, on walls and in cultivated ground, including arable field margins. It prefers well-drained calcareous soils.

 

darkfformullein1

Form

Native in much of europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

Mulleins are poisonous to livestock and are avoided by them.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Verbascum nigrum with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Arisaig Sedge
(Club Sedge,
Dark Sedge)

Carex buxbaumii
(Carex polygama,
Carex canescens,
Carex fusca)

June-July

 

Sedges Carex 1 Family

 

A perennial herb found in mesotrophic fens on or near the margins of lakes, often bordering outflow streams, and always in areas which are periodically inundated. It is often subject to light grazing by cattle.

Native in a wet spongy bog in West Inverness of Great Britain.
Native in Europe; Algeria; Northern Asia and North merica.

 

See other photos of
Carex canescens
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation

Dark-leaved Willow
(Dark Willow)

Salix myrsinifolia
(Salix nigricans)

May-June, usually with the leaves

 

Willow Family

 

A shrub, or less often a small tree, which grows mainly on rocks or on gravelly river-banks and lake shores, less frequently in thickets on marshy ground or by wet woodland margins. In Scotland it sometimes grows in wet dune-slacks and as a dwarf, spreading shrub on wet rock ledges. Generally lowland, but reaching 940 m on Stob Binnein (Mid Perth).

 

Dark Red Helleborine
(Royal Helleborine)

 

Darnel Fescue
(Catapodium marinum)

Epipactis atrorubens
(Epipactis atropurpurea,
Epipactis rubiginosa,
Serapias atrorubens)

June-July

Epipactis is a genus of orchid comprised of approximately 63 terrestrial species.

 

Orchid 2 Family

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Epipactis atrorubens with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Red

A perennial herb found mostly on bare rock or well-drained skeletal soils overlying limestone. Habitats include exposed scree slopes, open grassy banks, shaded grikes of limestone pavements and ledges on cliff and quarry faces. Reproduction is by seed but most populations are small and often include many non-flowering plants.

Native in all Europe, except in Holland and Iceland.

See other photos of
Epipactis atrorubens
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation

darkfflo1redhelleborine1

darkfflos1redhelleborine1

darkffol1redhelleborine1

darkffor1redhelleborine1

Flower on 11 July

Flowers from Inchnadamph in Sutherland on 5 August

Foliage on Inchnadamph on 30 July

Form from Inchnadamph on 5 August

darkfflo2redhelleborine1

darkfflos2redhelleborine1

darkffol2redhelleborine1

darkffor2redhelleborine1

Flower from Poulsallagh

Flowers on 17 July

Foliage from Poulsallagh

Form from Poulsallagh

darkfflos3redhelleborine1

darkfflos4redhelleborine1

darkffol3redhelleborine1

darkkimredhelleborine1

Flowers from Poulsallagh

These photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord last century

Flowers on 17 July

Foliage from Poulsallagh in County Clare on 20 june

Kim photoing Dark Red Helleborine on Cliff Inchnadamph in Sutherland on 5 August

Darnel Grass
(Darnel,
Darnel Ryegrass,
Bearded Ryegrass,
Bearded Darnel)

 

 

darnelfflo1agrass1

Flower

Lolium temulentum

July onwards

 

darnelfflos1agrass

Flowers

The 2 small photos above were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

Grass 1 Family

 

An annual, formerly often a persistent weed of arable land. It is now a rare casual of waste places, originating from grain, bird-seed and wool shoddy.

A weed of cultivation almost throughout Europe.
The seeds can be infected by a fungus, or ergot, which probaly resul;ts in the presence of a poisonous substance, and it has been known since classical times that flour infected with seeds from this plant can cause blindness when eaten.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Lolium temulentum with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Deadly Nightshade

 

deadlyfflonightshade

Flower

Atropa bella-donna

May-August

Plate 61

Illustrated
 

deadlyffrunightshade1

Fruit

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Atropa bella-donna with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

 

Nightshade Family

 

 

 

 

deadlyffolnightshade

Foliage, Flower and Juvenile Fruit

deadlyffornightshade

Form

Brown
Purple

 

Native in most of Europe and Denmark, except in Northern Europe.
The shining black berries, about the size of a cherry, are sweetish to the taste and are extremely poisonous and can cause death. The whole plant contains the alkaloids, hyoscyamine, hyoscine, and atropine, which are used in medicine to stimulate the nervous system, and in particular to dilate the pupil of the eye. Used in the past for blanching the skin and removing freckles, hence the Latin name of the species.

 

 

See other photos of
Atropa bella-donna
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation

deadlynightshadeatropabelladonnasalisburyFrom Flowers of the Woods by E.J. Salisbury - Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published by Penguin Books Limited in 1946.

A robust rhizomatous perennial herb of dry disturbed ground, field margins, hedgerows and open woodland. It is native only on calcareous soils, particularly those overlying chalk, but it occurs on a wider range of soils as an alien, where it is often a relic of cultivation as a medicinal herb. Reproduction is mainly by bird-distributed seed.

 

From Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 1912:-
Atropos was one of the 3 Fates. She it was who cut the thread of life spun her sister. And this plant is her namesake, for it is, perhaps in 1912, the most poisonous plant that grows wild in the UK, and is well named the 'Death Herb'. Common names - Daft Berries, Devil's Berry, Mad Nightshade, Deadly or Sleeping Nightshade and Banewort (a plant to be banned).

deadlynightshadeatropabelladonnacorke1

Poisoning by eating these berries causes thirst, delerium, loss of conciousness, and finally death, unless remedies are applied. The best treatment in such a case is to give an emetic, a dose of magnesia, and then some hot coffee, and keep the patient warm. The poison principle runs throughout the plant. Grazing animals leave it severely alone, but small animals, such as rabbits, seem to eat it with impunity. If, however, these rabbits are in turn eaten by man, he may be poisoned.

Deer Grass

 

Dense-flowered Fumitory
(Fumaria densiflora)

Scirpus caespitosus
(Trichophorum caespitosus)

May-June

 

Sedge Rush-like Family

 

A densely tufted perennial herb occurring on peaty moors and bogs over acidic soils, persisting even in burnt and heavily deer-grazed areas. It is also local on open ground on wet lowland heaths in S. & E. England, where it often avoids the wettest sites and favours grazed, burnt and trampled areas. 0-1190 m (above Caenlochan, Angus).

Native in most of Europe, except in Hungary, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Romania.

 

Breckland Bent
(Dense Silkybent)

Apera interrupta
(Agrostis interrupta)

June-July

Plate 96

 

Grass Soft
Bromes 1
Family

 

An annual predominantly found in arable fields, where it can be a weed, but also recorded from road verges, trackways and quarries. It has a more permanent niche in some tightly grazed grassy or grass-heath habitats. It occurs in waste ground as a casual from wool shoddy and imported aggregates, and as a seed impurity.

Introduced to Great Britain.
In dry sandy fields in East Anglia and elsewhere, often only as a casual.
Native in Southern Europe from South-West France eastwards, north to Oland and Gotland; absent from the Balkans.

 

See other photos of
Apera interrupta
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Apera interrupta with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Deptford Pink
(Grass Pink)

cdeptfordflopink1a

fdeptfordflopink1

Flower

Dianthus armeria

June-August

 

 

 

 

fdeptfordflospink

Flowers

The 4 small photos above were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Pink Family

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Dianthus armeria with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Red
Pink A-G

An annual or short-lived perennial herb of open, disturbed sites, occurring in short grassland in pastures, roadsides, waysides and field margins, and as a casual on waste ground. It usually grows on dry, often mildly basic soils, but has been recorded on fen-peat. Lowland.

Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Finland.

fdeptfordforpink

Form

deptfordpinkdianthusarmeriapolunin1

Photo from Flowers of Europe A Field Guide by Oleg Polunin. Published by Oxford University Press in 1969.

 

See other photos of
Dianthus armeria
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Hedgerows, waysides and dry pastures especially on light sandy soil throughout England and Wales.

Slightly downy, dark green annual, with stiff stems 4-18 inches high.

Narrow light green basal leaves in a rosette, stem leaves obliquely ascending.

Bright Rose-Red flowers with pale dots in June-August followed by cylindrical seed capsules.

Infrequently visited by butterflies and automatically self-pollinated.

Devil's-Bit Scabious
(Devilsbit,
Devil's-bit)

Used within lifecycle of
Butterfly Marsh Fritillary,

devilsbitscabiousfflo

Flower

Dewberry
(Rubus caesius)

Diapensia
(Diapensia lapponica)

Succisa pratensis
(Scabiosa succisa)

June onwards

 

devilsbitscabiousfflos

Flowers

The 2 small photos above were taken by Ron or Christine Foord.

 

Teasel Family

Purple

A perennial herb, growing in a wide range of moist to moderately free-draining habitats, and favouring mildly acidic soils. It occurs in woodland rides, in heathland and grassland and in mires, and in the uplands on cliff ledges and in ravines. 0-970 m (Carnedd Dafydd, Caerns.).

Native in all Europe, except in Albania, Greece and Turkey.
Used herbally against sores and skin infections.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Succisa pratensis with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

 

The Teasel Family are "non-woody plants in many ways resembling the Daisy Family, especially for their well-stalked dense compound flower-heads, but distinguishable by the 4 stamens projecting from the individual white or mauvish flowers, the anthers not joined in a tube round the style, corolla 4-5-lobed. The true calyx is very narrow, with 4-5 segments, sometimes bristle-like and sits in a small green cup, what appears to be the calyx-teeth of the compound flower-head are actually a series of bracts. Leaves all opposite. Fruits small, seeded." from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978.

Separate-headed Sedge (Dioecious Sedge)

Carex dioica

May

 

Sedges Carex 3 Family

 

A shortly rhizomatous perennial herb of very wet, neutral to base-rich mires. It grows particularly well in silty, calcareous mud and by the edges of lime-rich flushes and springs. Although it occurs at sea level, many sites are at moderate or high altitudes, ascending to about 1000 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria

 

See other photos of
Carex dioica
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Carex dioica with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Distant Sedge

Carex distans

June

 

Sedges Carex 1 Family

 

A perennial herb found on sea-cliffs, rocky shores, in coastal grasslands and the uppermost parts of saltmarshes; usually growing in bare rock-crevices or on free-draining sandy or gravelly substrates, but also in flushes and seepage zones on cliffs, and where streams debouch onto the shore. Inland, it occurs in wet meadows, marshes and fens on mineral-rich soils.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.

 

See other photos of
Carex distans
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Carex distans with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Dittander
(Breitblattrige,
Kresse,
Broad-Leaf Peppergrass, Erva-Pimenteira,
Grand Passerage, Lepidio,
Mastuerzo Montesino, Peppergrass,
Perennial Cress, Perennial Peppercress, Perennial Pepperweed, Piperisa,
Broad-leaved Pepperwort,
Broadleaved Pepperweed,
Broadleaf Pepperwort)

Divided Sedge
(Carex divisa)

Lepidium latifolium
(Cardaria latifolia)

July-August

 

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1 Family

 

A rhizomatous perennial herb native on creek-sides, ditches, sea-walls, open brackish grassland and the upper fringes of estuarine saltmarshes. It is also naturalised in disturbed areas such as waste ground, dockland, railways and roadsides.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland, Norway and Finland.

 

See other photos of
Lepidium latifolium
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Lepidium latifolium with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Dog Rose
(Common Briar,
Common-briar)

is Edible,

dogfflo1rose1

Flower

dogfflo2rose1

Flower

Rosa canina
(Rosa coriifolia,
Rosa stylosa,
Rosa obtusifolia)

Has red hips in the Autumn

June-July

 

dogfflos1rose1

Flowers

96 x 72
(250 x 180)

Rose 2 Family

dogffrus1rose1

Unripe Hips

dogffrus3rose1

Hips

These small photos above were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Rosa canina with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Pale Pink A-G or white

A deciduous shrub of well-drained calcareous to moderately acidic soils. Habitats include woodland, scrub, hedgerows, cliffs, river banks, rock outcrops, roadsides, railways and waste ground. It can rapidly colonise open, disturbed sites.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

dogffol1rose1

Foliage

dogroserosacaninacorke Dog Rose Rosa canina from Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914:-

Each flower has a bare two-days' life before it when its buds open, and the whole of its "season" is comprised in a scant 3 weeks. July 22 in 1912 usually sees the last of the flowers.
The plant has thorns, which not only serve as a great protection from foes without, but they also help it to climb, preventing it losing its hold and slipping back as it clambers over the hedges.
There are 5 sharply pointed green sepals, sometimes themselves bearing pointed teeth, and 5 pink and white petals.
After flowering it forms hips which are appreciated by the birds as food, like the blackbirds, thrushes, and jackdaws who swallow them whole. After digestion of the outer part, then the seeds within are dropped, perhaps, far away from their native bush.

 

"The most common native rose, found growing wild in hedgerows and on roadsides.

Plant new bushes between late autumn and early spring, when the ground is frozen. Add garden compost of well-rotted manure to the planting hole. Set hedging plants 12-18 (30-45) apart.

Used in hedging and woodland edge." from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993 (ISBN 0 7153 0033 4).

 

 

 

The following photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord:-

 

dogffrus2rose1a

dogffol2rose1

 

Ripe Hips

Foliage in August

 

 

dogffor1rose1

 

 

Form in July

dogfflos2rose1

dogffol3rose1

dogfflo2budrose1

Foliage from Capstone Countryside Park in June

Flower Bud from Capstone Countryside Park in June

dogffor2rose1

Flowers

Form from Kemsing in October

Heath Dog Violet
(Heath Violet,
Dog Violet,
Common Dog Violet)

Used within lifecycles of Butterfly Dark Green Fritillary,
Butterfly High Brown Fritillary,
Butterfly Pearl-bordered Fritillary,
Butterfly Silver-washed Fritillary,
Butterfly Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary,

Blue Wildflower,

Viola canina

Blue with yellow spur in April-June followed by seed pods.

 

 

 

 

fheathfrudogviolet

Seeds

The above 2 photos were taken by Christine or Ron Foord.

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Violet Family

Has no central non-flowering rosette of leaves, which ae heart-shaped, but are thick, dark and distinctly long than broad.

 

fheathfrusdogviolet

Seed Pods

Blue

Perennial with stems decumbent to erect, solitary to many together from a short creeping rhizome. Dry Turf on sandy Fens, woods and hedgebanks on calcareous (chalk) soils throughout the UK.

A perennial herb of a variety of acid habitats, including heaths, coastal dunes, stony riversides and lake shores, especially in Scotland. It can also occur on thin, heavily leached substrates overlying chalk and (as subsp. montana) in fens.

Native in all Europe, except in Albania and Greece.

dogvioletviolacaninacorke Dog Violet Viola canina from Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914:-

At the outset its leaves enter upon the stage of life after a most neat and dainty fashion. At first each appears rolled up into 2 tight coils, lying side by side at the end of the stalk. As the days pass the rolls uncurl and move apart and eventually the whole face of the leaf lies spread out before us.
There are 5 pale, purple petals, 2 smaller ones on top, 2 larger ones as wings, and one, largest of all, which is intended to serve as an alighting platform for bee visitors. This large petal has a long and deep pouch attached to it, and, is marked by streaks and lines which point in the direction of the mouth of this pouch.
Directly the season for flowering is over the plant sets to work to repair omissions since few of the proper flowers above have been pollinated by bees. It produces down among the leaves, things which are the mearst apology for flowers, which have no petals, no scent, no honey and which never open to the light of day. The pollen of the stamens and unripe seeds within touches the seeds-to-be and the seeds then ripen. Once ripened, they are shot out sometimes as far as 36 inches (90 cms).

Dog's Mercury

dogsfflofemalemercury

Female Flower from Halling in Kent on 21 March

dogsfflosfemalemercury

Female Flowersfrom Halling in Kent on 21 March

dogsffol2mercury

Foliage

Mercurialis perennis

February-May

 

dogsfflomalemercury

Male Flowers from Halling in Kent on 21 March

dogsfflosmalemercury

Male flowersfrom Halling in Kent on 21 March

The above 8 small photos were taken by Christine or Ron Foord

 

Spurge Family

 

dogsfflomalewithstemmercury

Male Flowers on stem from Halling in Kent on 21 March

dogsffol1mercury

Foliage from Halling in Kent on 21 March

 

A rhizomatous, dioecious perennial herb usually growing on damp but free-draining base-rich soils. In the lowlands it is largely restricted to shaded sites, including ancient woodland, older secondary woodland, hedgerows and shaded banks, but in the uplands it occurs on unshaded basic crags, scree, cliff ledges and in ravines, particularly on moist N.-facing slopes, and it also grows in the grikes of limestone pavements. 0-1005 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).

dogsfformercury

Form from Halling in Kent on 21 March

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
The plant is poisonous to humans and livestock.

dogsmercurymercurialisperennissalisbury1From Flowers of the Woods by E.J. Salisbury - Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published by Penguin Books Limited in 1946.

Dogwood
(Bloodtwig Dogwood, Dogberry,
Blood-twig Dogwood,
Common Dogwood)

Used within lifecycle of Butterfly Green Hairstreak,
Used within lifecycle of
Butterfly Holly Blue

 

 

 

 

dogwoodfflo1

Flower

Thelycrania sanguinea
(Cornus sanguinea,
Swida sanguinea)

June-July

 

 

 

 

 

 

dogwoodfflos1

Flowers

The above 4 small photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

Cornel (Dogwood) Family

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dogwoodffol

Foliage

 

A deciduous shrub, locally frequent in woodland, scrub, hedgerows and shelter-belts on limestone soils or base-rich clays, and sometimes dominant in hedges and scrub on chalk. It is frequently planted in landscaping schemes and is introduced sporadically, or occurs as an escape, outside its native range.

 

dogwoodffor1

Form

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland: introduced into Finland.
The fruits yield an oil sometimes used for llumination and soap-making; the flexible twigs can be used for basket-making.

dogwoodcornussanguineacorke1 Dogwood Cornus sanguinea from Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914:-

In 1914 it often formed a handsome part of the composite hedgerows that border old roads, and it is a true native of the UK countryside. In early summer it produces its creamy, flat clusters of flowers, then in autumn when its foliage dies with depths of rich crimson and red-purple tones to give the dogwood';s specific name - sanguinea.
Though mostly a shrub it may rise as much as 168 or 180 inches (420 or 450 cms) in height. Its wood is hard and horn-like, hence the generic name Cornus (Latin, a horn), and its use for ramrods, cog-wheels and skewers.
The old branches of the shrub are covered with brown bark scored with cracks, but the young shoots of the spring are a bright crimson. The glossy leaves are a broad oval with a sharp tip, and carry strongly marked lateral veins. Each leaf has a short stalk and stands with a fellow in pairs along the stems. The individual pairs are arranged on the stem in such a way that they always get the maximum of sunlight.
The Dogwood has flowers massed together. Individually each little flower has its tiny sepals united with the ovary wall, only their 4 teeth appearing. Its 4 white petals form a severe-looking cross.

 

See other photos of
Cornus sanguinea
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Cornus sanguinea with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Don's Twitch
(Bearded Couch-grass)

 

Dorset Heath
(Erica ciliaris)

Agropyron donianum
(Elymus caninus donianum,
Elymus donianum, Elymus trachycaulus donianus,
Roegneria doniana
, Agropyron caninum, Elymus caninus , Roegneria canina, Elytrigia canina, Brachypodium caninum, Triticum rupestre, Roegneria behmii, Goulardia canina, Triticum caninum, Agropyron biflorum, Triticum biflorum )

July-September


donsfflostwitch

Flowers

 

Grass Soft
Bromes 1
Family

 

 

 

 

 

 

donsffoltwitch

Foliage

The 3 small photos above were taken by Ron or Christine Foord

 

A loosely tufted perennial herb, intolerant of grazing, found in partially shaded sites in woodland, on river banks and roadside margins on free-draining, mainly base-rich, soils. It is also found in mountain areas in gullies, on cliffs and rock-ledges.

donsffortwitch

Form

Native on mountains in mid Perth and Sutherland in Great Britain.
Native in Iceland (var. stefansonii) and North America.

 

Details of
Agropyron donianum with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Dotted Sedge

Carex punctata

June

 

Sedges Carex 1 Family

 

A perennial herb of sheltered rock ledges and clefts on sea-cliffs, invariably in seepage zones where freshwater trickles down the cliff-face. It is also found on wet sandy patches in saltmarshes, and amongst rocks or on sand where streams debouch onto the shore. It occurs in similar habitats to Carex distans, and may sometimes be mistaken for it.

Native. In marshes and cracks in wet rocks by the sea. Cornwall to Hampshire; Suffolk; West Wales, Isle of Man, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown; Kerry and Cork in Great Britain.
Native in Western Europe from South-West Norway southwards, Mediterranean region, rarely inland.

 

See other photos of
Carex punctata
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

Dove's-foot Cranesbill
(Dove's-foot Geranium, Géranium à feuilles molles in France, Weicher Storchen-schnabel in Germany, mjuknäva in Sweden, zachte ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Dovefoot Geranium in USA
)

 

dovesfootfflocranesbill

Flower

Downy Hemp-Nettle
(Galeopsis dubia)

Geranium molle

April-September

 

 

 

 

dovesfootffloscranesbill1

Flowers

Above 4 small photos were taken by Christine or Ron Foord.

 

Geranium Family

dovesfootffolcranesbill1

Foliage

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Geranium molle with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Pink A-G

An annual found in a wide array of open habitats, including dry grasslands, rock outcrops, cultivated land, garden lawns, verges and waste ground.

 

dovesfootfforcranesbill1

Form

Native throughout Europe.

dovesfootgeraniumgeraniummollecorke Dove's-foot Geranium Geranium molle from Wild Flowers as They Grow- Photographed by H. Essenhigh Corke, text by G. Clark Nuttall. Published by Cassell and Company, Ltd in 7 separate books between 1911 and 1914:-

The Latin specific name, molle (Latin mollis, soft) refers to the whole plant being clothed with a vesture of white, silky and comparitively long hairs that spread upon the stems, lie shorter but thicker upon the leaves both fore and back, and even tinge the petals with delicate edging.
It leans upon the grass or other plants in its vicinity. It is rarely 12 inches (30 cms) in height, and green in the upper reaches, though its stems blush to redness towards the base.The lowermost radicle leaves are lifted high on long stalks, a necessary provision to enable them to breast the herbage around and get their share of the sunlight.
The flower buds begin to appear in April, and keep on coming cheerfully and undauntedly all through the summer and on into late autumn. The plant is found in damp hedgesides, it loves the fields, especially those that are in cultivation, and it climbs with alacrity the walls that surround them, nestling quite happily in the crevices between the rough stones. The little flowers are always in pairs, being the size of a threepenny bit in 1914. It has 5 ordinary green sepals, 5 petals, each notched, 5 stamens in an outer ring, 5 in an inner, all with purple anthers, and a 5-lobed, 5-celled ovary, the lobes ranged round a central axis that grows up from the stalk end.

See other photos of
Geranium molle
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation

Downy Oat Grass
(Flaumhafer,
Downy Alpine Oatgrass, Downy Oat,
Hairy Oat-grass)

Avenula pubescens
(Helictotrichon pubescens,
Avena pubescens, Avenochloa pubescens
)

May-July

 

Plate 96

Synonym

 

Grass Soft
Bromes 1
Family

 

A perennial grass growing in a wide range of moist or dry, neutral and calcareous grasslands. It is found in meadows and pastures, on roadsides and railway banks, in open woodland and rides, coastal cliffs, fixed dunes, mildly acidic grassland over gravel, and some less acidic heaths. It tolerates modest mowing, grazing and manuring, but not artificial fertilisers or competition from vigorous fodder-grasses.

Native in all Europe with Austria, Greece and Turkey, except not native in Iceland.

 

See other photos of
Avenula pubescens
from freenatureimages.eu of the Saxifraga Foundation.

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Avenula pubescens with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Apple Rose
(Downy Rose,
Soft Downy Rose)

Rosa villosa
(Rosa tomentosa,
Rosa sherardii,
Rosa pomifera,
Rosa sancti-andreae)

June-July

 

Rose 2 Family

 

Gallery of Photos/Illustrations, Common Name and Synonym of
Rosa villosa with
its distribution in USA and Canada from
Flora of USA and Canada.

Pink A-G

A fairly common wild rose, distinguished from the common dog rose by its very particular deep pink flowers, and also the smaller, greyer, softly downy leaves that give the plant its name. Downy roses seem to have a liking for lime, and are most often seen on the southern Tabular Hills on the Corallian limestones.

Native and widespread in hedges and bushy places in Great Britain.
Native in Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

These photos were taken by Ron or Christine Foord:-

downyfflo1rose

downyfflo2budrose

downyfforrose

Flower from Red Point in Ross on 3 July

Flower Bud from Red Point on 3 July

Form --->

downyfflosrose

downyffolrose

Flowers from Red Point on 3 July

downyffrurose

downyffrusrose

Hip

Hips

Foliage from Red Point on 3 July

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

  • its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links
  • to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,
  • to see photos in its Flowering Months and
  • to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

you know which family it belongs to, use
WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
the remainder of this Family list is in the extreme left hand table.
 

 

 

You know its Botanical Name, use
...Brown Botanical Names (see complete botanical name alphabetical link list in the previous table)

You know its Common Name, use
...Cream Common Names (see complete common name alphabetical link list in the previous table)
or use the
Colour Wheel Gallery .

If you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

 

 

Which wild flowers are there, with their flower shape and wildflower plant, use

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses
 




Each of the 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant
The links for the above are at the top of the previous table.
 
 
 
 

You know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge

Wild Flower Family Page

The families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in each row of the Botanical Names Gallery and the Common Name Gallery starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307 in June 2022.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families.

 

The following article about flash-flooding caused by concreting over front gardens by Janice Turner in her Notebook was published by The Times on Thursday July 1 2021:-

"Walking down a pretty street I'd always admired for its front gardens with wooden gates and well-tended flower beds, I noticed men at work laying concrete slabs. With a power point being installed too, it was clear the garden was being paved to charge an electric car.
In London, with an ultra low emission zone extended to the suburbs from October, many people are busy switching vehicles. With fears that even hybrids will soon be verboten, most have bought electric. But this creates a problem: running cables from house o pavement is an illegal trip hazard and, as yet, not enough lamposts have been adapted into charging stations.
So how many front gardens will be concreted over to create private power sources?
A 2015 study by the Royal Horticultural Society noted that 1 in 4 front gardens had been paved, mainly to avoid parking fees. The result was more flash-flooding, higher urban temperatures and less biodiversity and opportunity for birds to feed. Plus it makes neighbourhoods ugly and monochrome. Now more gardens will be dug up, this time because the owners aspire to be green."

"Mon, 27 Nov 06
Britain is now building the smallest homes in Europe, it seems.
A recent think-tank report shows most of Europe builds houses of an average 100 sq m, while here in the UK fresh data from Wolsey Securities shows the national average plot size decreased a further 0.2% last month to 968 sq ft. (89.9 sq m.)" from Home.co.uk.
A new house is approximately 31 x 31 feet, which would fit into my front garden.

"The length of a compact car is about 14.5 to 15 feet and measures about 5.5 to almost 6 feet wide." from reference.
Allowing 2 feet around the car for access, then the drive becomes 19 feet x 10 feet (570 x 300 cms). 2 inches (5cm) of rain falling onto this 5.70 x 3.00 concrete drive is 0.855 cubic metres of water. Modern contractors only dig a 1 cubic metre sump for this 2 inch (5cm) depth of rainwater per occasion over their new drives. If the drive is larger, then the sump will fill up and overflow onto the public road. If the subsoil is clay, then no matter it's size, it will become full of rainwater and new rain will overfill it. The only way it will reduce the stored water is for it to be absorbed into the clay. Clay can absorb 40% of its volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. So what happens is the clay expands and the house gets subsidence. Then, the excess rainwater goes into the storm drains and that is what causes the flash-flooding mentioned in The Times article. Remember that the rainwater falling on the roof also goes into this stormdrain.
"Many storm drainage systems drain untreated storm water into rivers or streams." from wikipedia.

The rainwater that used to fall on that plot and soak into the ground, now mostly goes into a storm drain, then a river and then the sea, so we lose that rainwater for it to be used as a supply of water to the household. So, the more you cover the ground with concrete motorways, roads, houses, and other buildings the less water will be going into reservoirs to be used for humans as shown by my Drinking Water depri-vation in Medway article.

"The oxygen you breathe to keep you alive has mostly been produced by plants. A 25 feet x 25 feet lawn can produce enough oxygen for you to keep breathing each year.
A car driven 60 miles will consume the same amount of oxygen that a mature beech tree produces in 1 year, creating more Carbon Dioxide. Increasing Carbon Dioxide increases the heat in the atmosphere and creates Climate Change. The increase in temperature will raise sea level to drown many acres of coastal areas around the world within the next 30 years, including my house.

Green Solution: Use Cedadrive Stabilisation system instead of concrete slabs for drive area. Fill it with Heicom Tree Sand, water it, sow wildflower meadow mixture Barflora Flower Meadow and retop with same sand. Then in the autumn, mow it once and have something that provides you with oxygen as well as hard standing for your car.
This Cedadrive could occupy the whole of your front garden and thus keep all the rainwater that falls on it as well.
If you put the same system on your back garden, then maintenance time is minimal, small children and pets can play on it, and you can have table/chairs and barbecue being supported by it.

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

At least 2 of these butterflies live in America as well as in the UK in 2022:-
Carterocephalus palaemon (Chequered Skipper) - Arctic Skippering - a butterfly of America.
Papilio machaon machaon (Swallowtail) - Old World Swallowtail - a butterfly of America.

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
92,
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,61,62,
63,64,

Hemp (cannabis sativa) - 1% of Irelands landmass, growing hemp for fuel, would provide all the energy needs for the country each year, keeping the money with the farmers and keeping the rural economies active and this is also an environmentally friendly fuel. Hemp only has 100,000 commercial uses, so is not worth growing. 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol and is cheaper to produce than petrol or diesel

Common Name of each Plant within each Common Name Extras Page:-

Common Name of each Plant within each Common Name Extras Page:-

 

Common Name Extras 57
Hairy Buttercup
Pale Hairy Buttercup.
Alpine Clematis
Alpine Sow-Thistle.
Alpine Lettuce
Alpine Blue Sow-Thistle.
Blue Sow Thistle
Alpine Squill
Apple-of-Peru
Arctic Bellflower
Arctic Harebell
Bearded Bellflower
Bearded Hairbell
Bladder Gentian
Blue Anemone
Apennine Anemone
Windflower
Blue Bugle
Blue Pimpernel
Small Bugloss
Bavarian Gentian
Blue-eyed Mary
Creeping Forget-me-not.
Cross Gentian
Creeping Water Forget-me-not.
Creeping Forget-me-not.
Blue Woodruff
Breck Speedwell
Breckland Speedwell.
Bur Forget-me-not
Bristly Bellflower
Changing Forget-me-not.
Hairless Blue Sow Thistle.
Cicerbita
Common Field Speedwell.
Common Globularia.
Common Blue Daisy.
Common Grape Hyacinth.
Grape Hyacinth
Common Lungwort.
Cultivated Flax
Linseed Oil Plant
Flax
Common Flax
Green Alkanet
Green Field Speedwell.
Heath Dog Violet
Heath Violet
Dog Violet
Oyster Plant
Sea Lungwort
Northern Water Forget-me-not
Pale Forget-me-not
Perennial Flax
Purple Gromwell
Rampion Bellflower
Rock Speedwell
Snow Gentian
Alpine Gentian
Small Alpine Gentian.
Schnee Enzian
Hairy Brome Grass.
Rosebay Willowherb.
Teazel
Teasel
Bramble
Burdocks
Burdock
Great Burdock
Dwarf Thistle
Stemless Thistle
Weld
Dyers Rocket
 

Common Name Extras 58:-
Field Rose
Scented Orchid
Gorse
Greater Knapweed.
Ratstail Plantain
Heartsease
Hedge Woundwort.
Maritime Pine
Oak Tree
Pussy Willow
Netted Willow
Pigweed
Sea Sandwort
Mossy Pearlwort
Water Chickweed
Water Stitchwort
Sand Spurrey
Coral Necklace
Cliff Spurrey
Agrimony
Common Agrimony
Garden Angelica
Michael Daisies
Birch
Breckland Catchfly
Small-flowered Catchfly.
Greater Spearwort.
Wild Peony
Oregon Grape
Corn Poppy

Common Name Extras 59
Solid-rooted Fumewort.
Eastern Rocket
Great Sea Stock
Twisted Whitlow-Grass.
Common Penny-Cress.
Early Scurvy-Grass.
Wild Candytuft
Slender Wart Cress
Sweet Alison
Small Balsam
Small Goosegrass
Squinancywort
Woodruff
Wild Madder
Giant Bellflower
Common Dodder
Field Bindweed
Greater Dodder
Fringed Water-Lily.
Common Comfrey
Common Gromwell.
Soft Comfrey
Tufted Forget-me-not.
Common Broomrape.
Great Broomrape
Knapweed Broomrape
Oxtongue Broomrape

Common Name Extras 60
Thyme Broomrape.
Yellow Broomrape.
Butterfly-Bush.
Adder's-tongue Spearwort.
Creeping Spearwort.
Lesser Meadow-Rue.
Meadow Buttercup.
Pyrenean Columbine.

Common Name Extras 60
Round-leaved Crowfoot.
Small-flowered Buttercup.
Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot.
Thread-leaved Crowfoot.
Three-lobed Crowfoot.
Three-lobed Water Crowfoot.
Various-leaved Crowfoot.
Pond Water-Crowfoot.
Greater Bladderwort.
Irish Bladderwort
Pale Butterwort.
Bargeman's Cabbage.
Brown-Leaved Watercress.
Narrow-fruited Watercress.
Common Wart Cress.
Swinecress.
Common Whitlow-Grass.
Early Winter-Cress.
False London Rocket.
Garden Radish
Hutchinsia.
Long-Leaved Scurvy-Grass.
Northern Rock-Cress.
Small-flowered Land-Cress.
Small-flowered Wintercress.

Common Name Extras 61
Small Alison
Smith's Cress
Smith's Pepperwort.
Sterile Watercress.
Hybrid Watercress.
Tower Mustard
Tumbling Mustard.
Upland Scurvy-Grass.
Common Fleabane.
Common Ragwort.
St. James' wort
Gallant Soldier
Heath Groundsel
Irish Fleabane
Shaggy Soldier
Silver Ragwort
Small Fleabane
Trifid Bur-Marigold
Autumn Hawkbit
Lesser Hawkbit
Marsh Sow-Thistle.
Smooth Sow-Thistle.
Viper's Grass
Buttonweed
Common Chamomile.
Cottonweed
Pineapple Weed
Scented Mayweed.
Broad-leaved Cudweed.
Canadian Fleabane.

Common Name Extras 62
Common Cudweed.
Dwarf Cudweed
Highland Cudweed.
Mexican Fleabane
Michaelmas Daisy
Mountain Everlasting.
Narrow Cudweed
Pearl Everlasting
Red-Tipped Cudweed.
Small Cudweed
Alpine Clubmoss
Bluebell
Morello Cherry
Pot Marigold
Wild Mignonette
Corn Mignonette
Wall Pennywort
Large Yellow Stonecrop.
Pink Stonecrop
Fingered Saxifrage.
Kidney Saxifrage
Common Eel-Grass.
Dwarf Eel-grass
Coritanian Elm
Fairy Foxglove
Large-flowered Mullein.
Lesser Snapdragon.

Common Name Extras 63
Prostrate Toadflax.
Sharp-leaved Fluellen.
Welsh Mudwort
Western Figwort
Eyebright
Greater Yellow Rattle.
Heath Speedwell
Slender Speedwell.
Small Cow-Wheat.
Fairy Flax
Esthwaite Waterweed.
Common Fumitory.
Common Ramping-Fumitory.
Bermuda Grass
Bottle-Grass
Common Cord-Grass.
Common Couch
Dwarf Millet
Sand Couch
Sea Couch
Somerset Hair-Grass.
Wall Barley
Channel Centaury.
Early Gentian
Field Gentian
Perennial Centaury.
Scottish Gentian.

Common Name Extras 64
Long-Stalked Cranesbill.
Small-Flowered Cranesbill.

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. If the plant you see here has the same zone in your area of that country, then you can grow it at your home.

Normally in the fourth column below, I insert which countries in Europe, the plant is native in; introduced into or except from.
Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe.
If this plant is also part of the flora of USA, Canada, or China then normally I would insert this fact in the fifth column below.

Seeing which Native UK Wildflowers are also native in your country within Europe, Soviet Union, USA, Canada or China you can then use them with the cultivated plants for your country in your own home garden - so help your local wildlife including Butterflies - and home with snippets from Flower Arrangements from Wild Flowers by Violet Stevenson. Published by J M Dent & Sons in 1972. ISBN 0 460 07844 5. View my chapter precis before executing the flower arranging of the plants.

 

The Saxifraga Foundation is a network of European nature photographers, whose aim is to stimulate and facilitate the conservation of European biodiversity. They do so by providing high-quality nature pictures free of charge.

The website free natureimages.eu is an initiative of the Saxifraga Foundation. The Saxifrage foundation is assisted by the Crossbill Guides Foundation, Dutch Butterfly Conservation (De Vlinderstichting) and Foto Fitis.

Currently, Saxifraga is working on two projects. The first one is the construction of a gallery of pictures of European plants, animals and landscapes. To download these pictures, go to the Saxifraga Gallery. With the search engine you can search for images using the scientific name or the common name of plants and animals in Dutch and English.

The second project is the creation of a collection of images of the Dutch landscape (NL in Beeld). This has been done by taking pictures in a grid in a systematic way. We have used the so called Amersfoort-coordinates, which are found on official Dutch topographic maps. The Amersfoort grid is a collection of square kilometers. To find more details visit the website of NL in Beeld. The pictures can be viewed at the Saxifraga Gallery.

 

 

British Trees website:-
"This is the world’s leading online resource about British trees. Explore our A-Z Tree Guide to learn about, appreciate and identify over 70 tree and shrub species found in the British Isles.
The guide includes all native (naturally arrived) as well as common non-native (introduced by people) trees found in the UK.

Acknowledgements
Bill Unsworth created the first British Trees website, which he wanted to be the definitive guide to British Trees. In 2004, he kindly donated this website to the
Woodland Trust, the UK’s leading woodland conservation charity. Since then, the Trust has developed and expanded upon Bill’s original website and now re-launched it, as an even bigger and better resource about British Trees.
We also extend our thanks to Collins who have generously supplied illustrations from their '
Tree Guide' book to accompany the species entries on the website."

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.

• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.

• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.

• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.

• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.

Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.

Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

Theme

Plants

Comments

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Butterfly Garden

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens

With around 23 million gardens in the UK, covering 435,000 ha, gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats. And, with a bit of planning and a few tweaks, they can indeed be wonderful places for a whole host of creatures, from birds to bees, butterflies, frogs and toads, as well as many less obvious creatures. Wildlife-friendly gardens can be beautiful too, and a colourful garden full of life can lift the spirits and give immense pleasure, and can also help to connect people, both young and old, with our wonderful wildlife.

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden

• Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract.
• Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
• Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
• Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures.
• Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
• Feed the Birds And other creatures too.
• Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
• Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden. Follow the links below to explore our show gardens, and when you visit, be sure to pick up a copy of our Wildlife Gardening Trail guide

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden

 

Database of Insects and their Food Plants from the Biological Records Centre:-

This database is primarily a collation of published interactions between Great Britain 's invertebrate herbivores (insects and mites) and their host plants. There are also some interactions for the invertebrates closely associated with herbivores, such as predators, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and mutualists. DBIF contains about 47,000 interactions for roughly 9,300 invertebrate taxa (species, sub-species and forms) and 5,700 plant taxa (species, genera and broader groupings).

DBIF aims to help researchers access the accumulated knowledge of British plant-herbivore interactions, which is otherwise scattered throughout a vast published literature. The database complements the more specialised internet resources that focus on particular groups (see Links). We hope that the database is of use to professional researchers in the environmental sciences and expert amateurs alike.

DBIF is derived from the Phytophagous Insect Data Bank (see PIDB), which was the brainchild of Dr Lena Ward. Many people have contributed to the version of the database presented here; we would like to thank them all for their varied and skilled support (see Acknowledgements).

To ensure that the information held in the database is used appropriately, please take time to read about what the database contains (see Description of the database ), and what caveats or limitations may apply (see Interpreting foodplant records and Limitations ).

Lastly, DBIF is a work in progress and this website is still under development in some areas. We would be very surprised if you did not find some omissions, or nomenclature that did not need updating. Please alert us (see Contact us) of any necessary changes or of the presence of new sources. They will be incorporated in future updates.

A companion piece in the naturalists' magazine British Wildlife (Smith & Roy, 2008) serves as an introduction to invertebrate herbivory and DBIF.

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-

"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Chalk and sand, freely-drained soil mix

A wonderfully varied self-sowing wild flower mix for thin, poor, chalky or sandy soils to give your garden or field flowers right through the year and food for the birds and bees.
To cover an area of 3m2
General Height: 60cm.
Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Crosswort April - June
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Kidney Vetch May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Red Clover May – October
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July
• Wild Mignonette May – August

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Field Scabious June – September
• Hedge Bedstraw June – August
• Viper’s Bugloss June – September
• Meadow Cranesbill June – September
• Greater Knapweed June – August
• Salad Burnet June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Wild Carrot June – September
• Wild Marjoram July – September

 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Clay and rich loam soil mix

There are two main things I want from my wildflower meadow – to look beautiful for months not weeks, with flowers coming out and going over in succession AND to grow pollen-rich, insect friendly plants from EARLY in the year to LATE. I want my patch to be a regular and reliable food source for the birds and the bees. That’s what you’ll get with this beautiful selection of my favourite easy and reliable perennial wild flowers.
To cover an area of 3m2

General Height: 60cm.

Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Rough Hawksbit May – July
• Red Clover May – October
• Oxeye Daisy May – July
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Self Heal June – September
• Sorrel June – September
• Tufted Vetch June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Common Toadflax July – October
• Musk Mallow July – October
• Ragged Robin July – September

 

Flack Family Farm:-

", in the Vermont hills, is a biodynamic farm using organic practices. Natural minerals and planned grazing with American Milking Devon cattle rejuvenate the soil, sequester carbon and yield nutrient dense foods and medicines including milk, grass fed meats, eggs, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut and kimchi / kim-chi), and herbal tinctures. We offer educational opportunities, farm visits, and seminars on nutrition, growing and preparing nutrient dense food, diversified farming and fermentation.
AMERICAN MILKING DEVON, breeding stock, semen (shipped directly to you), bulls, bred cows, exclusively grass fed beef.
GRASS-FED BEEF and PORK are raised naturally on pasture and sold in farm shop and through bulk order.
LACTO-FERMENTED VEGETABLES, traditional foods are produced on farm and sold in Vermont natural food stores and in farm shop (no mail order). Workshops on the lacto-fermentation process available.
MEDICINAL HERBS are propagated, harvested and tinctured. For herbal list, which includes Motherwort above.
FARM FRESH RAW MILK available on farm, call to get on schedule. We do not feed grain. We test our cows for several milk quality components, details available on request.
EDUCATION THROUGH HANDS-ON LEARNING, DISCUSSIONS, AND PRACTICE are the core of farm life. Doug Flack and farm family share their knowledge through farm work opportunities, classes and farm tours. Raw Milk Theater
THE FARM IS SEASONAL IN NATURE. Grazing, milking, birthing, planting and harvesting take place from March - November."

Edible Plants Club website

"has been created largely from the point of view of a plantsman interested in the many different resources available in the plant world, especially edible and medicinal plants.

What started me off on this path was reading Robert Harts book Forest Gardening and then Ken Fearns Plants for a Future and also Richard Mabeys 'Food For Free' along the way. This also led to me to change my career and become a gardener."

'Sort out your soil' - A practical guide to Green Manures, and Frequently Asked Questions from the Receptionist Myrtle of Cotswold Grass Seeds.

 

See Table 10 in Brown Wildflower Note Map Page.
British Floral Sources of Importance to Honey Bees from
Plants and Honey Bees
An Introduction to Their Relationships
by David Aston and Sally Bucknall.
Printed by Northern Bee Books.
First published 2004, Reprinted 2009. ISBN 0-393-30879-0

Saltmarsh Management Manual from the Environment Agency informs you about:-

  • What is Saltmarsh,
  •  
  • Why manage Saltmarsh and
  •  
  • Saltmarsh Management

 

Helping Earth's Sustainable Management with a Plant

"Alternatives to the burning of fossil fuels, nuclear waste, deforestation and nitrate chemical fertilizers need to be developed. Hemp could have a vital role to play in the development of friendly alternatives.

Energy production 
A report published by the FCDA of Europe outlines the Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE), outlining a convincing case that hemp plants can be used to produce fuel energy CHEAPER per BtU than fossil fuels and uranium - WITHOUT PRODUCING GREENHOUSE GASES! Hemp plants have the highest known quantities of cellulose for annuals - with at least 4x (some suggest even 50-100x) the biomass potential of its closest rivals (cornstalks, sugarcane, kernaf and trees) (Omni, 1983). Biomass production still produces greenhouse gases, although the idea is that the excess of carbon dioxide will be used up by growing hemp plants - they are effective absorbers and thrive at high levels - Unlike fossil fuel energy which produces energy from plants which died millions of years ago.

On reading the report of the FCDA, Hon. Jonathon Porrit (ex-director of Friends of the Earth, currently on the Board of Forum for the Future) commented  'I DID enjoy reading it - the report should contribute much'. Three years later - authorities are still not taking the potential of this plant seriously. MAFF are currently engaging in supporting research into the biomass potential of poplar trees which they claim has the most scientific support for biomass energy production. H-E-M-P recommend use of the hemp plant if biomass energy production is to have any real impact in reducing carbon dioxide levels.

  IT'S SO PRODUCTIVE! 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol.

  In fact, Henry Ford's first car ran on hemp-methanol! - and at just a fraction of the cost of petroleum alternatives. Alternatives to coal, fuel oil, acetone, ethyl, tar pitch and creosote can be derived - from this one single plant!

  As regards depletion of the ozone layer - hemp actually withstands UV radiation. It absorbs UV light, whilst resisting damage to itself and providing protection for everything else.

  Risk-free, pollution-free energy. No acid rain, and a reduction in airborne pollution of up to 80% ... There's further potential for the same in industry. "

 

Suppliers of British native-origin seeds and plants:-

"Flora locale maintains a list of suppliers who should be able to supply seeds and/or plants of known British (and sometimes known local) native-origin. Although not all their stock will necessarily be of British native-origin, they should be able to provide details of provenance on request.

View Flora locale's list of suppliers - follow the "Suppliers of native flora" link.

You may also wish to view the Really Wild Flowers site, which contains a wealth of information about creating habitats and cultivating native species."

 

British Native Plants List of Edible Plants:-

"I thought it would be useful to include native plant lists from different regions of the world. This list is from British Isles (including Ireland and the Channel Islands) and was compiled by Professor Clive Stace of the University of Leicester for the FFF conference on Native Plants held at the Linnean Society of London, June 1997. It can be found here at the postcode plants database."

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

poacherrose2garnonswilliams

Opening Bud

poacherrose3garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower

poacherrose4garnonswilliams

Older Juvenile Flower

poacherrose5garnonswilliams

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

poacherrose6garnonswilliams

Mature Flower

poacherrose7garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

poacherrose8garnonswilliams

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

My current ambition at my retired age of 73 in 2022 (having started this website in 2005) is to complete the following:-

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery has an empty framework that I created on 20 February 2022. When all the remainder of the UK wildflowers have been checked:-

  • to see if they are also native in the USA and/or Canada - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one in the Flora of America and Canada, then the info from Flora of America and Canada is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries, but the UK Wildflower Family Pages will not be amended by this or other data from the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in April 2022) - and
  • to see if they are also native in China - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one like Achillea millefolium 蓍 shi, then the info from Flora of China is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed only from AC to CE in June 2022) and
  • insert snippets from Flower Arrangements from Wild Flowers into the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed in June 2022) and
  • have been copied from the unamended Wildflower Family pages to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in June 2022).
  • Then, I will insert the information from the books associated with the Evergreen Perennial Shape gallery - Flower Shape - to that gallery and to the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery for the evergreen perennials:-
    • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
    • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
    • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windowsills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
    • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
    • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Then, the wildflower entries in the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery will be filled in after each Wildflower has its cultivation details added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.

Starting the above from 20 February 2022, I think it might take me a few years, but it does mean that as I progress then you will be able to associate more wildflowers with more of all the plant types of the cultivated plants who have similar growing requirements.

Then, more of the natural world with its wildlife could also inhabit your garden.

 

 

Aims of the Wild Flower Society
From the respect and awareness of plants in their natural surroundings instilled in children, the Wild Flower Society was born and our 3 aims are:

• to promote a greater knowledge of field botany among the general public and in particular among young people;
• to advance education in matters relating to the conservation of wild flowers and of the countryside;
• to promote the conservation of the British flora.


Changes in recent years
Since Professor Clive Stace brought out his first edition of New Flora of the British Isles it was clear to many botanical associations including The Wild Flower Society that we could now use a more up to date reference than Douglas Kent's revision of Dandy's list of Vascular Plants of the British Isles. The Society chose this text now known simply as "Stace" as our reference flora but retained Kent's list with its more detailed list of the apomictic plants like Hawkweeds, Brambles, Dandelions and so on. The progress made in plant taxonomy using both cladistics and molecular biological techniques, led to major taxonomic changes in both Stace 3 and Stace 4. The diary was extensively revised following Stace 3 and is to be revised again following the publication of Stace 4 in 2019.
The most recent changes have involved Social media. The Wild Flower Society now has Facebook group account and a Twitter account. This means that if you have a personal Facebook account, you can apply to join our otherwise private group. Once accepted this entitles you to post photographs of plants you have found and get them identified, assuming that is possible, by the expert botanists who are members of the group. In summer it is not unusual for an identification to be resolved within 10 minutes of it being posted. The Wild Flower Society at one time had over 1,000 subscribing members and although that membership is lower, near 680 now, those who are associated with the society through social media are in excess of 3,000 and increasing every week (1 January 2022).

Plants included in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981