Ivydene Gardens Rock Garden Plants Suitable for Small Gardens in Colour Wheel Gallery:
Rock Garden Plant Index: F

Botanical Plant Name



Height and Spread in Inches


Position and Pro-tection

Flower Colour / Nearest Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour

Months of Flowering















1 x 10








"Name derived from the Latin word fritillus, which means a "dice box". This genus is widely distributed yet limited to the Northern Hemisphere. There are over 80 species. Many are found in Europe, especially round the Mediterranean, eastward to China and Japan, while others are found in North America, particularly along the western coastal states of the United States. Fritillaria are related to the genera Lilium, Notholiron and Tulipa, with their bell-shaped flowers, but the flowers are not so brilliantly colored. The plants are very graceful, however, and the checkering found on many of the flowers is most attractive.
The stems are unbranched and leafy. Depending on the species, the leaves are arranged sometimes in whorls and sometimes in pairs. Not infrequently basal leaves are produced, which are broader and longer than the stem leaves. These are seen most often in younger bulbs, prior to sending up the flower spike. The flowers are made up of 6 segments, which are equal or nearly so. Each petal has a nectary at the base, which often is very conspicuous. The 'Crown Imperial' is the only one of the genus with the flowers grouped on top of a strong stem, topped by a tuft of leaves. All others have flowers up the stem, in a variety of sizes. Some even have been mistaken for dwarf lilies. The fruit is a capsule with numerous seeds. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care. The fleshy bulbs will dry out in a short space of time. It is therefore, important that they be protected and, if shipped, wrapped so that little or no moisture is lost. The European and Asiatic species have somewhat larger bulbs than the American species, and are composed of fleshy scales, generally no more than 3 or 4. The American species have more numerous scales, and on the outside of the bulb can be found numerous fleshy, smaller scales which detach easily and can be grown on to flowering size.

Varies with each species but hot, dry conditions are not ideal for any fritillaria. Like abundant moisture in spring and early summer. Allow to dry out after flowering. Moisture must be present throughout life of leaves.
Plant bulbs some 3 inches (7.5 cms) deep and about 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) apart, with exception of Fritillaria imperialis and its cultivars which should be spaced 14-18 inches (35-45 cms) apart. Set out in fall (autumn) as soon as bulbs available. Hardiness of some species questionable, especially in areas where spring frosts common. High-organic-content soil an advantage; give weak feeding of organic fertiliser when bulbs emerge if soil rather poor. Good drainage essential (put handfull of sand below bulb in clay soil when planting to provide drainage - the sand will be mixed with the clay to create porous soil by the organisms in that clay soil), so avoid waterlogged soil. Planting in neighbourhood of shrubs is good to protect from full sun; Fritillaria imperialis can stand full sun, except in very hot locations where high shade should be given. Leave bulbs in position for a number of years.

Seed produced, but raising plants from seed to flowering is slow process, often taking 5 years or more. Seed can be sown when ripe in late summer or saved and sown in spring. Use sandy soil mix, barely covering seeds. Place in cool spot and keep moist. Germination may take at least 6 months, perhaps more. Leave in original container for 1 complete season before transplanting. In some species seedlings send out "sinker" roots and newly formed, little bulb will be found deep in container. Transplant to individual pots; grow on for at least 1 more season before planting out. Will generally flower in third or fourth season.
Bulbs that are fleshy will produce many offsets. Separate these from parent and line out in rows in garden or place in container at depth of 0.5 inches (1.25 cms). Do not plant in full, hot sun outdoors. Less moisture needed in late summer but do not allow to dry out completely. This method will save at least 2 seasons over planting of seedlings.
Scales also can be propagated. Number of scales taken from each bulb must be limited in order not to weaken small parent bulb.

Excellent for both woodland and container. Can be grown in protection of cold frame, getting them into flower a little earlier and so brought indoors to be enjoyed longer." from Bulbs Volume I, A-H by John E. Bryan (ISBN 0-7470-0231-2).



The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society:-

  • Fritillaries are beautiful and rewarding plants to grow. Browsing through our Fritillaria picture galleries will reveal the many attractive species and forms that could entice you to try growing some yourself.
  • From articles on Fritillaria to notes on individual species, browse our site to discover a wealth of cultivation information to help you grow Fritillaria successfully.
  • Membership benefits include a twice-yearly colourful journal, opportunity to attend meetings and a fantastic seed exchange scheme. See Fritillaria Group membership details.



"Who are the Alpine Garden Society?
The Alpine Garden Society was founded in 1929 with the aim of promoting an interest in all aspects of alpine plants, rock gardening and rock garden plants, in fact any small hardy plants and bulbs, their cultivation in rock gardens and plant conservation in their natural habitats. We are one of the largest specialist garden societies in the world. Our membership includes amateur gardeners, plant enthusiasts, professional growers, botanists, naturalists, photographers and artists, as well as those who are just beginning to discover the fascination of alpines.

Whatever your interest in alpine and rock garden plants we believe our Society has something to offer everyone." from the Alpine Garden Society.

latifolia nobilis



3 x 4



Mottled purle




pudica ***



6 x 2










12 x 3



Mottled brownish-green















Bulbs may be used to make

  • a brilliant show in beds containing 1 colour only, or
  • devoted to special colour schemes.
  • They may be grown in borders,
    • again by themselves, or
    • intermingled with other flowering plants.
  • They may be used as a carpet for taller growing herbaceous plants,
  • as an embellishment to rock gardens, and lastly
  • they may be naturalised in parks and meadows.

Many people who love their gardens and are particularly fond of spring flowering bulbs, are deterred from growing them in a conspicuous part of their grounds by the fear that the necessity for their early removal before the plants are fully ripened will result in permanent detriment to the constitution of the bulbs, and a consequent loss of perhaps a considerable sum of money. As a matter of fact, this fear is quite unfounded, provided the bulbs are carefully lifted from their flowering quarters, and at once removed to reserve beds, where they are laid along the sides of narrow trenches and quickly covered again with soil, growth will hardly be checked, and the bulbs may be allowed to ripen at leisure, their place in the beds being at once taken by material to give a continuance of bloom.

Every kind of bulb or bulbous plant may, of course, be grown in beds either by themselves or in conjunction with other plants. Here of course, I am confining myself to spring flowering bulbs of the well-known varieties such as

  • Hyacinths,
  • Daffodils,
  • Tulips,
  • Crocus,
  • etc.

Colour schemes of every design can, of course, be worked out by the skilled gardener, but the amateur would, I think, do well to confine himself to bulbs of 1 particular species of Daffodil or Hyacinth, at any rate, when planning his beds. An exception may be made to this rule in the case of Tulips. Provided the bed is planted entirely with

  • Cottage,
  • May Flowering,
  • or
  • Darwin Tulips,

whether the colours be mixed or not, the result will be sure to be a perfect harmony. Nature has been especially kind to the Tulip in this respecy; no matte how many hundreds or thousands of these flowers are planted together, their colours never seem to clash. I once grew a border of mixed May Flowering Tulips containing 80,000 bulbs.

People came for miles to see the spectacle these presented when in bloom.

One form of spring bulb, which is popular for bedding purposes, but against which which I am inclined to warn the beginner, is the Hyacinth.

True its perfume is delightful, and when planted in close masses it produces a very fine effect, but it is a bulb which is liable to cause many disappointments. Should the situation be in the least exposed, the very slightest breeze will, with the assistance of the heavy trusses, cause the stems to break, leaving many unsightly gaps in the bed or border.

Again, the Hyacinth, unlike nearly every other bulb grown in this country (UK), instead of improving with kind treatment, deteriates year by year until, in a very short time, there is nothing left except a sort of attenuated blue-bell.

For these reasons I would recommend the amateur if he feels that he must grow Hyacinths as bedding plants, to cofine himself to the unnamed bedding varieties, which give an excellent effect.

Very beautiful bedding effects can be easily and cheaply achieved by the carpeting of the beds with some low-growing flowering plant and planting bulbs to show themselves between:-

  • A ground work of low growing Forget-Me-Not, pierced at intervals of 12 inches (30 cms) by tall yellow Tulips gives a lovely effect.
  • Again, a carpet of White Arabis with scarlet Tulips peeping through is a sight which will be remembered.

Coming to a later period of the year, Gladioli are especially benefited by this "carpeting" treatment.

I experimented very largely in this direction a few years ago with huge beds entirely composed of medium-sized Antirrhinums of 1 colour, with Gladioli of a complementary colour planted throughout the bed 18 inches (45 cms) apart.

For example, I had a bed of Antirrhunum Primrose Queen, a bright Yellow, with that deep blue Gladiolus Baron Joseph Hulot, at intervals throughout. Picture it.

Again a ground work of white Antirrhinums with scarlet Gladioli, scarlet Antirrhinums and white Gladioli, and so on.

Both Gladioli and Antirrhinums were vastly improved by this system; the Gladioli by having their long uninteresting stems hidden, and by the Antirrhinums by having the level monotony broken by the flower spikes towering above them.

Borders composed entirely of bulbs, either in mixed varieties, 1 variety, or interspersed with other spring flowering plants such as the Polyanthus, Violas, etc, provide a beautiful feature in any garden. I think one of the finest bulb borders I have ever seen was some years ago in a place on the outskirts of Dublin. This border, which was quite half a mile long and some ten feet - 120 inches (300 cms) wide, was composed entirely of Tulips, so carefully arranged with early flowering, mid, and late flowering varieties, that it presented a blaze of colour from the beginning of spring until the commencement of June. Of course, a border such as this would cost a very large sum indeed to start going; but there is no reason why it should not be carried out in a more modified manner. Clumps of bulbs again of any kind, whether Tulips, Daffodils, Narcissi, or corms such as Gladioli or Monbretia, used with discretion in the herbaceous border, give a cheery, aspect to this part of the garden at a period when it would otherwise be very dull. Some people object to the mixing of bulbs in the herbaceous border on the ground that their decaying foliage is unsightly in that position at a time of the year when everything else is in full glory. This is where discretion comes in. If they are planted near some broad-leaved or heavy "foliaged" subject, they will fulfill their object at the proper period without disclosing their presence later.


Many people who possess a rock garden consider that the addition of certain low growing bulbs, tubers, and bulbous plants are a great addition to the real inhabitants. Personally I hated to grow anything on my rock gardens except what were strictly speaking rock plants. I always felt that a rock garden should be retained for the cultivation of Alpine and other mountain plants alone.

However, I will admit having seen very attractive effects on the rock gardens of those who do not hold the same views as myself. For the benefit of such I will mention here a few bulbous plants which are particlarly suitable for this purpose.

The Chionodoxas, Puschkinias, alliums, Bravoas, Brodaeas, Calochorti, Colchicums, Crocuses, Erythroniums, Fritillarias, Galanthuses, some of the smaller Irises, Muscaris, some of the smaller Daffodils and Narcissi, such as Minimus, Bulbocodium, Hymenocallis, etc., and lastly the Cyclamen, some varieties of which are really rock or bog plants in every sense of the word.


Nowhere, I think, do bulbs and tubers look better than growing in the grass of parks and woodlands, and I fancy that this fact is gradually coming to be recognised. The chief thing to remember in the planting of bulbs in grass land is that under no circumstances must the grass be mown until the foliage has completely died down. If this rule is neglected, there will be precious little flowering the second year after planting, and none at all in a couple of seasons.

Bulbs will do just as well under trees as in the open. At the time of the year when they are in bloom, the trees have not yet put forth their foliage, and later on the shade is, if anything, a benefit.

The following varieties will do well cultivated in this manner: Crocuses, Frittillarias, Colchicums, chionodoxas, Muscari (Heavenly blue). All Daffodils and Narcissi, Ornithogalums (Star of Bethlehem), Tulips, and even Paeonies, at any rate of the old-fashioned rubust cottage sort. I grew these year after year in this manner with complete success, though I have never tried it with the more modern and delicate varieties.

Once the initial expense of the purchase of the bulbs and the planting has been undertaken, they will require no further attention when naturalised in grass for many years. Then, should they become so crowded that the flowering deteriorates, it will be necessary to lift them, divide, and replant again.

Do not forget that bulbs grown in this manner are greatly benefited by an autumn application of well-rotted farmyard manure or artificials. In fact it is, I consider, more necessary for them than for bulbs grown in cultivated ground, for in the case of the former the soil has not only to find sustenance for the bulbs themselves, but for the plants which Nature has already bestowed on it.

" from The Culture of Bulbs - Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co in London in 1925.

Rock Plant Colour Wheel - Flowers Link Map

Click on Number in Colour Wheel or Black sections below:-



Some abbreviations have been used in compiling the list of Rock Plants for small gardens in order to make it possible to provide all the required information at a glance in a condensed form.


First is the name of the genus to which the plant belongs which is given in capitals. Under the generic name the names of the species and varieties are recorded.

Link to photos, cultivation details or mail-order business that sells it.

Link in *** to Rock Garden Colour Wheel Page with photo of the plant at bottom of page. Then, More Photos Page links to further photos / description in its Rock Plant Photos Gallery Page.


Details of which container to grow the plant in:-


Abbreviated to:-

  • B for Bulb
  • H for Herb - any non-woody plant that is not a tree or shrub
  • HP for Herbaceous Perennial
  • S for Shrub
  • SS for Sub-shrub

followed by

  • E for Evergreen
  • D for Deciduous

Height and Spread

The approximate height is given first in inches, followed by the approximate spread, when mature. 1 inch (") = 25.4 millimetres (mm)


The figures A, B, C and D denote that the plant in question requires one of the following soil mixtures:-

  • A. Equal parts of loam, leafmould and sand. This is a suitable mixture for plants which require a light, open, porous soil with good drainage. A good mixture for troughs in a sheltered position in part shade. All bulbs and conifers do well in this medium.
  • B. Equal parts of loam, leafmould, peat and sand. This is more retentive of water but is well-drained and will grow all the plants in this Rock Plant List which are suitable for full sun, and it is ideal for woodland plants in part shade.
  • C. Four parts leafmould and one part each of loam and sand. A soil for growing dwarf rhododendrons and other ericaceous plants in the raised bed type of trough and peat beds.
  • D. Three parts Cornish silver sand and one part flaked leafmould. For all difficult and rare high alpines, including most of the cushion type. The trough containing this mixture is best situated in part shade.

which may be followed by

  • N for when a neutral pH medium is required.
  • L for when a limey pH medum is required.

Where no additional letter is given, the plant will thrive under either condition.

Position and Protection

The following terms and abbreviations used singly or in combination will minimize the risk of planting in an unsuitable spot:-

  • C --- This means that the plant will do well planted on its side in a crevice built up on the rocks for preference.
  • P --- This plant requires a pane of glass suspended over it in winter, generally from October to the end of March.
  • PS -- A part-shady spot or facing west with protection from the south by a shadow cast by either a rock or shrub.
  • SA -- Shady position either facing north or protected by a rock.
  • Sun - This means that the plant will require a normal amount of direct sunlight.
  • W --- The plant will do well planted in a vertical position in the side of a trough or scree frame.

Flower Colour, Nearest Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour and Months of Flowering

These 3 columns are self-explanatory;
for example, Orange June, means that

  • the flowers are orange (if the plant has a Plant Description Page in this website then the link from here will be to that Plant Description Page otherwise to a Plant Description found on the Internet),
  • orange3 in the Colour Wheel - Flowers is the nearest colour for the majority of the flower petal (either from a flower image in this website or an image found on the Internet), with link to the Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour and
  • the flowering month is June with link to the flower photo on the Internet.

A double entry such as
Orange August
Red October
means that the plant has orange flowers in August and red fruits or berries in October.


A general idea to the best method of increasing the stock:-

  • C ---- Half-ripened wood at the end of July.
  • D ----- Division.
  • GC ---- Green Cuttings in late spring.
  • L ------ Layering.
  • Leaf C - The plant is best propagated by leaf cuttings.
  • RC ----- Fully ripened wood at the end of September.
  • Root C - The plant is best propagated by cutting the thick root thongs at the end of September.
  • S ------- The best method is by seed.

may be followed by

  • H - Where this letter is placed after any of the above abbreviations, it means that bottom heat is essential to obtain a fair percentage of strikes.
    The omission of this letter does not mean that bottom heat cannot be employed; in fact, its use will certainly save an appreciable amount of time taken to increase the stock.

A combination of the above will denote that the plant can be increased by all the methods which those abbreviated letters stand for.

Propagation Seed Composts

"I am giving 3 types of composts which will be numbered 1, 2 and 3 so that they will not be confused with the potting mixtures. The number of the compost will be noted under the heading of propagation in the list of plants. These are not offered as the only types in which seedlings may be grown, but they have proved their worth over many years. As it will only be on rare occasions that a bushel of compost of any one of the seed mixtures will be required, I will give the size of the box which can be constructed easily to hold a quarter of a bushel, an amount more in keeping with the average amateur's need. The inside measurements of the box, which is best made of wood are 10 by 10 x 5.5 inches deep (25 by 25 x 13.25 cms). By doubling the depth a half bushel measure is available.

Compost 1
A mixture that has been found suitable for all the ordinary and easy types of alpine seed is the John Innes seed compost.
It can of course be mixed at home as required. Only the amount needed at the time should be made for its lasting qualities are strictly limited. All the following ingredients are mixed by bulk, not weight, and are best used dry after mixing, storing the compost for a day or 2 before use.

  • Take 2 parts of medium-heavy sterilised loam from a reliable source, full of rotted grass roots. The soil should be rubbed down between the hands into a light granular texture. All fibrous material must be retained and if large; cut into small pieces with scissors and mixed into the loam. On no account should the loam be sieved. This will spoil the texture of the finished compost and cause it to pack readily, a state of affairs to be avoided, for it is essential that the soil be open and granular in texture.
  • Add 1 part of sieved peat,
  • 1 part of Cornish sand

and well mix the whole together dry. Afterwards to this is added

  • 1.5 ounces of superphosphate of lime and
  • 0.75 ounces of chalk

to each bushel of compost. If this mixture is to be used for plants which are lime haters, the chalk should be omitted.


Compost 2
The more difficult and rare plants need a light, open soil in which to germinate and the following has been tried and found suitable. Equal parts by bulk of medium heavy fibrous loam and leaf-mould. Both the loam and leaf-mould should be sterilised and then rubbed down to a fine granular texture. The particles are better if small, but should not be sieved. To this is added 2 parts of Cornish sand, after sieving through a 1/16 inch sieve (2 mm) as the larger particles are not needed.


Compost 3
Shade-loving dwarf rhododendrons and other ericaceous and woodland plants like a more spongy yet still open medium. This consists of equal parts leaf-mould, peat and Cornish sand. The leaf-mould must be sterilised and rubbed down fine, the peat and sand should be sieved though a 1/16 inch (2 mm) sieve, and the wole well mixed together.


Both composts 2 and 3 need a very fine sprinkling of superphosphate of lime, just under 0.5 ounce for a quarter of a bushel of mixture or to be more precise 3/8 of an ounce. The superphosphate is needed by the seedlings in their early growth. In fact it is essential as a plant food as soon as the seed starts to germinate, so it must be mixed with the composts, not applied afterwards. " from Collector's Alpines by Royton E. Heath published in 1964 by Collingridge Limited.



Site design and content copyright ©October 2010. Page structure amended November 2012. Rock Plant Photos Gallery added August 2013. Topic Menu amended July 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677



Vancouver Island Rock and Alpine Garden Society is a club of plant lovers living near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, who visit, study, photograph, draw and grow alpine plants, bog dwellers and woodlanders, whether native or exotic. We encourage the propagation and distribution of plants.


List of Desirable Plants (from Vancouver Island Rock
and Alpine Garden Society)

Asterisks following entries in the list denote plants known to the author from local gardens. Double asterisks indicate species which have done particularly well in the author's rock garden which is located mostly on south-facing slopes. No, or only short-term experience is available for the unmarked species, but they are expected to perform well and should be tried wherever obtainable.

Acantholimon, various spp. - still being tested; more information wanted*
• Achillea ageratifolia [= Anthemis aizoon] (Greece)**
Achillea chrysocoma (Balkans, Asia Minor)**
• Achillea umbellata (Greece)
Aethionema, all spp. (SE Europe, Asia Minor)**
• Allium flavum, A. moly, A. neapolitanum (S Europe)*
• Allium insubricum (Lago di Garda, L.d.Como, Italy)
• Allium moschatum (Mediterr.) white
• Allium narcissiflorum (SE Europe)
• Allium ostrovskianum (Central Asia)*
• Allium triquetrum (E Mediterranean), and many others
• Alyssum argenteum (SE Europe)
• Alyssum armenum (Turkey)
• Alyssum atlanticum (W Mediterranean, Morocco)
• Alyssum cuneifolium (Mediterr.) - very low cushions
• Alyssum doerfleri (Balkans)
• Alyssum lycaonicum (Turkey)
Alyssum montanum (Mediterranean, Eurasia)*
• Alyssum olympicum (Greece)
Alyssum saxatile (Europe and Balkans)*
• Alyssum serpyllifolium (W Mediterranean)
• Anacyclus depressus (N Africa)*
• Anagallis linifolia (S Europe to N Africa)**
• Androsace armeniaca var macrantha (Turkey) - monocarpic*
Androsace villosa (Asia Minor) sun-loving, lime
• Andryala aghardii (S.Spain) silvery-leaved subshrub*
• Anemone appennina (S Europe)
Anemone blanda, A. coronaria, A. fulgens, A. hortensis,
A. pavonina (all in Greece, Asia M)*
• Anthemis biebersteiniana (Asia Minor)
• Anthemis cretica and subspecies (Asia M.)*
• Aphyllanthes monspeliensis (S France)*
• Aquilegia discolor (Spain)**
• Arabis caucasica (SE Europe to Iran)*
• Arabis procurrens (SE Europe)*
Arenaria balearica (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands)*
• Arenaria montana and form 'Grandiflora` (S Alps, Pyrenees)*
• Arenaria purpurascens (Spain)*
Arenaria tetraquetra (Italy, Spain) sun-loving
Armeria caespitosa (Pyrenees)**
• Asarina procumbens (Spain)*
• Asperula boissierii (Greece) - v. short, cushion-forming, pink-fl.
• Asperula gussonii (Sicilian mtns.) less compact than boissierii
Asperula lilaciflora (Mediterranean)
• Asperula nitida (Greece, Turkey)*
• Asperula sintenisii (Turkey) glaucous
• Asperula suberosa (Greece, Bulgaria) white hairy - no winter wetness
• Asphodeline lutea, A. liburnica (Mediterr.)*
• Asphodeline taurica (Taurus M.) - inflorescence w. silvery bracts
• Asteriscus maritimus (Mediterr.) - subshrubby, tender*
• Astragalus angustifolius (Balkans, Asia Minor)
• Astragalus sempervirens (Pyrenees, S Alps, Balkans)
• Aubrieta, all spp. and cultivars (E Mediterranean)**
• Buxus sempervirens (Mediterranean, S Europe, W Asia),
only the dwarf form 'Suffruticosa`
• Campanula andrewsii (Peloponnese)
• Campanula arvatica (N. Spain) - only 5 cm
• Campanula elatines (NW Italy) hot cliffs
• Campanula fragilis (S. Italy) - like turbinata; coastal limestone rocks
• Campanula garganica (SE Italy, Greece)*
• Campanula isophylla (N. Italy)*
• Campanula oreades (E Greece) among rocks, crevices*
• Campanula portenschlagiana (Dalmatia).**
• Campanula poscharskyana (W Yugoslavia) stony places*
• Campanula rupicola (Greece, Mt.Parnassus) limestone cliffs
• Campanula saxatilis (Aegean Islands) limestone crevices*
• Catananche caespitosa (Atlas)
• Cerastium tomentosum (Italy) - may be invasive*
• Chionodoxa gigantea, C. luciliae (Asia Minor)*
• Chrysanthemum hosmariense (Atlas Mts.)**
• Chrysanthemum pallidum ssp. spathulifolium (SE Spain)
• Chrysanthemum radicans (SE Spain) soft yellow
• Chrysanthemum tomentosum (Corsica)
• Cistus: With age, some of the species are too expansive
for small rock gardens
• Cistus albanicus (Albania) white, low
• Cistus clusii (S Spain, S Italy) white, low
• Cistus ladaniferus [frost hardiness marginal] (W Mediterr.)*
• Cistus salviaefolius (Mediterranean)*
• Colchicum, all spp., except C. autumnale (Europe, Mediterranean,
to Central Asia)*
• Convolvulus boissieri (Spain to Greece) - lime
• Convolvulus cneorum (W Mediterr.) - small shrub**
• Convolvulus compactus (Turkey)
• Crepis incana (Greece)
• Crocus, the vast majority of all spp., except C. vernus and
some of its hybrids. (S Europe,
• Mediterranean, to C Asia)*
• Cyclamen, all hardy spp., except Cyclamen purpurascens
(Mediterranean to W Asia)*
• Cytisus ardoinii (SW Alps)
• Cytisus decumbens (S Europe)*
• Cytisus demissus (Greece)*
• Cytisus pulchellus (Albania)
• Daphne blagayana (SE Europe) creamy white, limestone
• Daphne collina (S Italy)
• Daphne jasminea (Greece, N Africa) evergreen,
wh.-fld., purplish buds, borderline
• Daphne oleoides (S Europe and Asia Minor)
• Daphne sericea (Crete) - similar to collina**
• Dianthus, the following and others, except
those from high elevations in Alps.
• Dianthus brevicaulis (Turkey) - lime*
• Dianthus deltoides (Europe, Asia)**
• Dianthus erinaceus (Asia Minor)
• Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Europe)**
• Dianthus haematocalyx and
ssp. pindicola (Yugoslavia to Greece)**
• Dianthus microlepis (Bulgaria) no lime
• Dianthus monspessulanus (S Europe)*
• Dianthus spiculifolius (Balkans, Carpathians)**
• Dictamnus albus (N Mediterr.) limestone
• Doronicum columnae (Alps to Asia Minor)*
• Draba acaulis (Turkey, Ala Dag)
• Draba bruniifolia (Asia Minor)**
• Draba dedeana (Spain) white-fl.*
• Draba elegans (Cilician Taurus)
• Draba hispanica (E and S Spain)
• Draba rigida (Armenia)*
• Draba rosularis (Turkey)*
• Echinospartium horridum (Spain, Portugal)
• Edraianthus dalmaticus (Dalmatia)*
• Edrainathus graminifolius (Italy and Greece)**
• Edraianthus dinaricus, E. pumilio**, E. serpyllifolius (Dalmatia)
• Epimedium perralderianum (Algeria) yellow*
• Eranthis cilicica (Asia Minor)*
• Eranthis hiemalis (S Europe)*
• Erinacea anthyllis (Spain and N Africa)*
• Erodium absinthoides (Asia Minor)
• Erodium cazorlanum (Spain)
• Erodium chamaedrioides (Majorca)
• Erodium corsicum (Corsica)*
• Erodium supracanum (Pyrenees) grey finely divided foliage
• Erysimum sp., known mistakenly
as E."kotschyanum" in local gardens - low**
• Erysimum wilczeckianum (N Africa) - low, large pale yellow flowers*
• Euphorbia capitulata (Greece) - lime*
• Euphorbia myrsinites (Mediterranean)**
• Fritillaria, virtually all old-world spp., except F. meleagris*
• Galanthus, all spp., except G. nivalis
(SE Europe to W Asia); G. elwesii most suitable.*
• Genista dalmatica (Balkans) low
• Genista lydia (Balkans, Asia Minor)*
• Genista hispanica (SW Europe) spiny, lower than radiata
• Gentiana: Most spp. demand summer moisture
• Gentiana dinarica, some acaulis-group hybrids
after the roots have reached depth*
• Gentiana olivieri (Turkey to Central Asia) summer-dormant
• Gentiana septemfida (Asia Minor) when well established*
• Geranium cazorlense (Spain) very low
• Geranium cinereum and forms (Spain to Caucasus)*
• Geranium dalmaticum (Dalmatia)**
• Geranium incanum (S Africa)
• Globularia cordifolia (Europe and N Mediterranean)**
• Globularia nudicaulis (Alps to Yugoslavia)*
• Gypsophila repens (Alps and N Mediterranean Mts.)*
• Gypsophila petraea (Carpathians)*
• Haberlea rhodopensis (Balkans) - some shade**
• Halimiocistus ingwersonii - generic hybrid - (Portugal)*
• Halimium lasianthum (Portugal, Spain)*
• Helianthemum appenninum (N Mediterranean to Asia Minor)*
• Helianthemum lunulatum (S Europe)*
• Helianthemum nummularium and
ssp. grandiflorum (Europe, Asia M.)
• Helichrysum frigidum (Corsica)
• Hypericum athoum (Greece)*
• Hypericum balearicum (Balearic Islands) - 50 cm shrub**
• Hypericum empetrifolium (Greece)**
• Hypericum olympicum, H. polyphyllum (Asia Minor)**
• Hypericum repens (Asia Minor)
• Iberis gibraltarica (Spain)
• Iberis saxatilis (S Europe)**
• Iberis sempervirens (S Europe to Asia Minor)**
• Iberis tauricum (Turkey)*
• Iris attica (Yugoslavia to Turkey)
• Iris lutescens [=chamaeiris] (W Spain and Portugal)**
• Iris melitta [=suaveolens] (Bulgaria to Turkey)**
• Iris pumila (Austria and E)**
• Iris reichenbachii (Balkans)
• Iris reticulata -section, most spp.*
• Leucojum autumnale (Portugal, N Africa)
• Leucojum roseum (Corsica, Sardinia)
• Leucojum trichophyllum (Spain, Portugal, N Africa)
• Lilium candidum (S Mediterranean) lime
• Lilium chalcedonicum ? (Greece)
• Lilium croceum (S Alps)
• Lilium pomponium (N Mediterranean)
• Linaria pallida (Italy)
• Linum campanulatum (Spain, Italy) yellow
• Linum capitatum (E Mediterr., S Europe) y.,
woody base, better than compactum*
• Linum "Gemmel's Hybrid", mound-forming
• Linum leucanthum (Greece) white; very short cushion
• Linum punctatum (C and E Mediterr) mat-forming, blue
• Linum suffruticosum (W Meditterr.) pale pink;
'Salsoloides` and 'Prostratum`
• Linum tauricum (Greece +?) yellow, v.delicate,
narrow lvs and branches, short
• Lithodora diffusa (S Europe)*
• Matricaria oreades (Asia Minor)
• Moltkia petraea (Greece)
• Moltkia suffruticosa (N Italy)
• Morina persica (Greece to Iran)
• Morisia monantha (Corsica, Sardinia)*
• Muscari, all spp. (S Europe, Mediterranean, Asia Minor)*
• Narcissus, all dwarf spp. (Portugal to N Africa)
and most others, except some derived from N.
• pseudonarcissus, N. cyclamineus, and N. jonquilla*
• Onosma albo-roseum (Turkey, Iraq, Syria)*
• Onosma frutescens (Greece)
• Onosma nanum (Turkey)
• Onosma polyphyllum (Crimea)
• Onosma stellulatum (W Yugoslavia)
• Onosma tauricum (SE Europe to Turkey)*
• Origanum amanum (Anatolia)
• Origanum dictamnus (E Mediterr.)
• Origanum scabrum v. pulchrum (S Greece)
• Ornithogalum nutans (SE Europe)**
• Ornithogalum sibthorpii (Balkan to Crete)
• Paeonia cambessedessii (Balearic Islands, Corsica)*
• Paeonia clusii (Crete) white, smallest
• Paeonia tenuifolia (SE Europe, Asia Minor)
• Paraquilegia grandiflora (from Afghanistan E)
• Pelargonium endlicherianum (Turkey)*
• Polygala chamaebuxus (Alps)*
• Polygala microphylla (W Spain, Portugal)
• Polygala nicaensis (S Europe to Russia)
• Polygala stocksiana (Turkey to Transcaucasia)
• Primula fedtschenkoi (C Asia) summer-dormant
• Primula juliae (SE Caucasus)*
• Primula kaufmanniana (C Asia) summer-dormant
• Primula palinurii (S Italy) summer-dormant
• Primula vulgaris (W and S Europe, to Asia Minor, Armenia)**
• Primula vulgaris var. rubra [= P. abchasica] (E Mediterranean)
• Primula vulgaris ssp. sibthorpii (Balkans)*
• Prunus prostrata (Mediterranean)
• Pterocephalus parnassii (Greece)**
• Pterocephalus pinardii (Turkey)*
• Pterocephalus spathulatus (SE Spain)
• Ptilotrichum purpureum(SE Spain)
• Ptilotrichum spinosum (N Spain)**
• Puschkinia hyacinthoides, P. libanotica (Asia Minor)*
• Ramonda myconii (Pyrenees) [Note: Ramondas need shade]*
• Ramonda nathaliae (Macedonia, Albania)
• Ranunculus abnormis (Spain, Portugal) yellow
• Ranunculus calandrinioides (N Africa)**
• Ranunculus gramineus (Mediterranean)**
• Ranunculus kochii (from Turkey S and E) ficaria-type
• Ranunculus millefoliatus (Mediterr)
• Ranunculus millefolius (from Turkey S)
• Ranunculus parnassifolius (Pyrenees)
• Ranunculus rupestris (W Mediterr)
• Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus` (Mediterranean)*
• Rosularia aizoon, R. pallida , others (Asia Minor)*
• Salvia albimaculata (Turkey)
• Salvia blepharochlaena (Turkey)
• Salvia caespitosa (Turkey)*
• Salvia eriophora (Turkey)
• Santolina chamaecyparissus 'Corsica`,
also known as S. incana nana (Mediterranean)*
• Saponaria caespitosa (Spain)*
• Saponaria ocymoides (SW Europe)**
• Saponaria x olivana [infertile cross S. caespitosa x S. pumilio]**
• Saponaria pulvinaris (Asia Minor)
• Saponaria pumilio (SE Europe to Lebanon)
• Satureja croatica (Balkans)
• Satureja montana (Mediterranean to S Russia)*
• Saxifraga canaliculata (Spain)*
• Saxifraga lingulata [=callosa] var. australis (Italy)*
• Saxifraga lingulata var. catalaunica (Spain)
• Saxifraga longifolia (E Spain)
• Saxifraga trifurcata (N Spain)
• Scabiosa graminifolia (Pyrenees to Dalmatia)*
• Scilla hispanica (Spain, Portugal)*
• Scilla sibirica (Balkans, Asia M., to S Russia)*
• Scutellaria orientalis (Balkans,
Asia Minor) [needs scree conditions]*
• Sedum acre (N Africa to N Asia)*
• Sedum album (N Africa to N Asia)**
• Sedum atlanticum (Atlas)
• Sedum brevifolium (Spain)
• Sedum caeruleum (Corsica to N Africa)
• Sedum dasyphyllum (Europe, N Africa)*
• Sedum gypsicolum (Spain to Atlas)
• Sedum idaeum (Crete)
• Sedum jaccardianum (Atlas)
• Sedum laconicum (Greece)
• Sedum lagascae (Iberia)
• Sedum magellense (Mediterr)
• Sedum sediforme (S Europe, N Africa, Asia Minor)
• Sedum sempervivoides (Turkey)
• Sedum tenuifolium (Mediterr)
• Sedum tristriatum (Greece)
• Sedum urvillei (Balkans)
• Sempervivum, all spp. (Mediterranean,
S Europe, Asia Minor)*
• Silene boryi (S Spain)
• Silene caryophylloides (Turkey)
• Silene parnassica (E Mediterr.)
• Silene pindicola (N Greece)
• Silene schafta (E Caucasus, N Iran)**
• Silene vallesiaca (S France to Greece)
• Stachys amanica (Turkey)
• Stachys candida (Greece)
• Stachys chrysantha (Greece)
• Stachys citrina (Turkey)
• Stachys lavandulifolia (Turkey, Iran, Iraq)
• Stachys spruneri (SE Greece)
• Sternbergia clusiana, S. lutea (Mediterranean)*
• Tanacetum pallidum (Spain)
• Tanacetum pulverulentum (N Spain, Portugal)
• Teucrium aroanicum (Greece)
• Teucrium pyrenaicum (Pyrenees, W France)*
• Teucrium polium aureum (Turkey)**
• Thalictrum orientale (Greece, Asia Minor)
• Thalictrum tuberosum (Spain) as above
• Thlaspi nevadense (Spain)
• Thlaspi sintenisii (Turkey)
• Thlaspi stylosum (Appenines)
• Thymus caespititius (Portugal)
• Thymus capitatus (Portugal) small shrub
• Thymus cilicicus (Asia Minor)
• Thymus longiflorus (Spain)
• Tulipa (Mediterranean to Central Asia): Almost
all species tulips are ideal for our conditions.
• Recommended are: T. bakeri**, T. batalinii**,
T. chrysantha, T. clusiana, T. humilis**, T.
• linifolia**, T. pulchella, T. saxatilis**,
T. sprengeri, T. tarda**, T. urumiensis.**
• Verbascum acaule (S Greece)
• Verbascum arcturus (Crete)
• Verbascum dumulosum (Asia Minor) and hybrid 'Letitia`**
• Verbascum pestalozzae (Turkey)
• Veronica armena, V. cinerea (Asia Minor)
• Veronica bombycina (Turkey)
• Veronica caespitosa (Lebanon, Turkey)
• Veronica pontica (Balkans)
• Veronica prostrata (Europe, Asia Minor, Siberia)*
• Veronica saturejoides (Dalmatia)*
• Veronica whittallii (Asia Minor)**
• Viola bertolonii and ssp. corsica (Italy, Balkans)*
• Viola cazorlensis (S Spain) shrubby, beautiful
• Viola crassiuscula (S Spain)
• Viola doerfleri (Yugoslavia)
• Viola eugeniae (Italy)
• Viola eximia (Balkans)
• Viola graeca (Greece, Italy)
• Viola gracilis (Balkans, Asia Minor)*



There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-





Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)




when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.



I hope that you find that the information in this website is useful to you:-

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are these systems for choosing plants as shown in

  • Plants topic
  • Garden Style Index Gallery
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers 53 flower colours
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers per Month 53 flower colours
  • Flower Shape
  • This All Bee-Pollinated Flowers gallery compares 13 flower colour photos per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel down on the right,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever

82 rock garden plants (with photos) suitable for small garden areas; split into:-

3 BULBS - Spring Catalogue. For planting in February/ May
2 BULBS - Late Summer Catalogue. For planting in July/ September
7 BULBS - Autumn Catalogue. For planting in September/ November
2 Bulbs - Winter Catalogue. For planting in November/ March
in the Rock Plant Flowers Gallery.
All the remaining rock garden plants detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index pages in the Rock Plant Flowers are waiting to receive photos, before they can be added to the 1 of the 52 Rockgarden Colour Wheel - Flowers Pages and then the above list.

I am taking photos of rock garden plants suitable for small gardens and if they do not have their own Plant Description Page in this website, then each photo of each plant will be located at the bottom of the relevant 1 of 52 Rockgarden Flower Colour Wheel pages. Usually a link in *** to that page of 35 will be included in the Name field of the respective Index Page, for:-

Then a link using More Photos Page links to the Rock Plant Photos Gallery for each of the above 35 Rock Garden Plants


Site Map for Direct Link to Plant Description Page from their Petal Colour being nearest Colour to Colour in a Colour Wheel Page


Small size plant in Flower Colours

Miniature size plant in Flower Colours

Small Size plant flower in Month

Miniature Size plant flower in Month

including those from the Camera Photo Galleries as detailed in row 3 of the Topic Table on the left.
Click on the centre of each thumbnail in the following flower colour month pages to transfer to the description of that plant in a Camera Photo Gallery Page:-

Dark Tone or Shades
(Colours mixed with Black)
(Colours mixed with Grey)
Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named)
(Colours mixed with White)

(o)Rock Plant: A
(o)Rock Plant: B
(o)Rock Plant: C
(o)Rock Plant: D
(o)Rock Plant: E
(o)Rock Plant: F
(o)Rock Plant: G
(o)Rock Plant: H
(o)Rock Plant: I
(o)Rock Plant: J
(o)Rock Plant: K
(o)Rock Plant: L
(o)Rock Plant: M
(o)Rock Plant: NO
(o)Rock Plant: PQ
(o)Rock Plant: R
(o)Rock Plant: S
(o)Rock Plant: T
(o)Rock Plant: UVWXYZ




Rock plants for Sunny Sites.

Rock plants for Shady Sites.

Early Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Summer Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Late Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Rock plants of Creeping and Trailing Habit.

Rock plants with Evergreen Foliage.

Rock Plants with Silvery or Variegated Foliage.

Rock plants needing the protection of Sheet of Glass in Winter.

Rock plants which hate Lime.

Lime Lovers.

Peat Lovers.


Plants for sunny sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for Shady Sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for a Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moderately Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moist Site on a Wall.

Plants for Positions on Top of Walls.

Plants to Hang Down from the Upper Parts of a Wall.

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines



Some Good Rock Plants
with Some Plants that Thrive on the Moraine

Plants for the Alpine House

Plants for the Miniature Rock Garden
with Some Bulbs and Tubers for the Rock Garden,
Some Bulbs for the Alpine House and
Bulbs and Tubers suitable for Naturalizing in Grass

Shrubs for the Rock Garden
with Rounded, Pyramidal, and Erect Growth. Then, Heath-like Lime Haters and last is Trailers and Prostrate Shrubs. Next Table has Gentiana for the Rock Garden followed by Pinks (Dianthus) for the Rock Garden

Moisture-loving Trees and Shrubs for Bog or Water Garden
with Conifers (Dwarf) and Ornamental Grasses for the Rock or Marsh Garden


Plants for Wall Garden
with Plants for the Paved Garden

Plants for the Water Garden

Plants for the Bog Garden
with Alpine Primulas for the Rock Garden,
Alpine Primulas for the Bog Garden and
Campanulas for the Rock Garden


The Moraine or Scree Garden - Many of the alpines will not prosper in the ordinary rock garden. They require that the natural conditions under which they live in the wild state shall be copied as nearly as possible in the rock garden. The plants to which we refer grow on mountain slopes covered with loose stones, where the melting of the snow during summer provides them with plenty of ice-cold water and where a blanket of snow protects them during the winter. The conditions we must endeavour to reproduce are, therefore: adequate moisture for the roots in summer while the plants are growing, but at the same time good drainage:
and secondly, protection from damp in the winter. The moraine is intended to provide these requirements, and can be made quite cheaply anywhere in the rock garden. Plants requiring very diverse kinds of soil may thus, with great effect, be grown in close proximity.

Making the Moraine
An ideal and natural position for the moraine would be in the sun at the lower end of a miniature valley between 2 rocky spurs, the gorge gradually expanding into a flat bed of scree with occasional boulders strewn over it. The extent of the moraine will vary in proportion to the size of the whole rock garden. If the latter is large, the moraine may cover an area of many square yards (square metres); on the other hand, it may be nothing more than a small, well-drained pocket or crevice filled with moraine mixture in which a single specimen is grown.
To construct the moraine, dig out about 30 inches (75cms) of the soil and make the bottom of the basin or trench slope slightly towards the front: the slope must not be too steep or the moraine will become over-dry in summer. The lower 10 inches (25cms) must be made water-tight by means of puddling with clay or by means of cement. Make an outlet in front, which when closed keeps about 10 inches (25 cms) of water, but not more, in the lowest parts of the basin, while when the outlet is open no water can remain in the basin. Now cover the bottom of the trench with about 10 inches (25 cms) of rubble, stones, or any material that will afford good drainage. Above this place another 6 inches (15 cms) or so of smaller stones roughly 2 inches (5 cms) in diameter; these will fill the gaps between the larger stones and prevent the small grit above from sinking through and blocking the drainage. The hollow is then filled up with a mixture of stone chips and gravel. Over this again is thrown a covering, an inch or so (2.5 cm) in thickness, formed of a mixture of equal parts of ordinary garden soil, leaf mould, and small stone chips similar to those used in frosty weather for sprinkling on wood-paved roads. Limestone or sandstone chips are excellent and easily obtained; flint chips should not be used, as they do not conserve moisture. Place a few boulders in the moraine to break up the surface and to give the plants some protection. A natural trickle of water may be led into the top of the moraine, or each day sufficient moisture may be given from a watering-can to cause an overflow from the outlet at the bottom. From November to May, when no additional moisture is needed in the moraine, the outlet should be left open.
The overflow from the moraine may be led into a small pool, which will add great charm to the rock garden, and is easy to construct while the garden is being made. In it may be grown rushes and small water plants, while the overflow from it will provide an excellent situation for bog plants or for any alpines loving plenty of moisture. When planting, the gardener should remember the conditions under which each plant lives in its native state, and should set it in the rock garden accordingly. Many plants that have proved failures in the rock garden proper will, on transplantation to the moraine, flourish.
The inhabitants of the moraine are not so rampant as many alpines grown in the rock garden proper, but for all that, the more vigorous should be kept in check. A light top-dressing of equal parts of loam, leaf-mould, and stone chips will be required in spring and again in early autumn.

Protection of Plants in Winter
Plants whose leaves are covered with fluff or down are, when in their natural haunts, usually protected from damp during the winter by a coat of snow. When they are grown out of doors in England, they must, therefore, be given a covering of glass during the winter months: that is, from the middle of October to the beginning of March. When the plant is a small one nestling in a crevice between the rocks, it is often possible to cover it with a sheet of glass resting on the surrounding rocks; but when this cannot be done, 4 pieces of stiff galvanized wire should be inserted firmly in the ground and bent over at the top to hold the glass plate securely in position over the plant. If the weather is especially severe or the plant very delicate, 4 additional pieces of glass may be set in the soil and supported by the wires so as to form 4 walls protecting the plant. Sufficient space between the glass roof and the tops of the 4 walls should be left for adequate ventilation (but not enough to admit the rain or snow) or the plants will be liable to damp-off. Hand-lights and bell-glasses may also be used, but in all cases adequate ventilation should be provided. The frost will often raise the plants from the soil, especially those planted the previous autumn. In spring, therefore, each plant should be carefully scrutinized, and, if necessary, gently pressed down into the soil. Dead leaves must be removed from around the plants, and a top-dressing of fine, sandy loam and leaf-mould should be sifted round and close up to the crowns.

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index of all plants detailed in this website

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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