Ivydene Gardens Brown Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Site Map

There are 297 wild flower plants, whose plant description pages are split into the other 23 WildFlower Family Galleries. This gallery contains the Flower Colour and Fruit/Seed Colour Comparison Pages of those plants. 1115 Wildflower plants have their photos in the relevant family pages.

I am starting to create galleries (January 2016) which instead of Plant Description Pages have a row for every wildflower plant split into galleries of:-

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages:-

  • A - may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries
  • B - and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,
  • C - links to external sites for photos in its Flowering Months and
  • D - links to external sites for habitat details in its Habitat Column.
     
  • this information is copied to the following columns in the
    Common Names Gallery,
    Botanical Names Gallery and the
    Blue Wildflowers Note Galleries in
    • Column 1 for A ,
    • Column 2 for B,
    • Column 2 for C and
    • Column 4 for D.

Site Map of Wild Flowers
Brown WildFlower Gallery Introduction
Botanical Name AC-AG 1
Botanical Name AG-AL 2
Botanical Name AL-AL 3
Botanical Name AL-AN 4
Botanical Name AN-AR 5
Botanical Name AR-AR 6
Botanical Name AR-AS 7
Botanical Name AS-BA 8
Botanical Name BA-BR 9
Botanical Name BR-BR 10
Botanical Name BR-CA 11
Botanical Name CA-CA 12
Botanical Name CA-CA 13
Botanical Name CA-CA 14
Botanical Name CA-CA 15
Botanical Name CA-CA 16
Botanical Name CA-CA 17
Botanical Name CA-CE 18
Botanical Name CE-CE 19
Botanical Name CE-CH 20
Botanical Name CH-CI 21
Botanical Name CI-CO 22
Botanical Name CO-CR 23
Botanical Name CR-CY 24
Botanical Name DA-DE 25
Botanical Name DE-DR 26
Botanical Name DR-EP 27
Botanical Name EP-EP 28
Botanical Name EP-ER 29
Botanical Name ER-EU 30
Botanical Name EU-FE 31
Botanical Name FE-FI 32
Botanical Name FO-GA 33
Botanical Name GA-GA 34
Botanical Name GA-GE 35
Botanical Name GE-GL 36
Botanical Name GL-HE 37
Botanical Name HE-HI 38
Botanical Name HI-HI 39
Botanical Name HI-HY 40
Botanical Name HY-IM 41
Botanical Name IM-JU 42
Botanical Name JU-KI 43
Botanical Name KI-LA 44
Botanical Name LA-LE 45
Botanical Name LE-LI 46
Botanical Name LI-LI 47
Botanical Name LL-LU 48
Botanical Name LU-LY 49
Botanical Name LY-ME 50
Botanical Name ME-ME 51
Botanical Name ME-MI 52
Botanical Name MI-MY 53
Botanical Name MY-NA 54
Botanical Name NA-OE 55
Botanical Name OE-OR 56
Botanical Name OR-OR 57
Botanical Name OR-PA 58
Botanical Name PA-PH 59
Botanical Name PH-PL 60
Botanical Name PL-PO 61
Botanical Name PO-PO 62
Botanical Name PO-PO 63
Botanical Name PO-PO 64
Botanical Name PO-PU 65
Botanical Name PU-RA 66
Botanical Name RA-RH 67
Botanical Name RH-RO 68
Botanical Name RO-RO 69
Botanical Name RO-RU 70
Botanical Name RU-SA 71
Botanical Name SA-SA 72
Botanical Name SA-SA 73
Botanical Name SA-SC 74
Botanical Name SC-SC 75
Botanical Name SC-SE 76
Botanical Name SE-SI 77
Botanical Name SI-SI 78
Botanical Name SI-SO 79
Botanical Name SO-SP 80
Botanical Name SP-ST 81
Botanical Name ST-TA 82
Botanical Name TA-TH 83
Botanical Name TH-TR 84
Botanical Name TR-TR 85
Botanical Name TR-UM 86
Botanical Name UR-VE 87
Botanical Name VE-VE 88
Botanical Name VE-VI 89
Botanical Name VI-ZO 90
Botanical Name Extras 91
Botanical Name Extras 92
Map of Brown WildFlower NOTE Pages
Continuation page

 

If there is no photo or photo link try the following site:-

BioImages - Virtual Field-Guide (UK) to UK Biodiversity offers an enormous collection of photographs of wild species and natural history objects. It covers most groups of organisms with the exception of birds and other vertebrates. Species (and other taxon) web-pages also include lists of trophic relationships abstracted from published sources. These are cross-referenced under both species involved (eg the fungus and its host, or the insect and its foodplant.) Data entry is now reasonably complete for UK fungal hosts (this is now being extended to include exotic fungi on native hosts), but a lot of data remains to be entered for insect foodplants and prey. The photographs and relationships are presented to illustrate biodiversity and foodwebs, and as an aid to identification. For identification purposes the photographs should be used in conjunction with a field-guide or more specialist publication (or web-site). Hopefully, the site will provide visual confirmation of features which are described but not illustrated elsewhere - particular effort has been made to illustrate diagnostic features.

 

Website User Instructions

If a Plant Comparison Page or Wildlife on Plant Comparison Page has colour photographs of plants or wildlife on plants in it, then (o) is prefixed to that Comparison page title in the Navigation Box for that Section.

In order to compare plants by their attributes (flower colour, fruit or seed, or together with other plants), click on the appropriate attribute listed below the Site Map entry (the Comparison Pages are still under development, so some will have no photographic content and are therefore not listed in the Site Map). The text box below each thumbnail photo on each Comparison Page details the

  • Plant Family Page (click on this to get to the Family Page, then click back arrow to get back to the Comparison Page),
  • plant name,
  • soil moisture (blue background indicates wet soil, white is moist and brown is dry) and
  • plant height (border colour blue indicates 0-24 inches (0-60 cms) in height, green is 24-72 inches (60-180 cms), red is above 72 inches (180 cms)).

You can obtain the Plant Description Page of a plant by clicking on the thumbnail photo of that plant in that Comparison Page.

Click on Plant Family Page Name in the sub-navigation box on the right side for photos and name of plants in its Plant Family Page. If you click on the Common Name in the Family Page, the page will be changed to the Plant Description Page.

The rarity of each plant as a wild plant in Britain is shown preceeding the Common Name in its Plant Description Page by the following star system:-

  • No Star indicates a common and widely distributed plant like Marsh Marigold
  • * for a plant that is only locally common like Grass of Parnassus
  • ** for a scarce plant, which usually grow in limited areas like Crested Cow-wheat, but may be thinly scattered over a wide area like Narrow Helleborine
  • *** are for real rarities, growing in only a few places, and usually rare even there like Cheddar Pink.

"Here at American Meadows in America, you'll find the most complete wildflower information available anywhere.

It's all in our Quick Guide to Wildflowers: Complete planting instructions, how much seed you need, and wildflower searches by color, height, moisture and light requirements.

Wildflower gardening is easy and we help you find the right perennial, annual or biennial wildflowers for your needs.

we have been helping create amazing wildflower gardens and meadows for over 30 years. We sell only 100% pure, fresh wildflower seeds with no fillers or grasses and our exclusive mixtures are known nationally for their quality."

Nurseries that grow and sell plants to the public:-

If a plant is detailed in its own page in one of the Wildflower Plant Galleries and it occurs in one of their catalogues, then it is noted as being available from that nursery in the Comments Section of that plant's description page.

British Wild Flower Plants ( Burlingham Gardens, 31 Main Road, North Burlingham, Norfolk. NR13 4TA. Tel/Fax: 01603 716615 email office@wildflowers.co.uk website http://www.wildflowers.co.uk) is a family-run nursery started in 1986. They currently stock nearly 400 species of native plants.

John Chambers' Wild Flower Seeds ( 15 Westleigh Road, Barton Seagrave, Kettering, Northants. NN15 5AJ. Tel 01933 652562 Fax: 01933 652576 website John Chambers' Wild Flower Seeds) offers the country's largest and most comprehensive range of seeds for native British produced wild flower species and mixtures; wild, ornamental and cultivated grass species and mixtures. In addition, offers native British produced wild flower plants, seedlings and bulbs; associated books, posters and wallcharts. John Chambers' Wild Flower Garden at the Royal Showground, Stoneleigh, Kenilworth, Warwickshire is open to the public at both the Royal and Town and Country Shows. It shows how effectively plants from different habitats can be incorporated into garden settings. Above all, it demonstrates how colourful, attractive and suitable wild flowers are for use in gardens.

BritishFlora (Grange Farm, Widmer End, High Wycombe, Bucks. HP15 6AE. Tel 01494 718203 Fax 01494 718989 Email: info@britishflora.co.uk website BritishFlora ) is the leading provider of horticultural solutions to civil engineering problems encountered in major conservation, environmental, remediation, translocation and renewal schemes in habitats as diverse as highways, business parks, landfill sites, nature reserves, and the banks of tidal estuaries, rivers, canals, lakes and ponds as well as heath and salt marshes. With over 300 species held in stock (PDF list of available plants available from their Wildflower and Aquatic Plants Page of the Products and Services Section), they produce over 5 million native wild flower and aquatic plants including 1 million reeds annually.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Alter-Natives Wholesale Nursery, Waipu, NZ is a wholesale nursery open to the public and trade. They grow 240 species of New Zealand Native plants for landscaping and revegetation in several sizes of tube, pot and bag. Their services include Landscape Design and Implementation as well as Revegetation Planting, together with Native Plants recommended for Effluent Fields.

The following is from their Information Sheet on "

Botanical Names Explained

It's a complex world out there and the botanists don't seem to make it any easier! And there is nothing more confusing than listening to a bunch of gardeners talk in streams of apparently meaningless gobbledy-gook. Who do they think they are?

But hold on a minute, don't put it down to garden snobbery. Botanical names give us clues about plants, their relatives, their cultural needs and they are well worth learning.

Botanical, Latin or Scientific Names?

All plants have a unique name and this is often called the scientific name, botanical or the 'Latin name' as many are based on Latin. Many botanical names are derived from Greek, a persons name (the discoverer, sponsor or someone-else altogether!), are descriptive or give the place of origin of the plant. For this reason we prefer to use the term 'botanical name' rather than 'Latin name'.

The system we use today is based on that developed by Linneaus, a Swedish naturalist, developed in the 18th century. Botanical names all have two main parts: a generic or family name and a specific or species name. Thus, the human world we have the Brown family, and we have John, Jane and Mary Brown within that. In the plant world we have the celmisia family, Celmisia, and its member Celmisia semicordata, Celmisia spectabilis, etc.

Plants have names, just like people. The difference between the human naming convention and that of plants is that each pant generic or family name occurs only once. Specific names may occur a number of times (e.g. reptans or alba) but, coupled with the generic name, each plant has a unique name. Think of all the New Zealand plants that are Something haastii or Something chathamica!

Why Not Common Names? Many gardeners and most plant nurseries prefer botanical names as they avoid the confusion that common names can cause. Common names can be very local, some plants don't have a common name, and others have more than one.

More than one plant has the same common name; in the UK an 'Ash' is actually a Fraxinus while in the USA it is really a Sorbus; and an Aconite can be the late summer flowering, deep blue flowered perennial Aconitum or the tiny winter flowering bulb Eranthis hyemalis. In NZ a ‘Mingimingi’ can be either Coprosma propingqua, Cyathodes juniperina or Cyathodes robusta which also comes with either a white fruit or a red fruit.

And then there are the plants that have more than one common name; the climbing pest Clematis vitalba is known as Old Man's Beard and Traveller's Joy; Bergamont and Bee's Balm are both Monarda didyma; and Erythronium as Trout Lilies and Dogs Tooth Violets.

Parts of Botanical Names

The way the name is built up is based on Latin grammar rules. Each plant family name (eg. 'Cordyline') is a noun and has a gender (i.e. is male or female). Species within each family are adjectives ('australis', 'indivisa', etc.).

Botanical names are usually written in italics as in Cordyline indivisa.

Sometimes, perhaps too often for gardeners' liking, the scientists will change a botanical name and thus we get Brachyglottis monroi (syn. Senecio monroi) where the name in brackets is the previous or, occasionally, less well-known name. This is also known as the 'synonym'.

The great value in understanding the botanical name comes from following the family trees through and using the other, descriptive clues in the name. Celmisia spectabilis is a very showy or spectacular celmisia, Coprosma prostrata and Cotoneaster horizontalis are prostrate growers, and Cercis chinensis comes from China and Cercis canadensis from Canada; Geum montanum comes from the mountains; Prunus autumnalis flowers in the autumn.

So while sometimes it does seem as if 'It's all Greek to me!', it really is worth finding out the botanical name.

Using the botanical rather than a common name is not garden snobbery. It is simple good sense, and it saves the confusion common names can cause, unless it is as unpronounceable as Paeonia mlokosewitschii, named for Frederich Mlokosewitch who found it, but known almost universally as 'Molly the Witch'.

The Structure of Plant Families

Plant Orders

A step up from the botanical name we have plant orders. These are larger families of plants.

A plant order is a family of different genera that are sufficiently similar, e.g. Magnoliaceae or Ranunculaceae are plant orders that contain many different genera that share a key characteristic(s).

The plant order is not included in the botanical name, except in scientific situations or in gardening textbooks and plant dictionaries where it gives us clues that clematis, ranunculus and hellebores, all members of Ranunculaceae, have something in common.

Genera

The genera or genus a plant family such as the New Zealand family of pohutukawa and rata trees is Metrosideros, and within this genus we find Metrosideros excelsa, Metrosideros umbellata, Metrosideros robusta, etc

Species

A species is those plants that are the same and produce viable offspring. Plants within a species can vary in small ways, such as differences leaf colouration resulting from environment, climate and soil. And, so, within species you can have subspecies, varieties, cultivars and hybrids.

Variety

Differences in climate, soils, and aspect can cause these differences to be sufficiently distinct that botanists will distinguish between different varieties (often shown as 'var.') within a species. Clianthus puniceus var. maximus differs from the so-called 'typical' form Clianthus puniceus.

Subspecies

When there is no overlap in the geographical distribution of the plants, the variety may be called a subspecies (often shown as 'ssp.', as in Crocus biflorus ssp. crewei). These are still able to produce offspring when two subspecies within the same plant species are brought together.

Cultivars

Sometimes gardeners may select a particular plant because of leaf colour form or flower. This selection is still genetically identical to these within the species and must be propagated vegetatively (cuttings, division etc) to continue the desired attribute, as seed grown progeny may not 'come true', that is, they may not carry the particular attribute sought.

These plants are called cultivars and the cultivar name is shown in inverted commas, e.g. Astelia chathamica 'Silver Spear'.

Hybrids

Where different species within a family or different families produce offspring, the new plants are called hybrids. Hellebores are very promiscuous in this way. Apart from physically separating parent plants or hand pollinating it is all too easy to end up with hybrids rather than the species plants you may covet.

These plants are shown as a 'cross' such as Corokia x virgata 'Bronze King', where virgata is not a species but a hybrid between two of the Hamamelis species. Camellia x williamsii 'Donation' is a hybrid where Camellia williamsii is known to be a parent. Hybrids can also be 'intersectional hybrids', that is, they occur between different genera as in x Cupressocyparis, a cross between Chamaecyparis and Cupressus.

Some Botanical Terms Explained

The descriptive clues in botanical names are rewarding if you translate or understand the terms themselves.

Some names relate to flower colour, others to habit, and others to origin.

Some of the most common terms are listed here, as well as some specially New Zealand botanical terms.

A

alba white
albicans becoming white
albiflorus white flower
alpina alpine
angustifolius narrow leaved
apetala has no petals
arachnoides spider or spider webs e.g. Sempervivium arachnoideum, the house leek has spider web like appearance
• arboreus or aborescens tree like appearance
• arenaria of sand, referring to plants from sandy places
• argentea or argyraea silver or silvery
• atro dark coloured as in 'atropurpureum'
• attenuata narrows to a point
• aurantica orange
aurea or aureus gold or golden
• australis southern
• azurea azure or sky blue

B

• banksii named for Sir Joseph Banks, botanist on Captain Cook's voyages
• bellidioides daisy-like appearance, referring to bellis, the daisy
• bicolour two coloured
• bidwillii named for John Bidwill, early New Zealand alpine plant enthusiast
• Brachyglottis short tongued, referring to the short ray florets
• buchananii named for John Buchanan, early New Zealand botanist

C

• caerulea dark blue
• caerulecens bluish, blue tinged
• campanulatus bell shaped
• canadensis of Canada or North-eastern America
• canina of dogs, usually means inferior plant (the Romans were not dog-lovers!)
• cardinalis scarlet, cardinal red
• carnea deep pink
• cataria of cats, eg Nepeta cataria, catmint
• carractae of waterfalls
• chathamicus/chathamica of the Chatham Islands
• chinensis of China
• chlorantha green flowered
• cinerea ash colour, greyish
• coccineum scarlet
• columaris columnar
• colensoi named for William Colenso, early botanist
• confertiflora flowers that are crowded together
• cordata heart shaped
• crassifolius/crassifolia/crassifolium with thick leaves
• cunnihamii named for Allan Cunningham, early botanist

D

• decora beautiful
• delayavi for Abbe Jean Marie Delavay missionary and collector
• dieffenbachii for Dr Ernst Dieffenbach, naturalist
• discolor two different colours
• dissecta deeply cut, usually of a leaf
• domestica cultivated
• davidii for Pere Arman David, missionary plant collector
• Dracanena female dragon

E

• Echinops a hedgehog, spiky
• Echium vipers ( a snake)
• Erodium heron's bill, referring to the shape of the seedpods
• excelsa/excelsum/excelsus tall
• eximia exceptional

F

• fibrosa fibrous
• flava clear yellow
• florida flowering
• -florus of flowers
• foetidus smelling, stinking
• -folius of leaves
• forestii for George Forest, Scottish plant collector
• fragrans/fragrantissima fragrant
• frutcosa shrubby
• fulvida tawny coloured

H

• haastii for Julius von Haast, explorer
• hastata spear shaped
• hookeri for Sir William or Sir Joseph Hooker, directors of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
• hortensia of gardens
• horizontalis flat, horizontal
• humilis low growing

 

G

• Geranium crane's bill, referring to the shape of the seedpods
• gracilis graceful
• graminea grass-like

I

• ilicifolia holly-like (from Ilex or Holly)
• incana grey
• indica of India
• insignis notable
• -issima very (as in 'bellissima')
• isophylla equal sized leaves
• ixioides ixia like

J

• japonica of Japan
• jucundum attractive example

K

• kirkii for Thomas Kirk, botanist

L

• laetus/laetum milky
• latifolius/latifolia broad leaved
• lessonii/lessoniana for Pierre Lesson surgeon and botanist
• lineata striped, with lines
• lucida/lucens shining, bright
• lutea yellow
• lutescens becoming yellow
• lyallii for David Lyall, surgeon

M

• macrantha having large flowers
• marcrocarpa having large fruit
• marcophylla having large leaves
• meleagris spotted like a guinea fowl as in Fritillaria meleagris
• melissa honey bee
• microphylla very small leaved
• monroi for Sir David Monro, plant collector
• montana/montanum of the mountains
• moschatum musky scented
• myosotis mouse's ear

N

• nigra black
• novae-zelandiae of New Zealand

O

• officinalis sold as a herb
• orientalis eastern

P

• paniculata having flowers in panicles
• Pelargonium stork's bill, referring to the shape of the seedpods
• petriei for Donald Petrie, plant collector
• praecox early, of flowering
• procumbens prostrate
• procurrens spreading
• prolifera prolific or free flowering
• prostrata prostrate or lying on the ground
• pumila/pumilo dwarf
• purpurea purple (Echinea purpurea)
• purpurascens purplish, tinged purple

R

• Ranunculus frog, because both like marshy, boggy ground
• recta upright
• reflexa bent backwards
• reptans or repens creeping
• richardii for Achille Richard, French botanist
• rigens/rigida rigid or stiff habit
• roseum rose colour
• rotundata rounded
• rotundifolia having round-shaped leaves
• rubra/rubrum red
• rugosa/rugosum wrinkled
• rupestris growing in rocks

S

• salicina/salicifolia willow like
• sanguinea blood red
• scandens climbing
• serotina late flowering or late ripening
• serpens creeping
• spictata in spikes
• stans/stricta erect or upright
• supine supine or prostrate

T

• trigida spotted like a tiger

U

• umbellatus flowers appearing to be in umbels
• ursinum a bear, referring to shaggy appearance

V

• vernus of spring
• viridis/virens green
• viridfolius green leaved
• versicolor multi coloured
• vulgaris common

Z

• Zebrina zebra, referring to the stripes

Botanical Terms - New Zealand Plant Names

New Zealand plants are special. Many are unique to our island country and found nowhere else in the world.
The descriptive clues in botanical names are rewarding if you translate or understand the terms themselves. The names of our plants reflect their discoverers, place of origin and our history.

A

• Aciphylla the Spaniard for the sharp, needle leaves
• Agathis the kauri, from agathis 'ball of thread' for the distinctive cones
• Arthropodium the rengarenga lily, from 'arthro' a joint and 'podion' stalk (has jointed pedicels)
• Astelia stem-less
• australis southern, as in Cordyline australis

B

• banksii named for Sir Joseph Banks, botanist on Captain Cook's voyages
• bidwillii named for John Bidwill, early New Zealand alpine plant enthusiast
• buchananii named for John Buchanan, early New Zealand botanist

C

• Celmisia mountain daisies, after Celmisios in Greek mythology
• chathamicus/chathamica of the Chatham Islands
• Clianthus kaka beak, from 'kleos' glory and 'anthos' flower for the distinctive flowers
• colensoi named for William Colenso, early botanist
• Coprosma smelling of manure
• Cordyline the cabbage tree, meaning a club as the large and fleshy roots resemble
• Corokia from the Maori name 'Korokio'
• cunnihamii named for Allan Cunningham, early botanist

D

• Dicksonia the tree fern, for James Dickson a Scottish nurseryman and naturalist
• dieffenbachii for Dr Ernst Dieffenbach, naturalist
• Dracophyllum the grass trees, from 'draco' dragon and 'phyllum' leaf

G

• Griselinia the broadleaf, for Franseco Griselini, naturalist

H

• haastii for Julius von Haast, explorer
• Hebe for the Greek Goddess of youth 'Hebe'
• Hoheria for the Moari name 'Houhere'
• hookeri for Sir William or Sir Joseph Hooker, directors of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

K

• kirkii for Thomas Kirk, early botanist

 

L

• Leptospermum the manuka, 'leptos' or slender and ' sperma' or seed for the narrow seeds
• lessonii/lessoniana for Pierre Lesson, surgeon and botanist
• lyallii for David Lyall, surgeon

M

• Metrosideros the rata and pohutukawa for their very hard wood; 'metra' heartwood and 'sideros' iron hard
• monroi for Sir David Monro, plant collector
• Muehlenbeckia after Muehlenbeck, a French physician and botanist
• Myosotidium the Chatham Island Forget-me-not, for Myosotis the European forget- me-not

N

• Nothofagus native beech, from 'nothos' false and 'fagus' the beech
• novae-zelandiae meaning 'of New Zealand'

 

O

• Olearia because it resembles an olive tree (Olea)

 

P
• Pachystegia the Marlborough Rock Daisy, from 'pakys' or thick for the thick leaves
• Phormium New Zealand flax, from 'phormoin' or a mat, a reference to the traditional Maori weaving of flax and flax fibres
• Pittosporum for the sticky seeds, as 'pitta' means pitch or tar and 'sporum' seeds
• Plagianthus 'plagios' oblique and 'anthhos' flower for the asymmetrical flowers
• Podocarpus the totara, from 'podos' foot and 'karpos' fruit for the stalked fruit
• Pseudopanax lancewoods and the five-finger, from 'pseudo' false and 'panax' a related genus

R
• richardii for Achille Richard, French botanist

S
• sinclairii Andrew Sinclair an early plant collector
• solandri Daniel Solander botanist on the Cook voyages
• Sophora the kowhai, from 'sophera' the Arabic name for a tree with pea shaped flowers

T
• traversii William Travers early plant collector, lawyer and politician

W
• williamsii for William Williams, Bishop of Waiapu in the nineteenth century

X

• Xeronema Poor Knights Lily, from 'xeros' dry

"

and Information Sheet on:-
The way the Botanical name is built up is based on Latin grammar rules. Each plant family name (eg. 'Cordyline') is a noun and has a gender (i.e. is male or female). Species within each family are adjectives ('australis', 'indivisa', etc.).
Some Botanical Terms Explained
The descriptive clues in botanical names are rewarding if you translate or understand the terms themselves. Some names relate to flower colour, others to habit, and others to origin. Like
. macrantha having large flowers

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)
and
The way the Botanical name is built up is based on Latin grammar rules.
Each plant family name (eg. 'Cordyline') is a noun and has a gender (i.e. is male or female).
Species within each family are adjectives ('australis', 'indivisa', etc.).
The descriptive clues in botanical names are rewarding if you translate or understand the terms themselves. Like
. macrantha having large flowers

Introduction
 

B & T World Seeds Paguignan, 34210 Aigues Vives, France can supply seeds world-wide from over 35,000 different plants.

John Chambers Wildflower Seed supplies native British produced wildflower seed from its John Chambers Wildflowers Brochure and its Green-tech Specifier Wildflowers Seeds with delivery to England, Scotland and Wales.

American Meadows Quick Guide to Wildflowers contains complete planting instructions, how much seed you need, and wildflower searches by color, height, moisture and light requirements with delivery of live plants, bulbs and seeds to USA only, but only its seeds to Canada.

"SEASONS AND MONTHS

SPRING
Early: March
Mid: April
Late: May

SUMMER
Early: June
Mid: July
Late: August

AUTUMN
Early: September
Mid: October
Late: November

WINTER
Early: December
Mid: January
Late: February

" from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993 (ISBN 0 7153 0033 4).

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges
 


 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Common Name

Botanical Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wildflowers Work - A guide to creating and managing new wildflower landscapes by Grant Luscombe and Richard Scott. Published by Landlife, National Wildflower Centre, Court Hey Park, Liverpool L16 3NA (Landlife is a charity taking action for a better environment by creating new opportunities for wildlife and encouraging people to enjoy them.) First Edition 1994, Second Edition 1997, Third Edition 2004. Copyright 2004 Landlife ISBN 0 9523472 4 5.

This manual outlines some practical methods which can be used in creative conservation projects. Some of the techniques are based on traditional agricultural practices, whilst others are more innovative, resulting from recent research findings. The findings are written for large scale projects, however most of the techniques can be modified for smaller sites.

Contents

Section- Page

  1. Creative Conservation - 1
    Creative conservation is about making new places for wildlife to flourish and develop. Iy can be achieved by modifying soils or introducing appropriate species. Creative conservation offers a helping hand; aiding nature's capacity to recreate itself. Most importantly, it recognises and celebrates the fact that people are a part of the natural world.
  2. Golden Rules 3
  3. People & Wildlife - 5
  4. Seed Mixtures - 7
  5. Soils - 9
  6. Sowing and Germination - 11
  7. Surface Seeding - 13
  8. Weeds and Management - 15
  9. Cornfield Annuals - 17
  10. Crushed Rock - 19
  11. Topsoil Stripping - 21
  12. Topsoil Inversion - 23
  13. Butterfly Borders - 25
  14. Crushed Concrete - 27
  15. Unusual Substrates - 29
  16. Hay Strewing - 31
  17. Wildflower Blanket - 33
  18. Roadside Planting - 35
  19. Plugs and Plants - 37
  20. Woodland Planting - 39
  21. Wetland Areas - 41
  22. Landscape Effects - 43
  23. The National Wildflower Centre - 45
  24. Technical Considerations - 46
  25. Wildflower Index - 47

     

 

 

 

 

The Railway Land Local Nature Reserve lies to the south of Cliffe High Street, Lewes, East Sussex. Local people fought for the land in 1987, founded the Railway Land Wildlife Trust in 1988 and have shaped the Reserve's use ever since including the creation of a 'heart' of reeds.

 

This website brings together 6 core aspects of the Railway Land project to stimulate debate and interest at many levels. To serve these aims, the Trust has launched its most ambitious campaign yet to build a centre for the study of environmental change.

 

 

 

 

 

The following information (5 December 2021) comes from Wikipedia about Southern Water Services Ltd, which had a revenue of £0.829 billion in 2017-18. Area served by Southern Water is Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Sussex and Kent.

"Legal issues[edit]

2005-2007[edit]

In 2007, Ofwat announced its intention to fine Southern Water £20.3 million for 'deliberate misreporting' and failing to meet guaranteed standards of service to customers. The misreporting resulted in Southern Water being able to raise its prices by more than it should have done.[11] Southern Water Chief Executive Les Dawson said: "Today's announcement draws a line under a shameful period in the company's history" and "we accept this fine - we have no arguments with it".[12]

2009-2011[edit]

Crawley Magistrates' Court heard that the Environment Agency received calls from members of the public after dead fish were seen in the Sunnyside Stream in East Grinstead on 30 August 2009. The court also heard that a similar incident occurred along the same sewer line some 4 years earlier in September 2005.[13] Following an investigation, in June 2010 Southern Water was fined £3,000 after it admitted polluting 2 km of the Sussex stream with raw sewage, killing up to a hundred brown trout and devastating the fish population for the second time in five years.

In 2011 Southern Water Ltd was fined £25,000 when sewage flooded into Southampton water.

The company was ordered to pay £10,000 in fines and costs after sewage seeped into a stream at Beltinge in Kent.

A leak of sewage from Southern Water's plant at Hurstpierpoint pumping station, West Sussex, lead to fines and costs of £7,200 in 2011.[14]

Southern Water was fined £50,000 in April 2011 for two offences relating to unscreened discharges into Langstone Harbour, Hampshire, between November 2009 and April 2010.

2014-2016[edit]

In November 2014 Southern Water were fined £500,000 and agreed to pay costs of £19,224 at Canterbury Crown Court after an Environment Agency investigation found that untreated sewage was discharged into the Swalecliffe Brook, polluting a 1.2 km stretch of the watercourse and killing local wildlife.[15] Although sewage directly polluted a 1.2 km stretch, the Swalecliffe Brook flows through the Thanet Coast Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) before it joins the north Kent coast to the east of Whitstable.

In December 2016 Southern Water was fined a record £2,000,000 for flooding beaches in Kent with raw sewage. As a result of a series of failures at a wastewater pumping station, raw sewage flooded on to beaches, forcing Thanet district council to close the beaches to the public for nine days including during the Queen's Diamond Jubilee bank holiday weekend.[16] The Environment Agency called the event “catastrophic”, with tampons, condoms and other debris costing more than £400,000 to clean up. The Environment Agency said that the discharge along a considerable length of coastline, resulted in a risk to public health and negative impact in an area heavily reliant on the tourism industry. A judge at Maidstone crown court said that Southern Water’s repeat offending was “wholly unacceptable”. Following the investigation, Southern Water director Simon Oates apologised unreservedly for the failure of the wastewater plant.[17]

2019[edit]

In June 2019, the Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat) announced its intentions to issue Southern Water with a financial penalty of £37.7 million reduced exceptionally to £3 million for significant breaches of its licence conditions and statutory duties.[18] Following a lengthy investigation, Ofwat concluded that Southern Water deliberately misreported data about the performance of its wastewater treatment works. The investigation concluded that Southern Water had failed: to have adequate systems of planning, governance and internal controls in place to manage its wastewater treatment works; to accurately report information about the performance of these works; and to properly carry out its statutory duties as a sewerage undertaker, to make provision for effectually dealing with and treating wastewater. Ofwat found that Southern Water's failure to operate its wastewater treatment works properly resulted in unpermitted and premature spills of wastewater from its treatment works, with wastewater being released into the environment before going through the required processes.

Following the investigation, Southern Water agreed to pay customers approximately £123 million by 2024, partly a payment of price review underperformance penalties the company avoided paying in the period 2010 to 2017 and some of which is a payment to customers for the failures found in Ofwat's investigation. In response to Ofwat's findings, Southern Water announced that following its own internal review, which highlighted multiple failures between 2010 and 2017, it was 'profoundly sorry' and 'working very hard to understand past failings and implement the changes required' to ensure it meets the standards its customers deserve.[19]

2021[edit]

In 2020, Southern Water pleaded guilty to 51 offences related to polluting the water on the coasts of Kent and Sussex with untreated sewage between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015.[20] It was described as "the worst case brought by the Environment Agency in its history." Over the period, the company made 8,400 illegal discharges of raw sewage into coastal waters. It also allowed storm tanks to be kept full and turn septic, instead of putting their contents through the required treatment process. In one plant alone, 746m litres were released into Southampton Water. Southern Water failed to report its illegal discharges to the regulator, but as the quality of shellfish on the Kent cost failed to meet quality standards due to the high levels of faecal contamination the Environment Agency began to investigate.[21][5] The company was fined £90m for deliberately dumping billions of litres of raw sewage into the sea and the judge stated that the offences had been committed deliberately by Southern Water's directors.[6"

How can a government allow a business to carry on when it is damaging the health of its population? and when it does not bother to correct the problem but its directors keep on committing the offences? Is that because the fines do not matter to the company who continue to commit offences and the government turns the other cheek.

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,61,62,
63,64,

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
92,

Botanical Terms Explained
 

 

Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index.
So, how can I feed the bees if I have no soil in my garden?

  • You could start with a sedum roof covering for a DIY green roof on a flat roof of a house, garage, carport, on a roof which is not more than 20 degrees from horizontal, or on top of hardstanding which is at ground level. Biodiverse mats could be used instead of sedum mats for the above areasto attract bees.
  • Then, there is no reason why you could not have Green Walls as well.

You could then progress to Rootop Gardens, which may require a further strengthening of the supporting structure to carry the potential extra weight:-

If you do not fancy putting plants on the walls or your roof, then you could have a series of window box gardens and Balcony gardens using self-watering planters and boxes from Amberol.

If you have the room in the hardstanding round your property then why not use a series of Promenade Self-Watering Planters from Amberol. These are easy to work on - even if you are in a wheelchair or otherwise infirm - and they could still then provide flowers for the bees to use.

"What do bees need?

  • Undisturbed nesting sites
  • Solitary bees may burrow into the ground, into mortar in brick and stonework, or use hollow bramble stems, or beetle borings in rotten wood.
  • Increasingly, artificial purpose-built 'homes' are being provided by conservation minded people.
  • Social bees, such as bumblebees, may construct their nests in old mouse, vole and mole holes; under hedge vegetation; beneath moss or grass tussocks, and under piles of cut vegetation.
  • Honey bees will use beehives, cavities in old trees or walls, roof spaces and chimneys.
  • Locations where the queen bumblebees can over-winter, dry and undisturbed.
  • Consistent supplies of pollen and nectar sources from early spring to late autumn.
    The Beekeeper's Garden by Hooper and Taylor - Published by Alphabooks Ltd., in 1988 - ISBN 0-7136-3023-X - provides comprehensive information on suitable plants, also useful is the classic text of
    Plants and Beekeeping by Howes, F.N, which was originally published prior to 1923 and a reproduction by Ulan Press and printed by Amazon.co.uk, Ltd was produced this century.
  • Unpolluted water." from
    Plants and Honey Bees
    An Introduction to Their Relationships
    by David Aston and Sally Bucknall.
    Printed by Northern Bee Books.
    First published 2004, Reprinted 2009. ISBN 0-393-30879-0

The Potential Impact of Global Warming
The potential impact of global warming on UK gardens has been considered in the report 'Gardening in the Global Greenhouse, the impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK', published in November 2002 under the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP). A number of scenarios were described, together with the likely changes in garden styles caused by climatic changes. These could have a significant effect on the availability and timing of bee forage. The following is from its conclusions:-

  • The role of gardens and parks as innumerable components in a green web, supporting and at times replacing the fragile network of natural ecosystems, has been little explored in this report. However, these millions of landscapes, large and small, will have a vital role to play in reinforcing a system of ecological corridors through which wildlife can migrate in response to climate change.

Besides the plants in the British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees as shown in Table 10 below:-

 

 

Table 10. British Floral Sources of Importance to Honey Bees from
Plants and Honey Bees
An Introduction to Their Relationships
by David Aston and Sally Bucknall.
Printed by Northern Bee Books.
First published 2004, Reprinted 2009. ISBN 0-393-30879-0

Comment

Plant Name

Common Name

Feb-Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep-Oct

Pollen source only

 

Alder

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Almond

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alyssum

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anchusa

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Apple

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arabis

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Pollen source only

 

Ash

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aubretia

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autumn Crocus

 

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

Balsam

 

 

 

 

 

000

000

Pollen source only

 

Beech

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Bell Heather

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

Berberis

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bergamot

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Billberry

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bindweed

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Pollen source only

 

Birch

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bird's-foot-trefoil

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Blackberry

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

Blackthorn

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bluebell

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Borage

 

 

 

 

000

000

000

 

 

Brassicas

 

 

000

000

000

000

 

 

 

Broom

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buttercup

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Campanula

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

Cat-mint

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Ceanothus

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celandine

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Cherry

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crab apple

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crane's-bill

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

 

Crocus

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Currants

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Damson

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Dandelion

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

White dead-nettle regualarly flowers thoughout winter months.

 

Dead-nettle

000

 

000

000

000

 

 

 

 

Doronicum

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dwarf gorse

 

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Elm

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Escallonia

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Fennel

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Field bean

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Figwort

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Forget-me-not

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fuschia

 

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Golden rod

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Gooseberry

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gorse

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Hawthorn

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hazel

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hogweed

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Holly

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hollyhock

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Horse-chestnut

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Ivy can produce a useful supply of nectar from October until the first frosts.

 

Ivy

 

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

Jacob's-ladder

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Knapweed

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Laurel

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lavender

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Lime

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Ling Heather

 

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Lucerne

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Mallow

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Maple

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marjoram

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

Pollen source only

 

Meadow-sweet

 

 

 

000

000

000

 

 

 

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Mint

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Mullein

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Mustard

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Oak

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Oil-seed rape autumn sown

 

000

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Oil-seed rape spring sown

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

 

Onion

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Pear

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Phacelia

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

 

Plantain

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Plum

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Pollen source only

 

Poppy

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Privet

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Prunus

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purple-lossestrife

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Pyracantha

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Ragwort

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Raspberry

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Red clover

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Robinia

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Pollen source only

 

Rock-rose

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Sage

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

Scabious

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

In coastal regions sea lavander will yield good nectar producing a light coloured honey.

 

Sea-lavender

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Snowdrop

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunflower

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Sweet Chestnut

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Sycamore

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thistle

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Thrift

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thyme

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Toadflax

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Traveller's joy

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Veronica

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

Vetch

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Violet

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viper's bugloss

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Virginia creeper

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Wallflower

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

White bryony

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

White clover

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

Pollen source only

 

Wild rose

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

Willow

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant

 

Willowherb

 

 

 

 

000

000

 

 

 

Winter aconite

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter heaths

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood anemone

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood sage

 

 

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

Yellow melilot

 

 

 

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
the 264 bee-pollinated plants in Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index are in addition to the bee-pollinated plants shown as thumbnails in the pages of this Gallery of 12 Flower Colours per month FROM the Circular Colour Wheel below.

Click on the OOO in the Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of
ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-Septemberr
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90- 180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Shrub Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90- 150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150- 300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Tree Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-240 inches (0- 600 cms)

Blue = 240- 480 inches (600- 1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200 + cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Climber Height from Text Border

 

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

 

Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60- 180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

 

Dry Soil

 

What and why are Beebombs?  

  • 97% of native British Wildflower habitat has been lost since World War 2. 
  • Wildflower habitats are where bees and butterflies make their lives.
  • With Beebombs you can re-create these lost habitats and to help bring back the bees.
  • Beebombs need no gardening skill and can be scattered straight onto open ground at any time of the year. 
  • Once scattered, Beebombs just need lots of water, sun and time. Wildflowers are hardy and adaptable but slow growers. This means that they can be out-competed by faster growing grasses and perennial weeds at the critical early stages, so straight onto soil is best if possible. 
  • The soil will help your Beebombs germinate and the clay will protect them as they dissipate.
  • Lots of sun and rain is of course important, as is time. 
  • Wildflowers are a little slower growers than many imported plants and flowers. Some will flower in the first year but most will not come out until the 2nd year.
     

 

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

"The main systems of the human body are:

  1. Circulatory system / Cardiovascular system:
    1. ◦ Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away.
    2. ◦ Keeps the body's temperature in a safe range.
  2. Digestive system and Excretory system:
    1. ◦ System to absorb nutrients and remove waste via the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.
    2. ◦ Eliminates waste from the body.
  3. 3 Endocrine system: ◦ Influences the function of the body using hormones.
  4. Integumentary system / Exocrine system:◦ Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
  5. Immune system and lymphatic system:
    1. ◦ Defends the body against pathogens that may harm the body.
    2. ◦ The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.
  6. Muscular system: ◦ Enables the body to move using muscles.
  7. Nervous system: ◦ Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
  8. Renal system / Urinary system ◦ The system where the kidneys filter blood to produce urine, and get rid of waste.
  9. Reproductive system: ◦ The reproductive organs required for the production of offspring.
  10. Respiratory system: ◦ Brings air into and out of the lungs to absorb oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
  11. Skeletal System: ◦ Bones maintain the structure of the body and its organs.

" from Wikipedia.

"A mature tree has three basic parts: 1) roots, 2) crown, and 3) trunk or bole, with these functions:-

Roots -

  1. Anchoring the tree to the soil
  2. Absorbing water and minerals from the soil
  3. Storing of reserve food
  4. Preventing soil erosion

Crown -

  1. Leaves produce food for the plant
  2. Leaves help to filter dust and other particles present in the air, thus keep the air clean
  3. Leaves keep the plant cool through the loss of water by evaporation
  4. Twigs help to give rise to new plants
  5. Boughs and branches store food materials in the form of sugar that are required by the plant for their growth and metabolism
  6. Boughs and branches provide strength and support to the plant

Trunk or Bole

  1. Bark protects the delicate inside wood of the tree
  2. Cambium helps in making new cells thus allowing the tree to grow in diameter
  3. Outer bark and sapwood helps in supporting the crown and providing the tree its shape
  4. Pith and sapwood conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
  5. Inner bark transports the foods prepared by the leaves to all parts of a plant
  6. Outer bark and cambium provides mechanical strength to the plant

" from ScienceFacts.net.

Function 1 - Breathing in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide keeps humans alive.

"An average size tree produces enough oxygen in one year to keep a family of four breathing." from Nitrofil.

Roots require both oxygen and water.
Permanently saturated soil will kill the roots and the tree. It will also stop oxygen being absorbed by the roots and also kill the roots.

Compacted soil will also kill the roots since air and water cannot reach them. "On a park property that receives flood irrigation, a project manager informed me that they wait at least 5 days after an irrigation cycle to conduct any business in and around the park trees. This is a great policy to help prevent damage to the roots that rely on adequate soil oxygen to remain functional and healthy." from Integrity Tree Service. Compacted soil occurs on tarmac pavements when they are created by rollers and compactioin machines. Once that has finished then both people and vehicles compact the soil on a regular basis. The tarmac surface stops the rain, oxygen and nutrients from getting below into the soil, so once those elements have been used by the roots, then the roots will have excreted its waste products and then they will die off.

This shows the roots of a tree onthe ground surface and another where the cowded roots are girdling a tree - this girdle will then kill the tree, since eventually the sapwood will no longer go past it to the roots having been converted into dead heartwood and thus water and nutrients will not transported up the trunk

Function 2 - This uses the mouth to take in food and water, which is then digested by the digestion system, with water.

Roots absorb the nutrients dissolved in water. These then get transferred up the roots, the trunk and to the crown together with water goes up in the sapwood.

Function 2 - As the food is digested it produces nutrients for circulation round the body in the Circulatory System of Function 1.

Leaves produce food for the plant.
"The amount of photosynthesis that can occur in the leaves is directly related to the amount of water that the roots can absorb. A small root system can only support the photosynthesis of a small canopy, and roots can only grow larger if they have enough energy (sugar) provided by the leaves. In this way, the tree must balance its above ground and below ground growth. Topping a tree will stunt its growth by limiting the amount of photosynthesis that can occur in the leaves (by the way, NEVER top trees- it is very dangerous and bad for the tree). Likewise, cutting roots or restricting the roots’ growing space will limit the amount of water that can be transported to the leaves for photosynthesis." from Tree Physiology Primer.

Function 2 - When we eat too much then the excess will most likely be converted to fat and stored somewhere in the body for later use when food supply is insufficient.

The Trunk transports the food prepared by the leaves to all parts of the plant.

"It is well known that trees act as carbon sinks, taking in carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis and releasing the oxygen that humans breathe. While trees use carbon dioxide to make their own food, they actually need oxygen (much like humans do) to process that food into energy.
In order to use stored starch for growth, trees must convert the sugars back into energy through a process called respiration. Respiration requires oxygen. During respiration, sugar and oxygen are combined to produce energy, with water and carbon dioxide created as byproducts. The energy that is released can then be used to make new tissues. Humans do the same thing when they process stored sugars. While trees take in oxygen from their surroundings, humans breathe it in with their lungs. Just as a person who is exercising needs to breathe deeply, a tree that is actively growing needs an immediate source of oxygen." from Tree Physiology Primer.

Function 7 - The nervous system indicates if there is a problem. This is passed to the Brain, which hopefully will have a solution, which gets transmitted to the respective parts of the body to execute this solution.

If a problem occurs on a branch of a tree, that information is transmitted down the nerve system in the centre of each branch and trunk to junction between the roots and the trunk. A possible solution is then transmitted back to the affected area. We had a clump og hostas growing in a small bed shadowed by fencing. Each spring the slugs would eat the foliage. The hosta got fed up with this and sent instructions to the new leaves to produce something that the slugs would not like. Then for several years we had lovely hostas with flowers before being herbaceous they died down in the autumn. Some trees in our local park had their juvenile foliage stripped off during some springtimes by caterpillars. They got round that by producing another set of leaves once all the caterpillars had transposed. Plants can also help each other and although they do not have lightning fast nerve systems, they get along

I can further waste my time in trying to get the most stupid animal in this world to understand that it is killing itself and the world round itself with concrete, tarmac and metal.

You can produce solutions to these problems caused by government:-

  • hemp to stop polluting the world with petrol and its air pollution,
  • building, build, building without updating the water and waste supply systems,
    not updating the transport structure to provide a moving transport system instead of it being stationary,
    stop overloading businesses so that they have to employ an accountant on a full time basis for a 1 man business with all the new requirements,
    190,000 people have contracted Covid-19 within the last week in the UK, but you get schoolgirls getting on public buses, all jammed together some with face masks, others without eating chocolates passed them to each other, drinking pop and laughing at you if you complain. They might get it and be unaffected, but if I get it, even though I have had the 2 jabs and the booster jab, I will probaly not survive. I am going to have to have my groceries delivered and not go on the bus in the future if I am any chance of surviving in this crazy country.
  • by getting rid of the doctors via taxation and form-filling - 2 out the 4 surgeries in my local health centre have closed in the pandemic.

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

But unfortunately the human population in this world do not understand the above needs for plants as shown by:-

Article on Welcome Page about trees falling down within pavements in Funchal, Madeira
followed by these 4000 x 3000 pixel photos, which show precisely how badly people treat these trees in Madeira - including burnt insides of tree trunks.

They set light to the rubbish collected inside the tree trunk, either by a discarded match used to light a cigarette or the stub of that cigarette. This then burns the rubbish inserted by the public and it also burns the rotting and non-rotting heartwood, whilst still allowing the public to wander past the burning or burnt tree. Stubs of cigarettes and discarded lit matches are also dropped on exposed tree roots:-

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

The easiest, cheapest and quickest solution for existing pavement areas using pavers or paving slabs is the SuDSFLOW System using paving spacers to create permeable paving. See further details within the row for the London Planetree at the bottom of Botanical Name PH-PL 60 page.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

poacherrose2garnonswilliams

Opening Bud

poacherrose3garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower

poacherrose4garnonswilliams

Older Juvenile Flower

poacherrose5garnonswilliams

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

poacherrose6garnonswilliams

Mature Flower

poacherrose7garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

poacherrose8garnonswilliams

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

My current ambition at my retired age of 73 in 2022 (having started this website in 2005) is to complete the following:-

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery has an empty framework that I created on 20 February 2022. When all the remainder of the UK wildflowers have been checked:-

  • to see if they are also native in the USA and/or Canada - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one in the Flora of America and Canada, then the info from Flora of America and Canada is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries, but the UK Wildflower Family Pages will not be amended by this or other data from the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in April 2022) - and
  • to see if they are also native in China - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one like Achillea millefolium 蓍 shi, then the info from Flora of China is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed only from AC to CE in June 2022) and
  • insert snippets from Flower Arrangements from Wild Flowers into the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed in June 2022) and
  • have been copied from the unamended Wildflower Family pages to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in June 2022).
  • Then, I will insert the information from the books associated with the Evergreen Perennial Shape gallery - Flower Shape - to that gallery and to the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery for the evergreen perennials:-
    • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
    • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
    • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windowsills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
    • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
    • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Then, the wildflower entries in the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery will be filled in after each Wildflower has its cultivation details added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.

Starting the above from 20 February 2022, I think it might take me a few years, but it does mean that as I progress then you will be able to associate more wildflowers with more of all the plant types of the cultivated plants who have similar growing requirements.

Then, more of the natural world with its wildlife could also inhabit your garden.

 

 

Aims of the Wild Flower Society
From the respect and awareness of plants in their natural surroundings instilled in children, the Wild Flower Society was born and our 3 aims are:

• to promote a greater knowledge of field botany among the general public and in particular among young people;
• to advance education in matters relating to the conservation of wild flowers and of the countryside;
• to promote the conservation of the British flora.


Changes in recent years
Since Professor Clive Stace brought out his first edition of New Flora of the British Isles it was clear to many botanical associations including The Wild Flower Society that we could now use a more up to date reference than Douglas Kent's revision of Dandy's list of Vascular Plants of the British Isles. The Society chose this text now known simply as "Stace" as our reference flora but retained Kent's list with its more detailed list of the apomictic plants like Hawkweeds, Brambles, Dandelions and so on. The progress made in plant taxonomy using both cladistics and molecular biological techniques, led to major taxonomic changes in both Stace 3 and Stace 4. The diary was extensively revised following Stace 3 and is to be revised again following the publication of Stace 4 in 2019.
The most recent changes have involved Social media. The Wild Flower Society now has Facebook group account and a Twitter account. This means that if you have a personal Facebook account, you can apply to join our otherwise private group. Once accepted this entitles you to post photographs of plants you have found and get them identified, assuming that is possible, by the expert botanists who are members of the group. In summer it is not unusual for an identification to be resolved within 10 minutes of it being posted. The Wild Flower Society at one time had over 1,000 subscribing members and although that membership is lower, near 680 now, those who are associated with the society through social media are in excess of 3,000 and increasing every week (1 January 2022).

Plants included in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981

 

 

Identifying Edible and Poisonous Wild Plants
Wild Food UK Hedgerow Guide aims to help you forage for British plants that are relatively common in the wild, easy to find and good to eat – and to avoid those that are inedible or poisonous.
Never rely on one source for plant identification, and never eat anything unless you are 100% sure it is edible. We will not be held responsible for the use of the information in this guide.
Hedgerows are a great place to find most of these plants, but do look around in woods and fields as many grow there too.
You can filter to see what’s in season currently. If you want to learn more about wild food and foraging then why not come on one of our courses? You can also forage for Mushrooms and cook with Wild Food Recipes.