Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 1:
Page 8 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 30 310119
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Item is
Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in trunk IMG 6245.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance of pavement IMG 6240.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 29 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6250.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6256.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance IMG 6257.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 31 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6258.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction road section to lido IMG 6263.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6260.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 33 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6265.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6266.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives onthe other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



The following is copied from Site Map of Evergreen Trees Gallery:-


The Yew Tree of St Margaret’s Church, Rainham, Kent,

written by Clifford Hansford. Contributory Member of the Ancient Yew Group www.ancient-yew.org


Observations of the tree’s current restoration/conservation work now nearing completion,
15th February 2010.


The following observations have been recorded in response to a request from Tim Hills
(Ancient Yew Group) for information relating to the particular method currently being used
to rescue and protect the above yew from further decay. It is hoped that the information
will be of use to assist Mr Russell Ball, President of the United Kingdom & Ireland
International Society of Arboriculture, in assessing the methods’ acceptability for such a task.

Having learned of the tree’s plight from a colleague at the Kent Wildlife Trust, and visited
the yew on Sat’ 13th February with Mr Chris Garnons-Williams, who is undertaking the
work, my understanding of the situation is as follows:-

1: This yew (recorded in the AYG Gazetteer) is believed by the church to be an ancient
yew of approximately 1300 years old.

2: Concern was raised by members of the church regarding the way in which the open
centre of the yew retained water. Such water retention was believed to be accelerating
the decay already prevalent in this area of the yew. Also, it was noted that other areas
of the yew were displaying similar symptoms, particularly where a large branch had
partially broken away from the main trunk.

3: Having engaged the services of Chris Garnons-Williams, the proprietor of Ivydene
Horticultural Services (www.ivydenegardens.co.uk) a horticulturalist, it was agreed to
implement the current method of recovery and conservation as Chris has proved it
successful when used on other types of tree.

Firstly, all old decayed material is removed. All hollows and cavities are then back-filled
with a combination of empty bottles (supplied by the pub next door to the church) and
expandable polystyrene foam. The bottles are used to help fill the cavities, thus saving
money on the use of foam. Care is taken to ensure the foam forms around the bottles,
and mates with all areas of surrounding heartwood. Finally two coats of black masonry,
water based paint is applied to both the foam and locally exposed heartwood (Without
a paint covering the foam decays if directly exposed to sunlight).

4: To date £700 has been spent on this work, (£200 donated directly by a group of church
members and the remainder supplied from church funds).


An assortment of different size bottles, ranging from whiskey and wine (large bottles) to
the smaller fruit juice bottles, are used depending on the size of the cavities/gaps to be filled.

In hindsight, Chris would recommend the use of high-pressure water to remove the
decayed wood rather than screwdrivers and other blade-type implements. The residual
water left from the process would help to set the expandable polystyrene foam.

Work started in August 2009, with a break during the cold weather, and is still ongoing.
A further five to ten days is anticipated for completion.

All old, firm wood has been left in situ. Lots of new shoots are now forming.

Between Chris and myself we were able to measure the girth of the yew as being 26 feet
at its base.

It just so happened that on the day Chris and I met for the first time (13 Feb 2010),
the church had its annual open day. This gave me an opportunity to learn from church
members how very determined they are to preserve this much respected yew.


Western facing aspect.



View of Eastern aspect.




View of Southern aspect


View of Northern aspect which indicates the open centre before preservation action.




View of Northern aspect with Clifford Hansford - after preservation action.




Bottle-filled foam repair.


View showing filled split in a limb growing from a fallen branch.



The following is from "The Hidden Life of Trees - What they feel, How they
communicate: Discoveries from a Secret World" by Peter Wohlleben. This
English translation was published William Collins in 2017.
ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0 -
"Friendship - look up into the forest canopy. The average tree grows its branches
out until it encounters the branch tips of a neighbouring tree of the same height.
It doesn't grow any wider because the air and better light in this space are already
taken, However, it heavily reinforces the branches it has extended, so you get the
impression that there's quite a shoving match going on up there. But a pair of
true friends is careful right from the outset not to grow overly thick branches in
each other's direction. The trees don't want to take anything away from each
other, and so they develop sturdy branches only at the outer edges of their crowns,
that is to say, only in the direction of "non-friends". Such partners are often so
tightly connected at the roots that sometimes they even die together."
My comment "The canopy that he is writing about is in a natural forest. Unfortunately
in Madeira and elsewhere, trees are incorrectly pruned and this leads to
watershoots and watersprouts. Unfortunately both of these are not directly
connected with the central nervous system of the remainder of the tree and thus
they grow in an uncontrolled way interfering with that tree's own canopy as well
as any other neighbour with the growth from the watershoots. If the tree is not
pollarded but correctly pruned so that a juvenile branch no matter how small
can take over the tip leader position, then the central nervous system can
continue to function for the entire tree."


"When a caterpillar takes a hearty bite out of a leaf, the tissue around the site
of the damage changes. In addition, the leaf tissue sends out electrical signals,
just as human tissue does when it is hurt. However, the signal is not transmitted
in milliseconds, as human signals are; instead, the plant signal travels at the slow
speed of a third of an inch per second. Accordingly, it takes an hour or so before
defensive compounds reach the leaves to spoil the pest's meal. Trees live their
lives in the really slow lane, even when they are in danger."
My comment "Due to those watershoots and watersprouts not being connected to
this nervous system, only the nervous system within the watershoot or watersprout
can try to deal with the problem, which is unlikely."


"Trees can mount their own defense. One of these ways is to warn each other
using chemical signals sent through the fungal networks around their root tips,
which operate no matter what the weather. Surprisingly, news bulletins are
sent via the roots not only by means of chemical compounds but also by means
of electrical impulses that travel at the speed of a third of an inch per second. Once
the latest news has been broadcast, all the oaks in the area promptly pump
tannins through their veins to put off the chewing insects."
My Comment" If my solution for the mosaic pavements was used not just on the
pavements but also the drives alongside of the domestic dwellings, drives on
commercial properties and pavements in public gardens, then the fungal network
could be linked everywhere and trees suffering from one problem in one area could
warn the others, who could try out their solution, until the pest can be obliterated or
scared off. As it stands at the moment every tree in a pavement is a loner and
due to being starved, dehydrated and gassing its own roots with carbon dioxide and
nitrogen compounds, it has nothing to help it.

Unfortunately as human beings, we no longer care about nature and quite happily
say that we are breathing, so what is the problem? and ignore our destruction of the
plant kingdom which provides us with oxygen by pouring concrete/tarmac on it.

This book is very good in connecting us back to nature, like we were before the
Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and the country folk worked with nature.


When a tree is taken out of the nursery ground to be put into a black pot or a white
pot, 80% of its roots are cut off and that makes it difficult for the tree in its later life.
Barcham with its white pot persuades the remaining roots to travel down the pot
instead of circling within it. When the trees from pots where the roots have circled
are transplanted, the planters do not re-arrange the roots so that those roots in a
circle continue to grow in that circle and not leave it. So, within 10 years the tree
runs out of water etc because it has no roots outside that circle to provide water,
nutrients or gas exchange. Because the roots go down the pot, then when their trees
are transplanted, they can be persuaded not to go under the road by using a geotextile
and if the 2 inches (5 cms) of Heicom Tree Sand was there then its roots would go
into that medium and be accompanied by fungi etc to grow a healthy tree.
explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees
have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting

18, Naturalize

19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-

...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watershoots pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watershoots (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watershoot).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

Information about this yew tree on 22 March 2020 from rainhamchurch.co.uk website.


This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.


I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and
the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Susex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - "In 2013 a new estimate of 1050 early deaths as a result of just PM2.5 air pollution across Kent & Medway in 2010 was calculated by the Kent and Medway Air Quality partnership (K&MAQP) Health Sub Group. Figure 4 shows a figure between 11 and 12 of PM2.5 for Medway with 50 early deaths from PM2.5 pollution in 2010 per 100,000 population. It had a population in 2014 of 274,016. Each year if you live in Medway you may die early as 1 out of 2.74 x 50 = (2.74 x 50)/100000 probabability - remember the stupidity of the stiff upper lip of the British as your parent with heart and lung problems, spouse or child kicks the bucket." This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.


Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13


Gallery 1 Page 1

Man strimming grass
IMG 6110.JPG
See effect on surrounding trees/shrubs of grass

Man strimming grass
IMG 6111.JPG

Man strimming grass
IMG 6112.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6126.JPG
Branch stump rotted into trunk

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6127.JPG
See fungus on damaged trunk of left side

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6129.JPG
Where does this tree get its water and nourishment? Its roots extend to at least the same length as its height. See What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay Page for influence of trees on
House Foundations in clay soils.

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6131.JPG
Branch stump rotted into trunk

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6132.JPG
Main roads both sides of it together with concrete paving over its roots, so then these roots greatly appreciate being pounded by lorries, buses, cars and people!

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6133.JPG
The flower bed on the left of the red bicycle track is irrigated, whereas the trees on the right are not. It is likely that under the bicycle track and the grey concrete pavers that the soil has been removed and replaced with foundation materials which are not suitable to tree roots.

Tree 2 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6135.JPG
Branch stump drying out and cracking open

Tree 2 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6136.JPG
Weeds growing in the ground area between the trunk and the metal frame takes water and nutrients away from this tree.

Gallery 1 Page 2

Tree 3 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6137.JPG
Freshly sawn branch stump, where the bark is drying out, cracking apart and separating from the stump

Tree 4 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6138.JPG
Branch stump rotted into trunk.

Tree 5 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6140.JPG
Branch stump drying out and cracking. The bark on the surrounding callus is also cracking through drying out as well. It would appear that many of the branches have been sawn off through the branch collar, which is incorrect. With no protection, eventually all the stumps end up rotting into the trunk where the callus has not covered the wound.

Tree 5 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6142.JPG
Besides the crossing branches, it would appear that not all the light from the street light is reaching the ground level.

Tree 6 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6143.JPG
Tree stump with good callus. It might have had a black wound dressing applied, most of which is now gone. When the branch was cut off or it broke off then the bottom of the branch broke rather be cut through. My normal system of cutting a large branch is undercutting to about a third of its thickness, then overcutting the branch about an inch beyond the undercut below. Then the branch will slowly depress and come away from the rest without damaging the remaining stump. Then, cut off the very short stump towards the branch collar to tidy it up.

Tree 6 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6144.JPG

Tree 7 forum end of 2 road junction flower bed
IMG 6147.JPG
Note that you can see at least 2 brown irrigation pipes in this flower bed. The plants in this bed are doing well, but why no irrigation for the trees?

Tree 8 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6149.JPG
This tree has overgrown a concrete paving slab and as the tree grows, its weight will increase bu part of its connection to roots in the ground will not.

Tree 8 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6151.JPG
Damaged trunk perhaps by concrete which has mostly been removed.

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6155.JPG
Lump of concrete embedded in root. Green vegetation robbing tree of water and nutrients. Tree now exceeding boundary of metal frame onto concrete pavers. As it encroaches more and more onto the surrounding pavers, the stability of this tree will decrease.

Gallery 1 Page 3

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6156.JPG
Concrete and stone embedded in trunk. Gap under trunk. Green vegetation taking water and nourishment from tree.

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6157.JPG
Gap under trunk.

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6158.JPG
Gap and concrete under trunk. When this pavement was changed, were concrete pavers/slabs removed from under this tree? If so, how far does the gap go under this tree and therefore is there sufficient heartwood trunk to continue to support this tree?

Tree 11 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6162.JPG
Stump of original tree support post left in ground. Damaged tree not covered by tree callus. Green vegetation taking water/nourishment.

Tree 11 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6164.JPG
Note the raised concrete blocks which have been elevated by the tree roots below.

Tree 12 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6165.JPG
Note the raised concrete blocks which have been elevated by the tree roots below.

Tree 13 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6167.JPG
The damaged trunk not covered by the callus is drying out and splitting.

Tree 13 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6168.JPG
Note the raised concrete blocks which have been elevated by the tree roots below.

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction grass opposite promenade
IMG 6176.JPG
Note how thin are the trunks of the shrub/trees growing within this grass.

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6171.JPG
Note the raised concrete blocks which have been elevated by the tree roots below.

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6174.JPG
Although the tree callus almost made it in repair terms. It has not and the stump has rotted into the trunk. The bark on the callus is drying out and splitting. It could be that the rot has extended under the callus and is damaging the callus.

Gallery 1 Page 4

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6184.JPG
Perhaps this branch broke in a storm. It was then chopped off with a saw, and then the ends burnt. Now it is rotting into the trunk.

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6185.JPG
Damaged trunk is now rotting.

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6186.JPG
Branch stump deeply rotting into trunk.
With these 3 lots of rotting in the trunk, you have a serious problem.

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6187.JPG
2 branch stumps are rotting into the trunk.

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6188.JPG
This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk.

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6189.JPG
This rot at the trunk base is deep. There is also concrete embedded in the trunk.

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction badly damaged trunk
IMG 6190.JPG
This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk. There are 2 other branch stumps which are going to rot.
With these sections of rotting in the trunk, you have a serious problem.

Tree 17 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6192.JPG
This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk.

Tree 18 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6193.JPG
This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk. It may also be riddled with woodworm.

Tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6196.JPG
This trunk rot is large and deep as shown in this and the next photo, you have a serious problem.

Tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6197.JPG

Gallery 1 Page 5

Tree 20 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6200.JPG
2 sections of Trunk damage; 1 from ground level.

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6202.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk
IMG 6203.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 6205.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 6206.JPG
The view through the base of this tree trunk is very revealing. Madeira is oblivious to the safety of its population or its time-share visitors with tree 21.

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 6209.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 6204.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6210.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6211.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6212.JPG
This branch stump rot is deep within the trunk and there are 2 sections of trunk damage at the base of the trunk; you have a serious problem with tree 22.

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction
IMG 6214.JPG

Gallery 1 Page 6

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6215.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6216.JPG
When you combine the 3 lots trunk damage near the base, with the 2 branch stumps rotting into the trunk with its woodworm and where a third trunk has split away from the other 2 leaving a rotting remaining trunk; you have a serious problem with tree 23.

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6217.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6218.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6219.JPG
This tree in a garden has not had any branches sawn off it by man. There are many small dead branches, which have been caused by the foliage above robbing them of sunlight in the tree's effort to continue growing upwards.

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6220.JPG
Unfortunately, with the number of large trees growing in this garden, there is too much competition for water and nourishment in the available soil which may be a bit thin here. There is also the competition of the grass and so the roots of the trees have appeared on the surface to try and obtain the maximum air, nutrients and water that each can obtain. The trees would benefit from having the grass removed carefully, bulbs scattered over the surface and that covered with a 4 inch (10cm) mulch of organic compost. There are bulbs which tend to pull themselves further underground each year. This garden area is not frequented by humans so the bulbs could happily grow, flower and foliage die off without being trampled.

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6221.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6222.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6223.JPG

Tree 24 from end of 2 road junction pollarded juvenile tree IMG 6225.JPG
You can see the watershoots growing from the pollarded tree, but those shoots are not as strongly attached to the tree as new branches.

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6226.JPG
There is a seriously large hole in the trunk which is rotting both inwards and downwards. You have a serious problem with this tree.

Gallery 1 Page 7

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6227.JPG
Watersprouts have been cut off or broken off while the rot of the trunk behind it has been totally ignored. Does anybody doing tree maintenance in Madeira know anything?

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6228.JPG

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction with grahiti on trunk
IMG 6229.JPG
Graphiti carved on trunk!

Tree 26 from end of 2 road junction with broken branch stubs IMG 6233.JPG
Part cut branch was then broken off! New branches (not watersprouts) growing from the trunk in the top right hand corner.

Tree 26 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6230.JPG
This branch was sawn off without leaving the branch collar. When it was almost sawn though it fell and ripped off the lower bark. The saw cut went through the middle of a sub-branch and you can see from that how much connection of a branch with its parent there was. Why does nobody train these people?

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6236.JPG
Not bothering to see exactly where to cut this branch off, the first cut was below the branch into the trunk, the second was on the left side, which got so far until the weight of the branch snapped the branch off. Having caused the injury, the expert then left the work unfinished for it to rot!

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6237.JPG
The branch collar was cut off and the callus has not covered the wound. The exposed stump has now dried and started cracking.

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction with bleeding cut stumps IMG 6235.JPG
Above these 2 freshly cut branch stumps is the branch stump from which it was quite likely that these 2 watersprouts started from, which is drying out and starting to crack. These 2 branch stumps are where the chainsaw used has cut between the branch collar and the trunk thus defeating the callus making equipment to partially repair this hacking procedure. You note the red sap exuding from the cambium between the bark and the heartwood. That 1 cell thick layer is where the new watersprouts will grow from and that is why since it does not cover the full circumference of the sawn cut as to why watersprouts (watershoots) are inherently weak at their joint with their parent

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6242.JPG
Gap under trunk. How far it goes under one cannot see with this photo. You could have a serious problem with Tree 28.

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6244.JPG
Another gap under this trunk and a further wound in the trunk which is rotting

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6246.JPG
There are 2 further trunk wounds which are rotting further up the trunk

Gallery 1 Page 8

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in trunk IMG 6245.JPG
The rot in the trunk from this wound is quite deep

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance of pavement IMG 6240.JPG
Note the raised grey concrete pavers indicating uplifting by tree roots.

Tree 29 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6250.JPG
This branch stump is rotting into the trunk.

Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6256.JPG
There is rot in the base of the trunk. The callus on the other wound has more than half covered the wound.

Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance IMG 6257.JPG
There is a small wound in the trunk. The raised grey concrete pavers show that roots are uplifting them.

Tree 31 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6258.JPG
The long wound from the base of the trunk is drying out and the exposed heartwood is splitting apart.

Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction road section to lido IMG 6263.JPG
There are 4 visible tree wounds, which are exposed. The excess grey concrete pavers should not be stacked against the trunk.

Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch
IMG 6259.JPG
What a close up of these 2 branch types!

Gallery 1 Page 9

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction
IMG 6269.JPG
Black mesh has been placed over a large hole.

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction view back to previous road section
IMG 6274.JPG
A side view of this mesh and hole.

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6270.JPG
It turns out to be a rusty metal mesh covering a deep hole.

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6271.JPG
A section of tree callus has overgrown the mesh on the left side, so how deep is the rot alongside?

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6272.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6273.JPG
Another branch stump rotting into the trunk. How safe is this tree?

Tree 39 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6299.JPG
This tree has wounds where the callus has not enclosed the cut. In order to get it to fit within its concrete circle, 2 of its roots have been cut off close to the trunk. This reduces the stability of the tree.

Tree 40 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6300.JPG
A very small area of open ground for this tree to receive water, nourishment and gas exchange.

Tree 41 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6301.JPG
One of its main roots has been forced to go round the tree rather than outwards to support it.

Tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6302.JPG

Tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6304.JPG
It would appear that the taxis run over the roots and into the trunk when they park themselves here. I am sure that you would love to have your toes bashed into by a taxi on an irregular basis.

Gallery 1 Page 10

Tree 43 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6305.JPG
There is tyre marks on the bark and wounded areas caused by the tyres scrapping against the trunk. The wound on the right has been continuously run into by taxis. It is kind of the taxi drivers to smoke and throw their cigarette butts at the tree. Ever have a lit cigarette put against the skin on your face - great experience isn't it?

Tree 44 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6306.JPG
One of its main roots has been forced round the tree in order for the roots of this tree to fit within its concrete enclosure. One of the main roots on the left has been run over by a vehicle destroying 2 of its sub-roots.

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6307.JPG
This was a double leader and the 2 have grown together. However a water trap has formed which will rot the junction of the 2.

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6308.JPG
Here you can see the water trap problem in greater detail.

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6309.JPG
This branch stump has now started to rot into the trunk.

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6311.JPG
Not only is this tree well out into a main road, where it has been hit repeatedly by lorries and buses, a proportion of the trunk is now sitting on pink concrete blocks and concrete kerb instead of into the ground. Hot tarmac has been brought right up to the roots of the tree and compressed into place. So it is no wonder that you can see the wounds and the rot going into the trunk.

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6312.JPG
A very nice Black and Yellow striped sign has been placed next to the pavement. Once the tree has been knocked down by the traffic, then this sign might also suffer the same fate. Move the sign so the sign is beyond the extent of the tree, so that the sign is hit rather than the tree. The sign is meant to warn drivers about this hazard!!!

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6310.JPG

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido view of next road section IMG 6313.JPG
It has 4 branch stumps which are rotting into the trunk. You can also see other trees in the road.

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6314.JPG
The part of the trunk in the road has had tarmac compressed onto its roots and nobody was bothered to remove the metal post, so they just snapped it off.

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6315.JPG

Gallery 1 Page 11

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6316.JPG
Branch stump is rotting into trunk.

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6317.JPG
These watersprouts were ripped off. Not doing anything and they will rot into the trunk.

Tree 48 from pestana promenade past lido out in road view of next road section IMG 6319.JPG There are 3 wounds in the trunk, 2 of which are rotting into the trunk, and possibly another at the base. These need investigating.

Tree 48 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6318.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6320.JPG
Another tree in the road where the base of the trunk has been wounded from the laying of the tarmac and the traffic running into it. The wound is drying and splitting as well as starting to rot.

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6321.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6322.JPG
Branch wound is now rotting into the trunk. This needs investigating.

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road pollarded tree IMG 6323.JPG
Besides the branch wound in the last image, there is another smaller one.

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6324.JPG
Shows tree in road.

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6325.JPG
There are 4 branch stumps rotting into the trunk with one being near the base.

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6327.JPG
Another branch stump rotting into the trunk. This tree needs investigating

Gallery 1 Page 12

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6328.JPG

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6329.JPG

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6330.JPG
Another tree out in the road and you can see the dip of the compressed tarmac against the loose tarmac right up to the trunk.

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6331.JPG
Branch stump not only rotting quite deeply into trunk but woodworm is as well.

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6332.JPG
Deep rot in another wound. This needs investigating.

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6333.JPG
This tree has grown over the concrete kerb and into the road. Although the tarmac has been compressed over a main root, that root has uplifted that tarmac. That root is now being pounded by tyres from lorries and buses!! Weeds are also depriving the tree.

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6334.JPG
This shows the compression caused by the tyres since there is a dip in the tarmac round the raised root section.

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6335.JPG
A branch stump that is beyond the branch collar and so the bark on it has died, the stump dried and is now splitting and the repairing callus cannot get to cover the damage. Result - the stump will rot and continue rotting into the trunk. The roots of this tree need protection if nothing else!!!

Tree 53 from pestana promenade past lido out in road by zebra crossing IMG 6337.JPG

Tree 53 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with root access to water IMG 6336.JPG
This tree has pushed out the concrete kerb into the road on one side. It has grown over the kerb on the other and may be trying to get into the drain to receive water, whilst the tarmac has been compressed onto its roots in the road

Gallery 1 Page 13

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6338.JPG
Another tree out into the road with climbing over the concrete kerb and being attacked by the new tarmac being compressed at the laying time and by lorries/buses etc ever since. To add insult to injury weeds and grass are growing in its available open ground area.

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6339.JPG
The base of the trunk of this tree has overgrown a pink concrete slab and concrete under it. How much of the cross-sectional area of this tree is simply sitting on concrete?

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6340.JPG
There are 3 unprotected tree wounds on this trunk.

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6341.JPG
This branch stump is rotting deeply into the trunk and under the protective callus that it tried to protect itself with. The trunk under this branch stump is also exposed, splitting from drying out and infested with woodworm.

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6342.JPG
Part of the callus on this branch stump has been removed. The stump is drying out and splitting.

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6343.JPG
The root growing over the concrete kerb has been damaged.

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6344.JPG
3 out of the 4 branch stem wounds have rotted into their parent. Tree 54 needs investigating.


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019. Topics menu updated May 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Barcham is Europe's largest tree specialist, who are growing over 200,000 instant impact trees near Ely, Cambridgeshire


Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on Page 27 -
PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).


If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.



This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.



USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).

The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.



I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season."
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.



"When the experiment is made with the stem and the leaves in the free air, whilst the roots are in a limited atmoshere of oxygen, then they absorb several times their own volume of this gas. This is because the carbonic acid formed and absorbed is carried into the general system of the plant, where it is elaborated by the leaves, if exposed to the same light, or simply exhaled if the plant be kept in the dark.
The presence of oxygen in the air which has access to the roots is not merely favourable; it is absolutely indispensable to the exercise of their functions. A plant, the stem and leaves of which are in the air, soon dies if its roots are in contact with pure carbonic acid, with hydrogen gas or azote. The use of oxygen in the growth of the subterraneous parts of plants, explains wherefore our annual plants, which have largely developed roots, require a friable and loose soil for their advantageous cultivation. This also enables us to understand wherefore trees die, when their roots are submerged in stagant water, and wherefore the effect of submersion in general is less injurious when the water is running, such water always containing more air in solution than that which is stagnant. " from Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, phsics, and meterology; or.


Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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