Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - T

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row


with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)


with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests


United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.



12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Dark Green

Yellow, Orange or Red in

Four main hybrid groups:-
African Marigolds,
French Marigolds,
Afro-French Marigolds and
Signet Marigolds

Tamarix ramossissima
'Pink Cascade'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 180 (450 x 450)


Pink in

"Late Tamarisk". From eastern Europe to central Asia.
Full Sun
Zones 2-10
Deep, sandy soil with good drainage and can be pruned after flowering

Tamarix tetrandra var. purpurea

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)


Light Pink in

"Tamarisk". Has arching purplish brown shoots and needle-like leaves. In spring, it bears lateral racemes of 4-petalled flowers on the previous year's growth.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Deep sandy soil with good drainage.

Tanakaea radicans

Evergreen Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Dark Green above, paler beneath

White in

"Japanese Foam Flower"

Taxus baccata

Evergreen Conical Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 240 (750 x 600)

Dark Green

Yellow male cones in

"English Yew, Common Yew". From wetern Asia, North Africa and Europe. Excellent Dense hedge.
Fruit of Green poisonous seeds with Red aril.
Full Sun to Full Shade
Zones 5-10
Moist alkaline chalk soil in an open position. They do not enjoy warm winters or hot, dry summers.

Taxus baccata
'Fastigata Aurea'

Evergreen Conical Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 144 (900 x 360)

Dark Green, Gold-variegated with Gold patches



Taxus baccata

Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 180 (60 x 450)

Dark Green


"Yew". This is a female yew that does not produce any leaders but spreads by side shoots, forming a low mound. It will tolerate full sun or part shade.

Taxus baccata
'Repens Aurea'

Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Green leaves edged gold on young growths, turning pale cream later in summer



Taxus baccata

Evergreen Columnar Conifer below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 6
(45 x 15)




Taxus baccata

Evergreen Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 48 (60 x 120)

Yellow in Spring and Summer, Green with Yellow margins in Autumn and Winter


"Yew". It spreads quickly, forming a low carpeting conifer, but with enough height to show off its bright golden yellow foliage. In winter it reverts to green-margined yellow.

Tellima grandiflora

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)


White or Greenish-White in

"Fringe Cups". Erect
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Moist, humus-rich soil

Companions - ferns, aster divaricatus, hosta, epimedium, luzula, hakonechloa, stylophorum, polygonatum, smilacina

Tellima grandiflora

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 10 (40 x 25)


Red in

"Fringe Cups".Erect
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Moist, humus-rich soil

Teucrium chamaedrys

Herb - Alpine Subshrub

12-24 x 24-36
(30-60 x 60-90)

Dark Green

Rosy Purple in July-September

"Wall Germander Dwarf Germander". From Europe and southwestern Asia. Suitable for walls, steep banks and edging and a medicinal herb.
Full Sun
Zones 5-10
Light, well-drained soil. Does best in poor soil

Left untouched, dwarf germander is effective in large, informal areas and in desert and rock gardens, where its deep roots serve as a binder in sandy soil. It takes well to shearing, often serving as an excellent low, formal hedge or walk edging.

Teucrium divaricatum


30 x
(75 x )

Dark Green


A good hedging plant for use in knot gardens.

Teucrium fruticans

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 144 (60 x 360)

Aromatic Grey-Green above, White-woolly beneath

Pale Blue in

"Shrubby Germander,
Tree Germander".

Thalictrum flavum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)


Fragrant Yellow in

"Yellow Meadow Rue". Spreading rhizomes.
Use at edge of woodland gardens. Sturdy stems, clump-forming.
Zone 5-9
Ste in the middle or back of the border in full sun. The plants should not be cut to the ground after flkowering as new growth will not appear until late the following spring. Spent flowers should be removed to prevent over-abundance of self-sown seedlings.

Companions - roses, aconitum, astilbe, alchemilla mollis, ferns, hosta, polygonatum, brunnera, smilacina, aruncus, hydrangea, fuchsia magellanica.

Thuja occidentalis

Evergreen Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Light Green


"White Cedar, American Arbor-vitae". This species has only more than 140 cultivars, so it could get sad at Xmas when it cannot meet all its relatives. From northeastern Asia and North America.
Full Sun
Zones 4-10
Any soil which is well-drained, but they dislike dry conditions. Dwarf cultivars make excellent rock garden or container specimens.

Thuja occidentalis

Evergreen Columnar Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 36 (330 x 90)



"White Cedar".

Thuja occidentalis

Evergreen Bushy Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Golden-Yellow in Spring and Summer, Green in Autumn and Winter


"White Cedar".

Thuja occidentalis
'Aurea Nana'

Evergreen Bushy Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Yellow-Green in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Bronze in Winter


"White Cedar".

Thymus serphyllum
'Pink Chintz'

Herb Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)


Flesh Pink in

"Wild Thyme, Creeping Thyme, Mother of Thyme". Use in rock gardens, between stepping stones or used for display on banks. Prostrate in habit.
Full Sun
Zones 3-9
Moist, well-drained soil. For thick dense plants, the flowerheads should be removed after flowering.

Thymus vulgaris
'Silver Posie'

Herb Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 16
(22 x 40)

White-margined Grey-Green

Bright Purple to White in

"Garden Thyme". Has tiny, white-variegated leaves and masses of pink-purple flowers.
There are over 350 species of Thymus and practically all of them flower profusely, producing copios amounts of nectar for the making of honey. They tolerate dry, stony, infertile soils and are quite hardy.

Thymus x citriodorus

Herb Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 10 (30 x 25)


Lavender-Pink in

"Lemon-scented Thyme". Rounded shrub where its leaves are used in cooking. Lemon-scented foliage.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Moist, well-drained soil.

Thymus x citriodorus
'Silver Queen'

Herb Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 10 (30 x 25)

Cream-variegated Mid-Green

Lavender-Pink in

"Lemon-scented Thyme". Has variegated leaves with either silver or gold markings and a strong lemon scent.

Tiarella cordifolia

Herbaceous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Pale Green become tinted Bronze-Red in Autumn

Creamy-White in

"Foam Flower". Good autumn, winter colour, vigorous, spreads by stolons
Part Shade
Zone 3-8
Moist, humus-rich soil. From rich woodland, and even wet streamsides, of eastern North America, from Quebec to the southern Appalachians.

Companions - ferns, epimedium, pulmonaria, astilbe, helleborus, hosta , trillium, uvularia, polygonatum, spring bulbs, luzula, hakonechloa, geranium, aster divaricatus.

Tolmiea menziesii

Herbaceous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 60 (45 x 150)

Pale to Lime-Green

Slightly scented Pale Green shaded and line Purple-Brown, Purple-Brown petals and Orange anthers in

"Thousand Mothers, Pick-a-Back Plant, Piggyback Plant". Clump-forming, quickly making effective ground cover.
Part Shade, Full Shade
Zone 6-9
Moist soil containing abundant humus. In very cold climates grow as a house or greenhouse plant. From western North America.

Companions - ferns, pulmonaria, vancouveria, epimedium, polygonatum, tiarella, heuchera, x heucherella, helleborus, luzula, hakonechloa, stylophorum, meconopsis cambrica, tricyrtis.

Trachycarpus fortunei

Evergreen Palm above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

840 x 96 (2100 x 240)

Dark Green

Yellow in

"Chusan Palm".
Female plants bear Blue-Black fruit.

Tradescantia Andersoniana Group

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Mid-Green, often Purple-tinted

Blue, Purple, Pink to Rose-Red, or White in

Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Moist, rich soil in herbaceous borders. Plants derived from the prairies and moist meadows of central and eastern USA.

Companions - ferns, hosta, iris foetidissima, iris siberica, ligularia, heuchera, brunnera, hemerocallis lilooasphodelus; the summer border

Tricyrtis flava

Herbaceous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Glossy Mid-Green , often with Dark Purplish-Green spots

Yellow in

"Toad Lily".

Companions - ferns, hosta, helleborus, pulmonaria, epimedium, podophyllum, polygonatum

Tricyrtis hirta

Herbaceous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 24 (80 x 60)

Pale Green

Purple-spotted White in

"Toad Lily, Japanese Toad Lily".
Light to Full Shade
Zone 5-8
Moist, humus-rich soil. MUulch the soil to prevent soil drying out in the summer/autumn. From Japan.

Trifolium pratense
'Susan Smith'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Dark Green..

Pink in

"Red Clover". Mat-forming.
Full Sun
Zone 6-9
Fertile, moist but well-drained soil. Native to most of Europe and naturalized in North America.

Companions - Foreground plants such as ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens', ajuga, lysimacia.

Trifolium repens
'Purpurascens Quadrifolium'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x indefinite (10 x indefinite)

Deep Purple-Maroon centres and narrow Mid-Green margins

White in

"White Clover". Mat-forming and creeping.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained, limy soil. Weave round heucheras. Natiralized in North America, but native to Europe

Trillium cuneatum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Mid-Green marked pale or Silver-Green

Musk-scented Dark Maroon in

"Trinity Flower, Sessile". Clumps.
Part Shade from deciduous trees
Zone 5
Best on limy soil but tolerates acid conditions. From southeastern USA.

Companions - smilacina, disporum, viola, erythronium, uvularia, primula, polygonatum, arisaema, hosta, jeffesonia, brunnera, dicentra, tiarella, pulmonaria; the woodland garden.

Trillium grandiflorum

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12 (40 x 30)

Dark Green

Pure White in

"Wake Robin, White Wake Robin". Clump former
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Neutral to slightly acid soil, enriched with woodland leafmould - Pine needles. From Quebec, Canada, southward to eastern USA

Trillium grandiflorum
'Flore Pleno'

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12 (40 x 30)

Dark Green

Pure White in

Part Shade
Zone 5
Neutral to slightly acid soil, enriched with woodland leafmould - Pine needles.

Trillium luteum

Deciduous Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12 (40 x 30)


Sweet-scented Golden or Bronze-Green in

"Wood Lily".
Use in Woodland garden.
Part Shade
Zone 5
Prefers neutral to slightly alkaline soil. From eastern North America and Europe

Tritonia disticha

Herbaceous Corm Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 2
(75 x 5)

Dark Green

Orange-Red, Red or Pink in


Trollius x cultorum cultivars

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Glossy Dark Green

Orange or Yellow in

"Globe Flower". Clump-forming.
Full Sun
Zone 3-8
Moist soil

Companions - ferns, primula japonica, primula beesiana, primula bulleyana, primula x bulleesiana, primula florindae, primula poissonii, ligularia, hosta, astilbe, iris sibirica, scilla, carex elata 'Aurea', astrantia major 'Sunningdale Variegated', sanguisorba 'Sunsplash'

Tsuga canadensis

Evergreen Pendulous Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

144 x 300 (360 x 750)



"Eastern Hemlock, Canadian Hemlock". From cool northeast of North America. Very effective hanging over a bank or wall as a semi-prostrate mound.
Part Shade
Zones 2-9
Slightly acid, deep, well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter.

Tsusiophyllum tanakae

Semi-Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 8
(50 x 20)

Very hairy Dark Green

Hairy White in



Bulb Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 6
(60 x 15)

Mid or Grey-Green

wide range of colours

'Single Flowered' Tulips in the following groups are usefull for bees:-
Single Early Group,
Triumph Group,
Darwin Hybrid Group,
Lily-flowered Group,
Fringed Group,
Viridiflora Group,
Rembrandt Group,
Parrot Group,
Kaufmanniana Group,
Fosteriana Group and
Greigii Group.

See Tulips in the
Tulip Gallery


Other details about Tulips are in the bottom row of this table.

Typha minima

Marginal Aquatic Herbaceous Water Plant 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Brown in

"Bulrush, Cat's Tail, Reedmace".


Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches


Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Tanakaea, Teurcium, Thalictrum, Thymus, Tradescantia, Trifolium, Trillium, Trollius and Tulipa and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)



Light Sandy Soil is usually fairly infertile, and it also dries out quickly. In such cases, use drought-tolerant plants, such as ones that grow in dry soil conditions (see plants in the Dry section of the Moisture column of the soil type, aspect and moisture list page) and also do the following actions, since any nutrients in the soil are usually washed out very quickly.

Acid soil is most common in places that experience heavy rainfall and have moister environments. Areas in red have acidic soil, areas in yellow are neutral and areas in blue have alkaline soil in the World Map. Find Me Plants has further details on other plants for acidic soils, when you set Soil Type in Part 1: Surveying the planting area to Sandy/Gritty, or Light Sand or Stony/Sub-Soil.

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance:-

  • Mulch the beds with a 4 inch (100mm) deep layer of Spent Mushroom Compost to improve fertility and drainage; preferably in the Autumn in between the existing plants, and top it up each year after that with a Bark Mulch instead (available from garden centres or Gardenscape). This will stop the Light Sandy soil from drying out through the action of sun and wind on its surface, and to provide carbon to aid in soil formation and fertility. Adding clay in water solution as a spray will also greater improve the soil structure.
  • If starting a new lawn or bed, add the 4 inch layer of Spent Mushroom Compost mulch and rotovate that in. If you also add an inch deep of clay, before rotovating that in as well, then that will provide part of the glue in creating a better soil from the sand. Heel and rake the ground for a new turf (or to be seeded) lawn, before laying or seeding it. Insert plants in new bed, before installing the irrigation system and then applying a 4 inch layer of this mulch on top of it.
  • Spread 5Kg of Dolodust (Dolomitic Lime), with 2Kg of Maxicrop Seaweed Meal over a 25 square yard or 25 square metre lawn area, each April. This will improve the fertility of the lawn by providing calcium and the trace elements (See What is Soil Texture Page and How are chemicals stored and released from soil Page in the Soil Section for further details). Spreading the same amount of Dolomitic Lime and Maxicrop Seaweed Meal on the flower/vegetable beds at the same time would also be beneficial.

Sources of further information:-

  • Notcutts Catalogue of 1994 - retail catalogue of their plants for sale. It has Plants for a Purpose pages including one on Light sandy dry soil including trees for gravel workings.
  • The Royal Horticultural Society Gardeners' Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers. Editor-in-Chief Christopher Brickell. Published by Dorling Kindsley Limited. Reprinted and updated 1990, 2/1990, 3/1990. ISBN 0-86318-386-7. The Planter's Guide suggests lists of plants that are suitable for growing in particular situations, or that have special uses or characteristics including Plants for Sandy Soil.

Gardening in Sandy Soil by C.L. Fornari. A very useful book and one you can have on a Kindle in December 2017. A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin with this Index:-

  • The benefits of Sandy Soil
    • Drainage
    • Root Penetration
    • Air Circulation
    • Digging
  • The disadvantages of gardening in sand
    • Rapid water loss
    • Nutrient loss
  • Strategies for Success: using amendmentss
    • Soil amendments
    • Green amendments
    • Amending new beds
    • Amending established beds
  • Fertilizing
  • Mulch
    • Mulching materials
    • How much mulch
    • Problems with mulch
  • Choosing plants
    • Sandy soils and pH
    • Moisture-loving plants in sandy soil
    • Vegetables in sandy soil
  • Plants for sandy soils - I have bought the book and read it, but unfortunately I have not added its recommended plants.
    I would at least recommend that its list is carefully looked at by the Americans; for whom it was written.
    • Ground covers and Grasses
    • Annuals
    • Perennials
    • Shrubs and Trees

Action to assist in other soil types in:-


The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

Plant Combinations for Sandy Soil

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance is given in the row above and this is required annually.



Sun lovers - You can achieve a design with grey-leaved plants, interspersed with smaller or larger groups of taller perennials and a single shrub. Because the grey-leaved plants predominate they are used as a basis, with suggestions for plants which can be combined with them.

Grey Foliage with white and yellow flowers and plants that combine with these

  • Yarrow (Achillea chrysocoma),
  • pearl everlasting (Anaphalis),
  • mouse ear (Cerastium),
  • Raoulia,
  • catchfly (Silene uniflora 'Robin Whitebreast') and the
  • bunnies' ears (Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet')

all have grey leaves and either white, yellow or inconspicuous flowers.

If the above plants are planted together; the effect of different heights and size of leaf will be rather messy and unclear. Plant the above as the background ground cover and the ones in the next column within that background.

  • Acaena buchanii and Acaena magellanica being silver-leaved species of the pirri-pirri-bur form pretty vigorous ground cover. Add a few groups of grey-leaved grasses for their contrasting shape to make an interesting picture. The ground-covering Festuca glauca and Koeleria glauca are especially suitable, to which can be added the tall, also grey-leafed blue oat grass Helictotrichon sempervirens, for a striking feature.
  • Gypsophila, with its delicate flowers, can best be planted next to a plant which has a strong leaf structure, for example Geranium renardii.
  • For a taller feature among the grey-leafed ground cover you can choose one of the beautiful cultivars of the common German flag, Iris germanica. The tall, sword-shaped leaves which are grey-green, stand out very well here.
  • The Yucca has a similar structure, forming a stout clump of leaves with tall sprays of white flowers.
  • The tall mulleins, especially Verbascum bombyciferum, with splendid rosettes of grey, felty leaves and yellow flowers like huge torches that can easily reach 60 inches (150 cms), a real must.
  • Annuals that deserve a place in this predominantly grey planting include Gazania pinnata with yellow flowers and the white Senecio cineraria.

The above comes from Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek. Published by Rebo Productions Ltd in 1997. ISBN 1 901094 41 3


  • Chapter 1 What are ground-cover plants?
  • Chapter 2 Plant combinations for normal garden soil
  • Chapter 3 Plant combinations for sandy soil
  • Chapter 4 Plant combinations for clay soil
  • Chapter 5 Woodland, heaths and wet soil
  • Chapter 6 Shrubs for slopes and large beds
  • Chapter 7 The A to Z of plants for ground cover.



Read How to grow Tulips by Sarah Raven for cultivation instructions.

Tulips like a rich soil, but like other bulbs are intolerant of actual contact with manure. Sir Cotter after the initial preparation of ground never previously devoted to bulb culture, never used farmyard manure. He used bone meal as his chief stand by, used at the rate of a double handful to the square yard. When the soil was very deficient in lime he used basic slag as an autumn dressing, or superphosphate of lime as a spring one, applied at the same rates.

Plant Combination
It would not perhaps be out of place here to mention one way in which Sir J.L. Cotter utilised both Daffodils and Tulips, where a spring show of bloom and a summer one as well had to be maintained, and at the same time an eye on economy. In front of a house where Sir Cotter resided some years ago, there were several large beds which always caused a considerable amount of difficulty, and no little expense, to keep in constant or nearly continuous bloom. Finally he hit on the plan of planting them out with dwarf polyantha roses, one variety to a bed, 9 inches (23 cms) apart, and in the intervening spaces Daffodils or Tulips , chosen so that all the beds were in flower, the roses were pruned so closely to the ground as to be quite unnoticeable. Afterwards, when the bulbs were over, the roses had attained their full size of 12 inches (30 cms) or more, and closely covering the beds with their foliage, completely hid the dying leaves of the bulbs. The beds are in bloom for practically the whole season. There is a vast economy in labour." from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

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Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
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24-72 inches
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Above 72 inches
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Photos - Bloom per Month
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Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
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Photos - Wildflowers


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Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
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Any Soil S-Z

- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Erect or Upright

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo

Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable


Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.


Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants

Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

Then, finally use

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z



Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.




Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1