Ivydene Gardens Cabbage Wild Flower Family Gallery:
Crucifer or Cabbage Family Page 1

 

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Crucifer Family:-

"Mostly non-woody plants, with flowers in erect spikes or heads, the 4 petals arranged clockwise, 4 sepals and usually 6 stamens. The seeds are contained in a usually beaked pod, developing above the petals." from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978.

"Some other superficially similar 4-petalled flowers are Greater Celandine (Poppy Family), Tormentil and other Potentillas (Rose Family), Willowherbs (Willow-Herb Family) and Bedstraws (Bedstraw Family)." from The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe by R.Fitter, A.Fitter and M. Blamey (ISBN 0 00 219715 4 paperback 0 00 219765 0 hardback) reprinted .

Crucifer Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months

Habitat

Alpine Penny-Cress

(Penny Cress)

Thlaspi alpestre

(Thlaspi alpinum, Thalspi carulescens)

April-July

A perennial, or rarely biennial, herb almost confined in Britain to rocks or soils enriched with lead or zinc, being found on spoil heaps and mine waste and on metalliferous river gravels. It is also found, rarely, on outcrops and scree of limestone and other base-rich rocks, particularly in Scotland. Generally upland, reaching 940 m on Caenlochan (Angus), but descending to 100 m in Caernarvonshire.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alpine Rock-Cress

(Mountain rock cress, Garden Arabis)

Arabis caucasica

(Arabis alpina)

May-June

A perennial, mat-forming herb, naturalised on walls, rocks and cliffs. Lowland.

falpineflorockcress

falpineflosrockcress

falpinefolrockcress

falpineforrockcress

Flower August

Flowers May

Foliage August

Form August

American Land-Cress

(American Wintercress, Barbaree, Barbenkraut, Belle Isle Cress, Creasy Greens, Cresson de terre, Early Cress, Fruhes Barbarakraut, Herbe de Saint Barbe, Land Cress, Upland Cress, Winter Cress, Peppergrass, Early Yellow Rocket, Watercress)

Barbarea verna

(Barbarea praecox, Erysimum vernum)

April-June

A biennial, or occasionally annual, herb which is most frequent as a garden escape on waste ground, by roads and on railways. It has a long-lived seed bank. Lowland.

famericanflotlandcress

famericanflolandcress

famericanfollandcress

famericanforlandcress

Flower from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Flowers from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Foliage from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Form from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Austrian Yellow Cress

(Austrian Field Cress)

Rorippa austriaca

(Nasturtium austriacum)

June-September

A perennial herb with creeping roots found naturalised on waste ground, beside roads and rivers, and in meadows. It is probably introduced with grain. It is self-incompatible and seed-set is poor; it probably spreads mostly through root fragments. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Awlwort

Subularia aquatica

June-September

An annual aquatic plant, sometimes overwintering as a rosette, growing on silt, gravel or stony substrates in acidic, oligotrophic lakes. It is normally a plant of water shallower than one metre, and is only rarely found in other water bodies, such as outfall streams. 0-825 m (Ffynnon Llyffaint, Caerns.).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ball Mustard

(Finkensame)

Neslia paniculata

(Myagrum paniculatum)

June onwards

An annual which is introduced to rubbish tips and waste ground as an impurity of grain and bird-seed. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bargeman's Cabbage

(Abura-na, Bird Rape, Chou, Ma chieh, Salgam, Senfspinat, Wild Turnip)

Brassica campestris

(Brassica rapa, Brassica rapa ssp campestris)

April onwards

An annual or biennial herb, found as long-established populations on river and canal banks, and as a casual on roadsides, in arable fields and on tips. Lowland.

fbargemansflocabbage

fbargemansfloscabbage

fbargemansfruscabbage

fbargemansflobudscabbage

Flower 16 July

Flowers July

Seed Pods July

Flower Buds 16 July

Bastard Cabbage

(Common Giant Mustard, Turnipweed)

Rapistrum orientale

(Rapistrum rugosum, Myra rugosum, and 21 others)

May onwards

It is present throughout the world as an introduced species and a common weed. It is an invasive species in many areas. An annual or short-lived perennial herb, found mainly as a casual of waste ground, but now becoming naturalised in a variety of habitats where it is sometimes invasive, such as in open grassland. It is introduced with grain and bird-seed. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Mustard

(Brauner Senf, Brown Mustard, Ch'ing chieh, Khardal Aswad, Mostarda-Preta, Mostaza Negra, Moutarde noire, Schwarzer Senf, Senf, Schwarzer, Siyah Hardel)

Brassica nigra

(Brassica nigra var. abyssinica, Brassica sinapioides, Melanosinapis nigra, Sinapis juncea, Sinapis nigra)

May onwards

An annual forming persistent populations by rivers, where it is a member of the tall-herb community in the flood zone, and on sea-cliffs and shingle. It is also widespread as a casual on roadsides and waste ground, and can occur at the edge of arable fields. Generally lowland, but with a casual record at 380 m from Withypool (S. Somerset).

fblackflomustard

fblackflosmustard

fblackfolmustard

fblackfrusmustard

Flower October

Flowers October

Foliage July

Seed Pods October

Bristol Rock-Cress

Arabis stricta

(Arabis scabra)

March-May

A short-lived perennial herb of Carboniferous limestone in the Avon Gorge at Bristol, growing in shallow soils, on scree, and on rock ledges. It spreads by seed. Lowland.

fbristolflotrockcress

fbristolflosrockcress

fbristolfoltrockcress

fbristolforrockcress

Flower March

Flowers 12 May

Foliage March

Form March

Brown-Leaved Watercress

(Narrow-fruited Water-cress)

Rorippa microphylla

(Nasturtium microphyllum)

June onwards

A perennial herb growing in and beside streams, ditches, ponds and canals, and in marshes. This species extends into rather more acidic sites than R. nasturtium-aquaticum, and in some areas is the most common segregate on non-calcareous soils.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charlock

(Ackersenf, Moutarde des champs, Wild Mustard, Yabani Hardal)

Sinapis arvensis

(Brassica arvensis, Brassica sinapistrum)

May onwards

An annual, abundant as a weed of cultivation and also found on roadsides, railways, tips and waste ground. It is now a frequent weed associated with roadworks. Generally lowland, but reaching 450 m in Clun Forest (Salop). This is a weed pest. Poisonous to livestock. Mustard flower essence helps to shorten dark and gloomy days, lifting the spirit from the depths of despair.

fcharlockflo

fcharlockflos

fcharlockfol

fcharlockfor

Flower 3 August

Flowers from Norfolk in May

Foliage from Norfolk in May

Form from Norfolk in May

Common Penny-Cress (Syn. Field Pennycress, Acker-Hellerkraut, Fan WEED, French Weed, Hsi ming, Krodde, Mithridate Mustard, Pennycress, Stink Weed, Tambouret des champs)

Thlaspi arvense

May onwards

An annual found as an arable weed, particularly with broad-leaved crops and mainly on heavier soils. It is also a frequent weed on disturbed roadsides, and in waste places and gardens. Lowland, but there is a casual record at 330 m at Tomintoul (Banffs.). This is mostly used in salads, sometimes in sandwich spreads.

fcommonflopennycress

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Flower May

Flowers

Foliage

Form

Common Pepperwort (Syn. Field Pepperwort, Bastard Cress, Bourse de Judas, Feld-Kresse, Field Cress, Field Peppergrass, Field Pepperweed, Mostaza Silvestre, Passerage des Champs, Pepperwort)

Lepidium campestre

(Lepidium arvense, Thalspi campestre)

May-August

An annual, or occasionally biennial, herb of open grassland and arable fields, particularly on sandy or gravelly soils; also found on roadsides and walls, in gardens and waste places. It is often persistent, but occurs just as frequently as a casual. Lowland.

fcommonflopepperwort

fcommonflospepperwort

fcommonfolpepperwort

fcommonforpepperwort

Flower from Isle of Sheppey in Kent in July

Flowers May

Foliage May

Form May

Common Scurvy-Grass

(Cochleaire, Coclearia, Cranson, Cranson officinal, Cucharita, Herbe aux cuillere, Kasikotu, Loffelkraut, Scurvy Grass, Spoonwort)

Cochlearia officinalis

(Cochlearia fenestrata)

April-August

Biennial or perennial herbs found in a range of moist, open, coastal and montane habitats. They also grow on hedge banks, for example in S.W. England and Wales, but are only occasional recent colonists of salted roadsides.

fcommonfloscurvygrass

fcommonflosscurvygrass

fcommonfolscurvygrass

fcommonforscurvygrass

Flower June

Flowers from Pennard Castle on 12 July

Foliage from Inverew on 27 June

Form from Inverewe on 27 June

Common Wart Cress (Syn. Swinecress)

Coronopus squamatus

May onwards

A spring-germinating annual, rarely biennial, herb of nutrient-rich, often compacted soils in open, dry or winter-wet habitats. Typical sites include farmyards, waste ground, paths and particularly gateways. Lowland.

fcommonflowartcress

fcommonfloswartcress

fcommonfolwartcress

fcommonforwartcress

Flower 3 October

Flowers June

Foliage 3 October

Form 3 October

Common Whitlow-Grass

(Drave printaniere, Fruhlings-Hungerblumchen)

Erophila verna

(Draba obconica, Erophila krockeri, Erophila majuscula)

March-June

Typical semi-natural habitats of Erophila verna include limestone cliffs and pavements, sand dunes, sandy banks and coastal and riparian shingle. It is also frequent in quarries, sand- and gravel-pits and on lime-mine spoil heaps, walls, railway clinker, rubble and waste ground and cracks in pavements

fcommonflowhitlowgrass

fcommonfloswhitlowgrass

fcommonfolwhitlowgrass

fcommonforwhitlowgrass

Flower from Strood in Kent on 6 March

Flowers from Strrod in Kent on 6 March

Foliage from Strood in Kent 6 March

Form from Strood in Kent on 6 March

Common Winter-Cress

(Barbarakraut, Barbenkraut, Bitter Cress, Common Yellow Rocket, Creases, Echtes Barbarakraut, Erba Barbara, Erva-De-Santa-Barbara, Herb-Barbaras, Herbe Aux Charpentiers, Herbe De Sainte-Barbe, Hierba De Santa Barbara, Indian Posey, Rock Cress, Rocket Cress, Winter Cress, Winterkresse, Yellow Rocket)

Barbarea vulgaris

(Barbarea arcuata, Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, Barbarea vulgaris var. brachyc, Barbarea vulgaris var. longisi, Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvest, Campe barbarea, Erysimum arcuatum, Erysimum barbarea)

May-July

A biennial or perennial herb preferring a damp substrate, and thus widespread by rivers and streams, avoiding only the most acidic sites. It is also found on roadsides, by hedges and in ditches and waste places. It requires a degree of disturbance, which may be provided by seasonal flooding or human activity. Generally lowland, but occurring as a casual at 380 m near Alston (Cumberland).

fcommonflowintercress

fcommonfloswintercress

fcommonfolwintercress

fcommonforwintercress

Flower from Higham in Kent in May

Flowers from Ashburton in Devon in May

Foliage from Ashburton in Devon in May

Form from Caperconnell in County Clare on 13 June

Coralroot Bittercress

(Coral-Wort, Toothwort)

Cardamine bulbifera

(Dentaria bulbifera)

May

A rhizomatous perennial herb which grows in Britain in two habitats: on dry woodland slopes over chalk in the Chilterns, and in damp woodlands over clay in the Weald. Elsewhere it is an escape from cultivation by roads and in woodland and parkland. Lowland.

fcoralrootflobittercress

fcoralrootflotbittercress

fcoralrootfolbittercress

fcoralrootforbittercress

Flower May

Flowers from Kent on 28 May

Foliage from Kent on 28 May

Form May

Cotswold Penny-Cress

(Pennycress, Perfoliate Pennycress, Stengelum-fassendes Hellerkraut, Thoroughwort Penny cress)

Thlaspi perfoliatum

April-May

An annual of bare or sparsely vegetated habitats on oolitic limestone, found on screes, stony banks and open pastures; also found in old quarries and on broken rocks. Elsewhere it is usually a casual of waste places, although populations have persisted on railway embankments. Lowland.

fcotswoldflopennycress

fcotswoldflospennycress

fcotswoldfolpennycress

fcotswoldforpennycress

Flower 30 April

Flower with stem 30 April

Foliage 30 April

Form 30 April

Creeping Yellow Cress

(Creeping Yellow Field Cress, Wilde Sumpfkresse, Yellow Field Cress)

Rorippa sylvestris

(Nasturtium sylvestre, Radicula sylvestris)

June onwards

A perennial herb growing on damp bare ground, often in sites flooded in winter, on the margins and banks of rivers, streams, canals and ditches, by lakes and ponds and in depressions in pastures. It is also a weed of cultivated ground, often in drier situations than in its semi-natural habitats. It is a vigorous pioneer species, intolerant of competition, spreading by seed and by broken pieces of rhizome. Lowland.

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fcreepingflosyellowcress

fcreepingfruyellowcress

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Flowers from East Malling in Kent in June

Flowers from East Kent on 3 October

Seed Pods from East Kent on 3 October

Form

Dame's Violet

(Arragone, Damask Violet, Dame's Rocket, Gemeine Nachtviole, Juliana, Julienne des dames, Matronal, Nachtviole, Queen's Gilliflowers, Sweet Dame's Violet, Sweet Rocket, White Cross, Wieczornik)

Hesperis matronalis

May-August

A perennial, or sometimes biennial, herb of shaded moist habitats, found in hedgerows and wood borders, on river-banks, roadsides and waste ground, usually near habitation. It is often well-naturalised, but only where there is little competition. Casual plants occur on tips and in waste places. Lowland.

fdamesfloviolet

fdamesflosviolet

fdamesfolviolet

fdamesforviolet

Flower from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Flowers from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Foliage from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Form from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Dittander

(Breitblattrige, Kresse, Broad-Leaf Peppergrass, Erva-Pimenteira, Grand Passerage, Lepidio, Mastuerzo Montesino, Peppergrass, Perennial Cress, Perennial Peppercress, Perennial Pepperweed, Piperisa)

Lepidium latifolium

July-August

A rhizomatous perennial herb native on creek-sides, ditches, sea-walls, open brackish grassland and the upper fringes of estuarine saltmarshes. It is also naturalised in disturbed areas such as waste ground, dockland, railways and roadsides. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dune Cabbage (Syn. Isle of Man Cabbage)

Rhynchosinapis monensis

(Brassicella monensis, Sisymbrium monense, Coincya monensis), Coincya monensis subsp. monensis)

June-August

An annual or short-lived perennial herb, mainly found by the sea on open dunes and on the strand-line, and only rarely in bare fields and hedge banks near the sea. There is recent evidence to suggest that seed might be dispersed by sea (Rich, 1999b). Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Scurvy-Grass

(Danish Scurvy Grass)

Cochlearia danica

February-September

A winter-annual of cliff-tops, sand dunes and sea-walls, and on old walls and pavements in coastal towns; generally preferring open ground on well-drained sandy soils or bare rock. It used to occur on railway ballast, and is now frequent along inland roadsides. Lowland, but above 300 m on roadsides in N. England.

fearlyfloscurvygrass

fearlyflosscurvygrass

fearlyfolscurvygrass

fearlyforscurvygrass

Flower from Cliffs of Moher on 11 June

Flowers in June

Foliage from Kidwelly on 13 July

Form from Kidwelly on 13 July

Early Winter-Cress

(Mittleres Barbarakraut, Yellow Rocket, Medium-flowered Winter-cress)

Barbarea intermedia

April-May

A biennial herb, rarely a perennial or an annual, found in a variety of waste and disturbed places, although it was formerly most frequent as an arable weed. Generally lowland, but occurring as a casual at 340 m N. of Alston (Cumberland).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern Rocket

(Orientalis Rauke)

Sisymbrium orientale

May-August

An annual naturalised in rough ground and waste places, including railway land. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

False London Rocket

(Small tumbleweed mustard)

Sisymbrium loeslelii

July onwards

An annual of waste places, railways and roadsides. It is usually casual, but very occasionally naturalised, as in parts of London. It is a common contaminant of bird-seed mixtures. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flixweed

(Besenrauke, Herb-Sophia, Sagesse des chirurgiens, Sophienrauke)

Descurainia sophia

(Sisymbrium sophia)

June-August

An annual, or rarely biennial, herb which is locally abundant as a weed in arable fields in light soils in E. England. Elsewhere, it can occur in long-established populations, but is usually a casual in waste places. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garden Arabis

Arabis caucasica

April-May

A perennial, mat-forming herb, naturalised on walls, rocks and cliffs. Lowland.

fgardenfloarabis

fgardenflosarabis

fgardenfolarabis

fgardenforarabis

Flower from Bakewell on 22 May

Flowers from Bakewell on 22 May

Foliage from Deep Dale in May

Form from Bakewell on 22 May

Garden Cress

(Cresson alenois, Cresson des jardins, Halim, Kresse, Least Pepperwort, Salad Cress Plain Leaf)

Lepidium sativum

June-August

An annual of waste and ruderal habitats, arising principally from bird-seed and culinary sources, and usually occurring as a casual. Lowland. Garden Cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor.

fgardenflocress

fgardenfloscress

fgardenfolcress

fgardenforcress

Flower 15 June

Flowers 15 June

Foliage 15 June

Form 15 June

Garden Radish

Raphanus sativus

May onwards

An annual, occurring casually on tips and waste places, as a garden escape or bird-seed alien. Lowland.

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fgardenflosradish1

fgardenfruradish1

fgardenforradish1

Flower July

Flowers August

Seed Pods August

Form August

Garlic Mustard

(Alliare officinale, Erbe Sophia, Erva Adheira, Hedge Garlic, Hierba del Ajo, Jack-by-the-Hedge, Knoblauchsrauke, Lauchkraut, Lauchrauch, St. Sophia's Herb)

Alliaria petiolata

(Alliaria officinalis, Arabis petiolata, Erysimum alliaria, Sisymbrium alliaria)

April-June

A biennial or monocarpic herb, found in a wide range of habitats including disturbed woodland, woodland edges and clearings, shaded hedge banks, river-banks, the base of walls, road verges, waste ground, farmyards and gardens. It grows especially well on relatively fertile, moist soils, but avoids only the most acidic sites. Generally lowland, but reaching 535 m S. of Garsdale Head (N.W. Yorks.).

fgarlicflomustard

fgarlicflosmustard

fgarlicfolmustard

fgarlicformustard

Flower in May

Flowers

Foliage

Form

Garlic Pennycress

(Lauch-Hellerkraut, Roadside Pennycress)

Thlaspi alliaceum

April-June

An annual occurring as a weed of arable fields, field margins and other cultivated land. It is often naturalised, but may be casual. Lowland.

fgarlicflopennycress

fgarlicfoltpennycress

fgarlicfolpennycress

fgarlicforpennycress

Flower from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Leaves from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Foliage from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Form from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Gold of Pleasure

(Big-seed False Flax, Camelina, Camelina pilosa, Cameline ciliee, Dandakorn, False Flax, Leindotter, Saat-Leindotter, Tsitsmati)

Camelina sativa

(Camelina parodii, Camelina pilosa, Myagrum sativum)

June onwards

An annual, now occurring mainly as a casual on rubbish tips and waste ground, and in gardens. It was formerly a frequent weed of arable fields and a contaminant of flax seed. Lowland. It has been cultivated as an oilseed crop to produce vegetabe oil and animal feed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greater Yellow Cress

Rorippa amphibia

June-September

A perennial herb of emergent vegetation along the edges of streams and rivers, by lakes and ponds and in other swampy ground. It often grows in sites which are flooded in winter and where some water remains in the summer, and is usually found where the water is calcareous and eutrophic. Seed set is often poor, possibly because plants are highly self-incompatible, and spread is mainly by fragmentation of mature plants. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Sea Stock

(Matthiole sinuee, Sea Stock)

Matthiola sinuata

(Cheiranthus sinuatus)

June-August

A biennial or short-lived perennial herb of sand dunes and sea-cliffs. Most colonies are on young, fairly mobile dunes, and it has probably spread in the past by seeds floating in sea-water to new sites. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hairy Rocket

(Common Dog Mustard)

Erucastrum gallicum

(Sisymbrium gallicum)

May-August

An annual, occasionally persisting in quarries and along tracks on chalk soils, but almost always casual on roadsides and waste ground. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hairy Bittercress

Cardamine hirsuta

(Cardamine hirsute)

March onwards

A winter-annual which, under favourable conditions, can flower and seed again in autumn. It is particularly common as a weed of cultivation and in other ruderal habitats, but it also grows on rock outcrops, by streams and in woods. 0-1190 m (Breadalbanes, Mid Perth).

fhairyflobittercress

fhairyflosbittercress

fhairyfolbittercress

fhairyforbittercress

Flower from Leybourne in Kent in May

Flowers and Seed Pod growth

Foliage May

Form May

Hairy Rock-Cress

(Behaarte Gansekresse)

Arabis hirsuta

(Turritis hirsuta, Arabis brownii)

May-August

A biennial or perennial herb growing in dry, sunny, exposed situations on rock outcrops and in grassland on base-rich substrates, particularly chalk and limestone; also occurring on sand dunes and on bridges and walls. 0-1005 m (Aonach Beag, Westerness).

fhairyflorockcress

fhairyflosrockcress

fhairyfolrockcress

fhairyforrockcress

Flower from Liechtenstein on 9 May

Flowers from Caperconnell in County Clare on 13 June

Foliage from Monks Dale on 21 May

Form from Monks Dale on 21 May

Hedge Mustard

(Bulbulotu, Erismo, Erysimum, Simmara, Singer's Plant, Tumble Mustard, Wegrauke)

Sisymbrium officinale

(Erysimum officinale)

May onwards

An annual or biennial herb of dry, neutral or base-rich soils, doing best in open situations and frequent in cultivated ground, on roadsides and waste ground. It is almost invariably associated with man, but it also occurs rarely in natural habitats such as river-banks. 0-315 m (Garrigill, Cumberland).

fhedgeflotmustard

fhedgeflosmustard

fhedgefolmustard

fhedgeformustard

Flower June

Flowers from Rochester in Kent in August

Foliage from Chardown Hill in Dorset in June

Form June

Hoary Alison

(Allysum, Graukresse, Hoary False Alyssum, Hoary-Alyssum)

Berteroa incana

June-August

A biennial, but occasionally annual or perennial herb, rarely naturalised on waste ground, and predominantly occurring as a casual in arable fields, on waste ground, around docks and in newly sown grass or clover leys. Lowland. Grows from a deep taproot.

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Planting by the moon and stars

Planting by the phases of the moon is a method of cultivation as old as agriculture it's self.

The most ancient records of growing plants show a reliance on selecting the proper signs in the heavens for planting and performing garden chores in conjunction with the phases of the moon.

Today we have access to this half forgotten knowledge and what has endured is a schedule of plant growth that we can use just as those gardeners of yore.

Hoary Cress

(Pfeilkresse, Whitetop)

Cardaria draba

(Lepidium draba)

May-July

A perennial rhizomatous herb of roadsides, and on dry limestone or clinker ballast of railways. It also grows on waste ground, in arable fields on light soils, on sand dunes and other sandy ground, particularly near the sea, and in the uppermost zone of saltmarshes. Lowland. Invasive species in North America.

fhoaryflocress

fhoaryfloscress

fhoaryfolcress

fhoaryforcress

Flower

Flowers from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Foliage from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Form from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Hoary Mustard

(Buchanweed, Grauer Bastardsenf, Hairy Brassica)

Hirschfeldia incana

(Brassica adpressa, Erucastrum incanum, Sinapis incana)

May-September

An annual or short-lived perennial herb, increasingly naturalised in a variety of waste places such as by docks, railways and roadsides, and on tips. It is often associated with grain imports and bird-seed, and frequently occurs as a casual. It was formerly introduced with wool shoddy. Lowland.

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Flora of Europe:-

"At present, we can collect seeds and plants on request (as well as parts of plants - for example bulbs, cuttings, meristematic tissues, pollen, etc.) from more than 4000 species of plants from 19 European countries.

Now we collect in the following countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Spain, Finland, Great Britain, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia.

 

We prepare to collect in the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belarus, Estonia, France, Switzerland, Italy, Kosovo, Norway, Sweden, Ukraine.

We are able to collect all species in this area on your request. However, we do not collect protected species and species from the orchids (Orchidaceae).

Since 2002, we supply a wide range of European plants annually to both domestic and foreign small gardeners as well as big gardeners' societies, pharmaceutical companies and for scientific research.

The Vegetation season in Europe is from March to October. Seeds are usually harvested from August to September, and some species earlier. We provide a guarantee of 2 years for germination seeds. Seeds of some species are available throughout the year, but most of the species are collected on request. If you are searching for anything from Europe, you are at the right place! Contact us and inform yourself about stock availability, prices and terms of supplying.

We are able to supply all plant parts as well - seeds, bulbs, cuttings, meristematic issues, pollen etc. We also grow many species in cultivation and supply these as seedlings or young plants for wholesale. If you require seedlings, your order should be placed before April, seeing that the seeds are sown in April."

Down Garden Services provides a species list of the Common Name, Other Names and Botanical Name of weeds.

"Many people regard weeding as the "ironing" of garden work, but the sight of a newly weed border is very rewarding..... Recent research by 2 Texas universities has shown that tending the garden exercises the brain as well, so gardeners are more organised, feel more optimistic and feel they hav a better quality of life than non-gardeners. A study by University College London found that gardening for just 20 minutes a week can enhance mood and reduce mental stress."

For those without gardens, they can plant containers (See Vegetable Gallery for containers) in their house on the windowcill facing South and grow vegetables, bedding plants or bonsais.

From an article in the Wild Flower Society's magazine in 2003 by David Bevan with new photos and captions by Peter Llewellyn in January 2006 :-

Bittercresses (Cardamine) for beginners.

Horse-Radish

(Bayirturpu, Cranson, Meacan-Each, Meerrettich, Rabano Picante, Rabano Rusticano, Rabano-Picanto, Raifort, Raifort Cran, Raiz-Forte, Red Cole)

Armoracia rusticana

(Armoracia lapathifolia, Cochlearia armorica, Cochlearia macrocarpa, Nasturtium armoricia, Radicula armoricia, Raphanus rusticanus, Rorippa armoricia)

May-August

A long-lived perennial herb, persisting in old gardens and allotments and spreading by root fragments to roadsides, waste ground, railways, sandy seashores and river-banks. The plant is highly sterile, and seed-set is unknown in our area. Lowland. Horseradish is mainly cultivated for its large white, tapered root.

fhorsefloradish

fhorseflosradish

fhorsefolradish

fhorseforradish

Flower June

Flowers from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Foliage from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Form from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Colin's virtual Herbarium - "I am Colin Ladyka, and I live in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.  Native plants are my hobby.

This web site contains pictures I have taken of 280 species of flowering plants (excluding grasses) found on the Canadian Prairies, with particular emphasis on those found in Saskatchewan."

 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map

Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery

...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Approaching the
Coast (Coastal)
.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use for Flowering Plants

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

 

 

 

 

 

CABBAGE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 3

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed 1

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

 

 

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree


SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

WILDFLOWER INDEX
Botanical Name
Common Name
 

 

See current Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

See current Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names.

 

WILD FLOWER Botanical Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; then

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

A

G

M

S

Achillea millefolium
Achillea ptarmica

Achyrophorus maculatus

Aconitum anglicum

Aconitum cammarum
Aconitum napellus
Acorus calamus
Actaea spicata
Adiantum capillus-veneris
Adonis annua
Aesculus hippocastanum
Aetopteron lonchitis
Alliaria officinalis
Alliaria petiolata
Alnus cordata
Alnus glutinosa
Alyssum alyssoides
Alyssum calycinum
Alyssum campestre
Alyssum maritima
Alyssum minus
Amaranthus albus
Amaranthus chlorostachys
Amaranthus cruentus
Amaranthus hybridus
Amaranthus paniculatus
Amaranthus retroflexus
Armoracia lapathifolia
Armoracia rusticana
Anaphalis margaritacea
Anchusa arvensis
Anemone apennina
Anemone nemorosa
Anemone pulsatilla
Anemone ranunculoides
Anogramma caespitosa
Anogramma leptophylla
Antennaria dioica
Anthemis arvensis
Anthemis cotula
Anthemis tinctoria
Aponogeton distachyos
Aquilegia pyrenaica
Aquilegia vulgaris
Arabidopsis thaliana Arabis alpina
Arabis brownii
Arabis caucasica
Arabis collina
Arabis glabra
Arabis hirsuta
Arabis petiolata
Arabis petraea
Arabis rosea
Arabis scabra
Arabis stricta
Arabis thaliana
Arabis turrita
Aristolochia clematitis
Artemisia absinthium
Artemisia campestris
Artemesia caudata
Artemesia chamae-melifolia
Artemesia forwoodii
Artemisia maritima
Artemisia norvegica
Artemisia verlotiorum
Artemisia vulgaris
Aspidium lonchitis
Aster linosyris
Arum italicum
Arum italicum subsp. neglectum Arum maculatum
Arum neglectum
Arundinaria jaunsarensis
Arundinaria simonii
Arundinaria vagans
Asarum europaeum
Asperugo procumbens
Asperula cynanchica
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium obovatum
Asplenium ruta-muraria
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes
Asplenium viride
Aster eminens
Aster junceus
Aster longifolius
Aster novi-belgii
Aster salicfolius
Aster tripolium
Athanasia maritima
Athyrium alpestre
Athyrium distentifolium
Athyrium filix-femina

Galanthus nivalis
Galinsoga aristulata
Galinsoga bicolorata
Galinsoga caracasana
Galinsoga ciliata
Galinsoga
parviflora
Galinsoga quadriradiata

Galium album
Galium aparine
Galium boreale
Galium cruciata
Galium debile
Galium erectum
Galium mollugo
Galium odoratum
Galium palustre
Galium parisiense
Galium pumilum
Galium saxatile
Galium tricorne
Galium tricornutum
Galium uliginosum Galium verum
Glebionis segetum
Gnaphalium luteoalbum
Gnaphalium norvegicum
Gnapalium sylvaticum
Gnaphalium supinum
Gnaphalium uliginosum
Gnaphalium undulatum
Guepinia nudicaulis
Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Mahonia aquifolium
Matricaria chamomilla
Matricaria discoidea
Matricaria matricarioides
Matricaria recutita
Matthiola incana
Matthiola sinuata
Melanosinapis nigra
Menyanthes trifoliata
Mertensia maritima
Monotropa hypopitys
Myagrum paniculatum
Myagrum sativum
Mycelis muralis
Myosotis alpestris
Myosotis arvensis
Myosotis brevifolia
Myosotis caespitosa
Myosotis discolor
Myosotis hispida
Myosotis laxa
Myosotis lingulata
Myosotis palustris
Myosotis ramosissima
Myosotis repens
Myosotis scorpioides
Myosotis secunda
Myosotis sicula
Myosotis stolonifera
Myosotis sylvatica
Myosotis uliginosa
Myosurus minimus
Myra rugosum
Myrica gale

Sasaella ramosa
Sasa palmata
Sasa ramosa
Scorzonera humilis
Scorzoneroides autumnalis
Selaginella selaginoides
Semiarundinaria fastuosa
Senecio aquaticus
Senecio campestris
Senecio capitatus
Senecio cineraria
Senecio erucifolius
Senecio fluviatilis
Senecio integrifolius
Senecio jacobaea
Senecio saracenicus
Senecio smithii
Senecio squalidus
Senecio sylvaticus
Senecio viscosus
Senecio vulgaris
Seriphidium maritimum
Sherardia arvensis
Sinapis alba
Sinapis arvensis
Sinapis incana
Sinapis juncea
Sinapis nasturtiifolium
Sinapis nigra
Sisymbrium alliaria
Sisymbrium altissimum
Sisymbrium gallicum
Sisymbrium islandicum
Sisymbrium loeslelii
Sisymbrium monense
Sisymbrium murale
Sisymbrium nasturtium
Sysmbrium nasturtium-aquaticum
Sisymbrium officinale
Sisymbrium irio
Sisymbrium orientale
Sisymbrium sophia
Sisymbrium tenuifolium
Sisymbrium thalianum
Solidago altissima
Solidago canadensis
Solidago gigantea
Solidago serotina
Solidago serotinoides
Solidago virgaurea
Solidago x leiophallax
Sonchus asper
Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus oleraceus
Sonchus palustris
Sparganium angustifolium
Sparganium emersum
Sparganium erectum
Sparganium minimum
Sparganium natans
Sparganium simplex
Spirodela polyrhiza
Subularia aquatica
Symphyotrichum longifolium
Symphytum asperum
Symphytum asperum x officinale
Symphytum officinale
Symphytum orientale
Symphytum tuberosum
Symphytum x uplandicum

B

H

N

T

Barbarea arcuata
Barbarea intermedia
Barbarea praecox
Barbarea stricta
Barbarea verna
Barbarea vulgaris
Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata
Barbarea vulgaris var. brachyc
Barbarea vulgaris var. longisi
Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvest
Bellis perennis
Berberis vulgaris
Berteroa incana
Betula nana
Betula pendula
Betula pubescens
Betula verrucosa
Bidens cernua
Bidens frondosa
Bidens tripartita
Blechnum spicant
Borago officinalis
Botrychium lunaria
Brassica adpressa
Brassica alba
Brassica arvensis
Brassica campestris
Brassica hirta
Brassica napus
Brassica nigra
Brassica nigra var. abyssinica
Brassica oleracea
Brassica sinapioides
Brassica sinapistrum
Brassicella monensis
Brassicella wrightii
Buddleja davidii
Buglossoides arvensis
Buglossoides purpurocaerulea
Bunias orientalis
Buxus sempervirens

Helichrysum luteoalbum
Helleborus foetidus

Helleborus viridis
Hesperis matronalis
Hirschfeldia incana
Homogyne alpina
Hornungia alpina
Hornungia petraea
Huperzia selago
Hutchinsia alpina
Hymenophyllum peltatum
Hymenophyllum tunbrigense
Hymenophyllum wilsonii
Hymenophyllum unilaterale
Hypochaeris carpatica
Hypochaeris glabra
Hypochaeris maculata
Hypochaeris radicata
Hypopeltis lonchitis

Nanozostera americana
Narcissus
obvallaris
Narcissus
pseudonarcissus
Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. obvallaris
Narcissus pseudoncissus subsp. pseudonarcissus
Nardosmia japonica
Nasturtium aquaticum
Nasturtium armoricia

Nasturtium austriacum
Nasturtium fontanum
Nasturtium microphyllum
Nasturtium nasturtium-aquatica
Nasturtium officinale
Nasturtium officinalis
Nasturtium sylvestre
Nasturtium x sterile
Neslia paniculata
Nymphoides peltata

Tanacetum parthenium
Tanacetum vulgare
Teesdalia iberis

Teesdalia nudicaulis

Tephroseris integrifolia
Thalictrum alpinum
Thalictrum aquilegifolium
Thalictrum flavum
Thalictrum minus
Thelypteris dryopteris
Thelypteris oreopteris
Thlaspi alliaceum
Thlaspi alpestre
Thlaspi alpinum
Thlaspi arvense
Thlaspi bursa-pastoris
Thalspi campestre
Thalspi carulescens
Thlaspi nudicaulis
Thlaspi perfoliatum
Thelycrania sanguinea
Thelypteris palustris
Thelypteris phegopteris
Thelypteris robertiana
Trachystemon orientalis
Tragopogon porrifolius
Tragopogon pratensis
Trichomanes andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans
Trichomanes speciosum
Triglochin maritima
Triglochin maritimum
Triglochin palustre
Triglochin palustris
Tripleurospermum maritimum
Trollius europaeus
Tsitsmati
Turritis glabra
Turritis hirsuta
Tussilago farfara

 

C

I

O

U

 

Cakile maritima
Calamaria lacustris
Caltha palustris
Calystegia sepium
Calystegia silvatica
Calystegia soldanella
Calystegia sylvestris
Camelina parodii
Camelina pilosa
Camelina sativa
Campanula alliariifolia
Campanula glomerata
Campanula latifolia
Campanula medium
Campanula patula
Campanula rapunculoides
Campanula rapunculus
Campanula rotundifolia
Campanula trachelium
Campe barbarea
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Capsella nudicaulis
Cardamine amara
Cardamine bulbifera
Cardamine corymbosa
Cardamine flexuosa
Cardamine hirsuta
Cardamine hirsuta var. corymbosa
Cardamine hirsute
Cardamine impatiens
Cardamine pratensis
Cardaminopsis petraea
Cardaria draba
Capsella rubella
Castanea sativa
Ceterach officinarum
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamae-periclymenum suecicum
Cheiranthus cheiri
Cheiranthus sinuatus
Cheirinia cheiranthoides
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
Chrysanthemum parthenium
Chrysanthemum segetum
Chrysanthemum vulgare
Chrysocoma linosyris
Cicerbita alpina
Cicerbita macrophylla
Cineraria maritima
Clematis flammula
Clematis vitalba
Clematis viticella
Clypeola alyssoides
Clypeola campestris
Cochlearia alpina
Cochlearia anglica
Cochlearia armorica
Cochlearia danica
Cochlearia fenestrata
Cochlearia macrocarpa
Cochlearia officinalis
Cochlearia officinalis var. alpina
Cochlearia pyrenaica subsp. alpina
Coincya monensis
Coincya monensis subsp. cheiranthos
Coincya monensis subsp. monensis
Coincya wrightii
Consolida ajacis
Consolida ambigua
Consolida orientalis
Convolvulus arvensis
Conyza canadensis
Cornus sanguinea
Cornus suecica
Coronopus didymus
Coronopus squamatus
Cota tinctoria
Cotula coronopifolia
Crambe maritima
Crambe pontica
Crinitaria linosyris
Crithmum maritimum
Cruciata laevipes
Cruciform teesdalia
Cryptogramma crispa
Cuscuta epithymum
Cuscuta europaea
Cynoglossum germanicum
Cynoglossum officinale
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris montana

Iberis amara
Iberis coronaria

Impatiens glandulifera
Impatiens noli-tangere
Impatiens parviflora
Inula conyza
Inula crithmoides
Inula helenium
Inula salicina
Isatis tinctoria
Isoetes echinospora
Isoetes histrix
Isoetes lacustris
Isoetes macrospora
Isoetes rossica

Oligosporus campestris
Omalotheca supina
Omphalodes verna

Ophioglossum lusitanicum
Ophioglossum vulgatum
Oreopteris limbosperma
Orobanche alba
Orobanche artemisiae-campestris
Orobanche caryophyllacea
Orobanche elatior
Orobanche hederae
Orobanche loricata
Orobanche maritima
Orobanche minor
Orobanche picridis
Orobanche purpurea
Orobanche rapum-genistae
Osmunda regalis
Otanthus maritimus

Ulmus campestris
Ulmus carpinifolia
Ulmus diversifolia
Ulmus glabra
Ulmus minor
Ulmus procera
Urostachys selago

Utricularia intermedia

Utricularia minor
Utricularia vulgaris

 

D

J

P

V

 

Delphinium orientale
Dentaria bulbifera
Descurainia sophia
Diotis candidissima
Diotis maritima
Diphasium alpinum
Diaphasiastrum alpinum
Diplotaxis muralis
Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Doronicum pardalianches
Draba aizoides
Draba incana
Draba muralis
Draba norvegica
Draba obconica
Dryopteris abbreviata
Dryopteris aemula
Dryopteris affinis
Dryopteris borreri
Dryopteris carthusiana
Dryopteris cristata
Dryopteris dilatata
Dryopteris expansa
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris lonchitis
Dryopteris oreades Fomin
Dryopteris phegopteris
Dryopteris spinulosa
Dryopteris submontana
Dryopteris villarii

Jasione montana
Juncus bufonius
Juniperus communis

Pentaglottis sempervirens
Petasites albus
Petasites fragrans
Petasites hybridus
Petasites japonicus
Phegopteris connectilis
Phegopteris polypodioides
Phyllitis scolopendrium
Phyteuma cordifolium
Phyteuma fistulosum
Phyteuma tenerum
Phyteuma orbiculare
Phyteuma spicatum
Picris echioides
Picris hieracioides
Pinguicula grandiflora
Pinguicula lusitanica
Pinguicula vulgaris
Plananthus selago
Pleioblastus simonii
Polypodium interjectum
Polypodium lonchitis
Polypodium montanum
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum asperum
Polystichum lonchitis
Polystichum setiferum
Pritzelago alpina
Pseudosasa japonica
Ptarmica vulgaris
Pteridium aquilinum
Pulicaria dysenterica
Pulicaria vulgaris
Pulmonaria longifolia
Pulmonaria officinalis
Pulsatilla vulgaris
Pyrus cordata

Vandenboschia speciosa
Vittadenia triloba

 

E

K

Q

W

 

Echium plantagineum
Echium vulgare
Empetrum nigrum
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum fluviatile
Equisetum hyemale
Equisetum limosum
Equisetum palustre
Equisetum pratense
Equisetum ramosissimum
Equisetum sylvaticum
Equisetum telmateia
Equisetum variegatum
Eranthis hyemalis
Erigeron acer
Erigeron borealis
Erigeron karvinskianus
Erigeron mucronatus
Erophila krockeri
Erophila majuscula
Erophila verna
Eruca selvatica
Erucastrum gallicum
Erucastrum incanum
Erucastrum nasturtiifolium
Eruka marina
Erysimum alliaria
Erysimum altissimum
Erysimum arcuatum
Erysimum barbarea
Erysimum cheiranthoides
Erysimum cheiri
Erysimum officinale
Erysimum vernum
Eupatorium cannabinum

 

Quercus cerris
Quercus Ilex
Quercus petraea
Quercus robur

Wahlenbergia hederacea
Wolffia arrhiza
Woodsia alpina
Woodsia ilvensis

 

F

L

R

XYZ

 

Fagus sylvatica
Fagus sylvatica cuprea purpurea
Filago apiculata
Filago gallica
Filago germanica
Filago lutescens
Filago maritima
Filago minima
Filago pyramidata
Filago pyramidata subsp. lutescens
Filago spathulata
Filago vulgaris
Frangula alnus

Lactuca macrophylla
Lactuca
saligna
Lactuca
serriola
Lactuca
virosa
Lastrea phegopteris

Lathraea clandestina
Lathraea squamaria
Legousia hybrida
Lemna gibba
Lemna minor
Lemna polyrhiza
Lemna trisulca
Leontodon autumnalis
Leontodon hispidus
Leontodon saxatilis
Leontodon taraxacoides
Lepidotis inundata
Lepidium arvense
Lepidium campestre
Lepidium draba
Lepidium heterophyllum
Lepidium latifolium
Lepidium ruderale
Lepidium sativum
Lepidium scapiferum
Lepidium smithii
Leucanthemum adustum
Leucanthemum vulgare
Leucojum aestivum
Leucojum vernum
Linosyris vulgaris
Lithospermum arvense
Lithospermum officinale
Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum
Lobularia benthamii
Lobularia maritima
Lycopodiella inindata
Lycopodium alpinum
Lycopodium annotinum
Lycopodium clavatum
Lycopodium inundatum
Lycopodium selago
Lycopsis arvensis
Lysichiton americanus

Radicula armoricia
Radicula nasturtium
Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum

Radicula sylvestris
Ranunculus acris
Ranunculus aquatilis
Ranunculus arvensis
Ranunculus auricomus
Ranunculus bulbosus
Ranunculus ficaria
Ranunculus flabellatus
Ranunculus flammula
Ranunculus floribundus
Ranunculus fluitans
Ranunculus hederaceus
Ranunculus lingua
Ranunculus lutarius
Ranunculus marginatus
Ranunculus muricatus
Ranunculus obtusiflorus
Ranunculus omiophyllus
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
Ranunculus paludosus
Ranunculus parviflorus
Ranunculus peltatus
Ranunculus petiveri
Ranunculus repens
Ranunculus reptans
Ranunculus sardous
Ranunculus sceleratus
Ranunculus spaerospermus
Ranunculus trichophyllus
Ranunculus tripartitus
Raphanus landra
Raphanus landra Moretti
Raphanus raphanistrum
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. landra
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. raphanistrum
Raphanus rusticanus
Raphanus sativus
Rapistrum rugosum
Rapistrum orientale
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhynchosinapis erucastrum
Rhynchosinapis monensis
Rhynchosinapis wrightii
Rorippa amphibia
Rorippa armoricia
Rorippa austriaca
Rorippa islandica
Rorippa microphylla
Rorippa nasturtium
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum
Rorippa sylvestris
Rorippa x sterilis
Rubia peregrina
Rucola sylvatica
Rucula selvatica

Xanthium spinosum Yushania anceps
Zostera americana
Zostera angustifolia
Zostera hornemanniana
Zostera japonica
Zostera marina
Zostera nana
Zostera noltei

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations with 8 problems caused by clay, ryegrass (kills plants) in Roadstone and CedarGravel creates stable drive surface.
Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak