Use these
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-


Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Plants for Chalky Soil A-F Page 1 of 3

 

Tree/Shrub Growth Shape with
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

 

The plants suitable for Chalky Soil list is sorted in the following pages under the following Name:-

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs. Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-
Columnar
Oval
Rounded/ Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow conical/ Narrow Pyramidal
Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid/ Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid
Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stemmed palm, cyad, or similar tree
Multi-stemmed palm, cyad, or similar tree

 

 

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit. Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-
Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and the flowers extend above.
Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level.
Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and the flowers.
Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.
A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.
The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.
Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

Explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked."

Negative impacts on the soil food web -->

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

"Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil."

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

a

Columnar
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

Soil:-

AN = Any Soil

Soil Moisture:-

Sun Aspect:-

Plant Location:-

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower-ing Months

Flower-ing Colour

Height x Spread in
inches (cms).
 

25.4mm = 1 inch


304.8mm = 12 inches


12 inches = 1 foot


3 feet = 1 yard


914.4mm = 1 yard

 

I normally round this to
30 cm = 1 foot,
90 cm = 3 feet and
100 cm = 40 inches

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Plants to help this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
and/or
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Comment

b

Oval
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AC = Acid Soil

c

Rounded/ Spherical
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AL = Alkaline Soil
 

d

Flattened Spherical
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AN = Any for Acid, Neutral or Alkaline Soil

e

Narrow Conical/ Narrow Pyramidal
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

FA = Grow for Flower Arrangers

f

Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

FB = Front of Border
/ Path Edges

RB = Rest of Border

SP = Speciman

RG = Rock Garden

WP = Within Path

CL = Climber or Shrub grown against a wall or fence

g

Ovoid/ Egg-shaped
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

h

Broad Ovoid
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

j

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

BE = Bedding

k

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

GP = Grow in Pot / Container

m

Narrow Weeping
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

HB = Grow in Hanging Basket

n

Broad Weeping
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

HE = Hedge
SC = Screening

TH =
Thorny Hedge

p

Single-stemmed palm
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

q

Multi-stemmed palm
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

BG = Grow in Bog Area

1

Mat-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

BA = Grow on Bank / Slope

2

Prostrate or Trailing
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

SE = Seaside / Coastal Plants

3

Cushion or Mound-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

CH = Chalk

EX = Cold Exposed Inland Site

4

Spreading or Creeping
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

CL = Clay

DP = Dust and Pollution Barrier

5

Clump-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

LF = Lime-Free

D = Dry

S = Full Sun

SO = Sound Barrier

6

Stemless
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

PD = Poorly Drained
PE = Peaty

M = Moist

PS = Part Shade
DS = Dappled Sun

WI = Wind Barrier

7

Erect or Upright
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

LS = Light Sand

W = Wet

FS = Full Shade

WO = Woodland

8

Climbing and Scandent
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

AN

CH

CL

LF

PD

LS

D

M

W

S

PS

FS

AC

AL

AN

FA

FB
RB

BE

GP

HB

HE

SC

BG

BA

SE

EX

DP

SO

WI

WO

9

Arching
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

SP
RG

Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

PE

DS

WP
CL

TH

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

j

k

m

n

p

q

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

RB

 

 

 

 

 

 

SE

 

 

 

 

 

Abelia floribunda

Mexican abelia

Jul-Sep

Cerise-Purple

120 x 144 (300 x 360)

Evergreen Shrub

Half hardy with pendent tubular flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

DS

 

 

AL

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelia grandiflora 'Francis Mason'

Golden abelia

Jul-Oct

Pale Pinkish- White

60 x 72 (150 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

Golden-yellow foliage variegation ages to dark green. Grow against a wall or fence.

 

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

CL

 

GP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelia schumannii
(Abelia parviflora)

Schumann abelia

Jul-Oct

abeliaschumanniiflot

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Deciduous Shrub

Bee magnet in a sheltered, south-facing aspect. Fill difficult corners of garden.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

GP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abutilon mega-potamicum
(Abutilon vexillarium)

Trailing abutilon

Jul-Sep

abutilonmegapotamicumflot9

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

Grow in greenhouse or conservatory in UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abutilon suntense

Chinese lantern, Parlour maple

May-Jul

Mauve to Blue

144 x 96 (360 x 240)

Deciduous Shrub

Grow in unheated greenhouse.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

FA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthus mollis
(Acanthus lusitanicus,
Acanthus spinosisimus)

Bear's breeches

Aug-Sep

White with Purple bracts

60 x 36 (150 x 90)

Herbaceous Per

Tubular, 2-lipped flowers in racemes 36 inches (90 cms) long

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

7

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

HE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer campestre

Common maple,
Field maple, Hedge maple

Apr-May

Yellow-green

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Deciduous Tree

Native UK maple - nectar and pollen for insects. Makes excellent clipped hedge.

 

 

c

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer griseum
(血皮楓;
pinyin: xuè pí fēng)

Paper-bark maple

Apr-May

Yellow-green

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Deciduous Tree

Slow-growing, spreading tree. Green foliage ages to red and orange in autumn. Speciman tree within lawn area for 15 years.

 

 

c

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

LF

 

LS

 

M

 

S

DS

 

AC

AL

 

FA

 

 

 

 

HE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer negundo 'Flamingo'

Box elder maple

Apr-May

White

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Deciduous Tree

Pink juvenile foliage matures to green with creamy margin. Excellent Hedge on well-drained soil.

 

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

D

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

FA

RB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Achillea millefolium 'Cerise Queen'

Yarrow

Jul-Sep

achilleacflosmillefoliumcerisequeengarnonswilliams

30 x (75 x )

Deciduous Per

Cerise-pink flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Actinidia kolomikta

Variegated kiwi (video of this climber climbing into old tree)

May-Jul

actinidiacfloskolomiktawikimediacommons

 

White

180 x indefinite
(450 x indefinite)

Deciduous Climber

Grow twining stems into old trees. It requires support since it will not self-cling. Green and white foliage tipped with pink. Attractive to cats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

 

DS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WO

Adiantum pedatum

Five-fingered maidenhair fern

Ferns do not have flowers

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Evergreen Fern

Cold Hardy . Pair with broad-leaved plants. Use as Green foliage Ground cover.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

 

DS

FS

 

AL

 

 

RB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adiantum venustum

Evergreen maidenhair

Ferns do not have flowers

6 x indefinite
(15 x indefinite)

Evergreen Fern

Cold Hardy . Use as Ground Cover and underplanting of roses and shrubs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

DS

FS

 

AL

 

 

RB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesculus parviflora

Dwarf horse chestnut, Bottlebrush buckeye

Jul-Aug

White

132 x 168 (330 x 420)

Deciduous Shrub

Leaves open bronze, then dark green, turning yellow in autumn. Forms thickets from suckering. Avoid poorly drained sites.

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akebia quinata
 

Chocolate Vine

Apr-Jun

Reddish-Purple
akebiacfloquinataroseland

336 x 36 (540 x 90)

Semi-Evergreen Climber

Fruity fragrance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

AN

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

FA

RG

RB

FB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allium moly

Golden Garlic, Lily leek

Jun-Jul

alliumpflosmolygeetee1a
Star-shaped

8 x 4
(20 x 10)

Bulb
Particularly effective when naturalized or grown in wide drifts.

Use in rock garden, under-planting roses and long-lasting cut flower on any well-drained soil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

CH

CL

 

 

LS

W

M

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

SC

 

 

SE

 

 

 

WI

 

Alnus viridis

Green Alder Tree

Apr-May

Green
Catkins

120 x 72 (300 x 180)

Deciduous Shrub

Ideal for shorelines, wind breaks, screening and afforestation on infertile soils of screes and shallow stone slopes. Multi-stemmed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alyssum montanum
'Mountain Gold'

 

 

 

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Evergreen Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alyssum wulfenianum

 

 

Pale Yellow

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Evergreen Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amelanchier laevis

Allegheny Service-berry, Sarvis tree

 

 

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amelanchier lamarckii

Snowy mespilus, Lamark Service-berry

 

White

276 x 240 (690 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anchusa azurea
(Anchusa italica)

 

 

Blue to Purple

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone apennina

 

 

anemonecflosapenninawikimediacommons

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone blanda 'Atrocaerulea'

 

 

Deep Blue

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone blanda 'Radar'

 

 

anemonecfloblandaradarrvroger

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone blanda 'Violet Star'

 

 

anemonecfloblandavioletstarrvroger

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone coronaria

Florist's Anemone, Wind Poppy, Wind-flower

 

anemonecflos1coronariawikimediacommons

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone hupehensis

 

 

anemonehupehensisflot9

24 x 16
(60 x 40)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone japonica
'Honorine Jobert'

 

 

anemonecflohybridahonorinejobertgarnonswilliams

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone nemorosa

Wind-flower, Wood Anemone

 

anemoneflonemerosaroger

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone ranunculoides

Buttercup Anemone

 

anemonecfloranunculoideswikimediacommons

2 x 18
(5 x 45)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone rivularis

 

 

 

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone sylvestris

 

 

 

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis punctata subsp. cupaniana

 

 

White

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Evergreen Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis sancti-johannis

 

 

Golden yellow to orange

24 x
(60 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis tinctoria e.g.
'Grallagh Gold'

 

 

 

30 x
(75 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis tinctoria e.g
'Wargrave Variety'

 

 

Lemon yellow

30 x
(75 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antirrhinum majus e.g.
'Little Darling'

Snap-dragon

 

 

18 x
(45 x )

Bedding Annual,
Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia alpina

Alpine Columbine

 

aquilegiacflo1alpinawikimediacommons

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia chrysantha

 

 

 

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia 'Crimson Star'

 

 

Cream

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia vulgaris 'Nora Barlow'

 

 

Green, white and pink

24 x 20
(60 x 50)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arabis caucasica 'Variegata'

Rock Cress

 

White

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Evergreen Alpine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arbutus menziesii

Madrona, Madrone, Pacific madrone

 

White

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Evergreen Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arum italicum 'Marmoratum'

 

 

Pale green spathe with cream spadix

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria auricoma
(Pleioblastus auricomus)

 

 

 

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria fortunei
(Pleioblastus auricomus)

 

 

 

15 x 12
(37 x 30)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria japonica

 

 

 

138 x 30 (345 x 75)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria murielae
(Fargesia murieliae)

 

 

 

120 x 36 (300 x 90)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria nitida
(Syn. Fargesia nitida)

 

 

 

156 x 36 (390 x 90)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria pygmae
(Pleioblastus pygmaeus)

 

 

 

16 x 36
(40 x 90)

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asplenium scolopendrium (Phyllitis
scolo-pendrium)

Hart's tongue fern, Scollies

 

No flowers

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Evergreen Fern

prefers limestone soil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster alpinus

Alpine aster

 

White and all shades of pink, mauve and purple

10 x 18
(25 x 45)

Herbaceous Alpine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster amellus 'King George'

 

 

Purple

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster x frikartii 'Monch'

 

 

Laven-der -blue

30 x 18
(75 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astrantia major

Greater master-wort

 

astrantiacflos1majorkevock

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aubretia x cultorum 'Argeneo-variegata'

Aubretia Hybrid Cultivars

 

Purple

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Evergreen Alpine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba
japonica

Japanese Aucuba, Japanese laurel

 

aucubacflosjaponicawikimediacommons

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'

 

 

 

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'

 

 

 

36 x 120 (90 x 300)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FS

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

 

 

 

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aurinia
saxatilis 'Citrinia'

Basket of gold, yellow alyssum

 

Yellow

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Evergreen Alpine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baptisia australis (Baptisia caerulea)

Blue false indigo

 

baptisiacflo1australisgarnonswilliams

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis 'Chenaultii'

 

 

 

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis calliantha

 

 

 

30 x 36
(75 x 90)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis darwinii

Darwin barberry

 

berberisflodarwinii

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis julianae

Winter-green barberry

 

Yellow or tinged red

96 x 120 (240 x 300)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergeii
'Atropurpurea Nana'

Japanese barberry

 

Yellow

24 x 30
(60 x 75)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergeii
'Helmond Pillar'

Japanese barberry

 

 

48 x 30 (120 x 75)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergeii
'Red Chief'

Japanese barberry

 

 

72 x 48 (180 x 120)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis wilsoniae

Wilson barberry

 

Pale yellow

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x bristolensis

 

 

Yellow

60 x 72 (150 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x frikartii 'Amstelveen'

 

 

Yellow

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x frikartii 'Telstar'

 

 

Yellow

48 x 60 (120 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x interposita
'Wallich's Purple'

 

 

 

60 x 72 (150 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x ottawensis
'Superba'

Hybrid purple barberry

 

Pale yellow

96 x 96 (240 x 240)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis x stenophylla

 

 

berberiscflos1stenophyllawikimediacommons

96 x 96 (240 x 240)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergeii 'Bagatelle'

Japanese barberry

 

Yellow

30 x 30
(75 x 75)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula ermanii

Epman's birch, gold birch, russian rock birch

 

 

720 x 240 (1800 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula nana

Dwarf birch

 

 

24 x 48
(60 x 120)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula papyrifera

Canoe birch, paper birch, white birch

 

 

720 x 240 (1800 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Borago officinalis

Borage

 

boragocflo1officinaliswikimediacommons

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Herb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bocconia cordata

 

 

 

96 x 36 (240 x 90)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brachyglottis compacta (Senecio compactus)

 

 

Bright yellow

36 x 72
(90 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brachyglottis 'Dunedin Hybrids'

 

 

 

60 x 72 (150 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brachyglottis monroi (Senecio monroi)

 

 

Bright yellow daisies

36 x 72
(90 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia
davidii
'Black Knight'

Butterfly bush

 

buddleiacflos1davidiiblackknightcoblands

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia
davidii
'Royal Red'

Butterfly bush

 

Purple-red

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia
davidii 'White Profusion'

Butterfly bush

 

White

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brunnera macrophylla
'Dawson's White'

 

 

 

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia globosa

Orange ball tree

 

Scented, orange-yellow

216 x 216 (540 x 540)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia officinalis

 

 

 

96 x 96 (240 x 240)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buphthalmum salicifolium

Yellow ox eye, willow-leaved ox eye

 

buphthalmumsalicifoliumflot9

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bupleurum fruticosum

 

 

bupleurumcflos1fruticosumwikimediacommons

72 x 96 (160 x 240)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus microphylla

Chinese box, Japanese box, Korean box

 

Green-ish-yellow

30 x 60
(75 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens
'Elegantissima'

Common box, english box

 

Green-ish-cream

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens
'Suffruticosa'

Common box, english box

 

Green-ish-cream

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caryopteris x clandonensis See photo -->
e.g. 'Ferndown'

Blue mist shrub, blue spiraea

 

caryopteriscflos1clandonensisheavenlybluewikimediacommons

30 x
(75 x )

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centaurea cyanus See photo --> e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'

Bachelor's button, blue-bottle, corn-flower

 

centaureacflo1cyanuswikimediacommons

12 x
(30 x )

Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centaurea dealbata e.g.
'John Coutts'

Persian corn-flower

 

Pink to purple

24 x
(60 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centranthus ruber
 

Jupiter's beard, red valerian

 

centranthuscflopruberbox42coblands

24 x
(60 x )

Deciduous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceratostigma willmotianum

Chinese plum-bago

 

ceratostigmacfloswillmottianumcoblands

36 x
(90 x )

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cercis siliquastrum
 

Judas Tree

 

cerciscflo1siliquastrumwikimediacommons

240 x
(600 x )

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cheiranthus cheiri e.g.
'Blood Red'
(Erysimum cheiri)

Wall-flower

 

erysimumcfor1cheiriwikimediacommons

18 x
(45 x )

Evergreen Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chry-santhemum carinatum e.g. 'Monarch Court Jesters'

 

 

chrysanthemumcflo1carinatumwikimediacommons

18 x
(45 x )

Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Convolvulus tricolor e.g.
'Royal Ensign'

 

 

convolvuluscflo2tricolorwikimediacommons

18 x
(45 x )

Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coreopsis verticillata
 

Tickseed

 

coreopsiscfor1verticillatamoonbeamgarnonswilliams

24 x
(60 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dictamnus albus
 

Burning bush, dittany

 

White

36 x
(90 x )

Deciduous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Echinops ritro

Globe thistle

 

Steel-blue to purple

42 x
(105 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eremurus robustus
 

Foxtail lily, desert candle

 

Pink

96 x
(240 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eryngium alpinum

 

 

Purple-blue

24 x
(60 x )

Herbaceous Per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fremont-odendron californicum

Flannel bush, fremontia

 

fremontodendroncflos1californicumkevock

120 x
(300 x )

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

CL

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer platanoides 'Drummondii'

Silver Variegated Norway Maple

Mar

Yellow

400-600 x 200-400
(1000-1500 x 500-1000)

Deciduous Tree

Screening. Dark green lobed leaves with a creamy varie-gated margin turn orange in autumn.

 

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

LS

 

M

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

SP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer negundo var violaceum

Box Elder, Ash-leaved Maple

Mar-Apr

Purple-Pink

320-480 x 160-320
(800-1200 x 400-800)

Deciduous Tree

Light green foliage becomes golden-yellow in autumn. Grow as speciman.

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer pseudo-platanus 'Brilliant-issimum'

Sycamore maple

 

Green-ish-yellow

1200 x 960
(3000 x 2400)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer saccharinum

Silver Maple, river maple, soft maple, white maple

 

 

1200 x 960
(3000 x 2400)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesculus pavia (Aesculus splendens)

Red buckeye

 

Crim-son

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alnus glutinosa

Black Alder, Common alder

 

Male and female Catkins

720 x 410 (1800 x 1000)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula utilis
var. jacquemontii

Hima-layan birch, white-bark

 

 

 

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Greenpeace'

Box (columnar)

 

 

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carpinus betulus

Common Hornbeam, European hornbeam

 

Yellow catkins

960 x 720 (2400 x 1800)

Deciduous tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catalpa bignonioides 'Aurea'

Golden Indian bean tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cercis siliquastrum f. albida

White Judas tree

 

White

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornus controversa

Wedding cake tree

 

White

720 x 180 (1800 x 1500)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crataegus
crus-galli

Cockspur thorn

 

White

360 x 420 (900 x 1000)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crataegus laevigata 'Crimson Cloud'

English Hawthorn, may, white thorn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crataegus laevigata
'Paul's Scarlet'

English Hawthorn, may, white thorn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crataegus persimilis 'Prunifolia'
(Crataegus x prunifolia)

Hawthorn

 

White

240 x 300 (600 x 800)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carpinus betulus

Hornbeam

 

Yellow catkins

960 x 720 (2400 x 1800

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eucalyptus dalrympleana

Mountain gum, white gum

 

White

1440 x 420 (3600 x 1000)

Evergreen Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eucalyptus parvifolia
(Eucalyptus parvula)

Small-leaved gum

 

White

180-300 x 120-240 (450-800 x 300-600)

Evergreen Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cedrus
atlantica Glauca group

Atlantic cedar, Atlas cedar

 

 

 

Conifer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cedrus deodara

Deodar, deodar cedar

 

 

2400 x 360 (6000 x 900)

Conifer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cedrus libani

Cedar of Lebanon

 

 

1800 x 1080
(4500 x 2700)

Conifer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cupressus sempervirens Stricta group

Cypress

 

 

 

Conifer

Very narrow form

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chimonanthus praecox
(Chimonan-
thus fragrans, Merata praecox)

Winter-sweet, Japanese allspice

 

Yellow

144 x 120 (350 x 300)

Deciduous Shrub

Winter Flowering Shrub
from Plants recommended for Alkaline Soils in Chalk and Limestone Gardening by Sarah Coles (ISBN 1 86126 738 X)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornus alba 'Siberica'

 

 

Cream

 

Deciduous Shrub
Glowing coral-red stems

Winter flowering shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornus mas

Corn-elian cherry

 

Yellow

300 x 240 (800 x 600)

Deciduous Shrub

Winter flowering shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coronilla valentina glauca 'Citrina'

 

 

Pale yellow

 

Evergreen Shrub

Winter flowering shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daphne bholua

 

 

 

 

 

Winter flowering shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergii 'Aurea'

Japanese barberry

 

 

 

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its Foliage
from Plants recommended for Alkaline Soils in Chalk and Limestone Gardening by Sarah Coles (ISBN 1 86126 738 X)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpuea Superba'

Japanese barberry

 

 

 

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergii 'Harlequin'

Japanese barberry

 

 

 

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Choisya ternata 'Sundance'

Mexican orange blossom

 

 

 

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornus controversa 'Variegata'

Wedding cake tree

 

 

 

 

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corylus avellana
'Aurea'

Golden hazel

 

 

 

Deciduous Tree

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cotinus coggygria
(Rhus cotinus)

Smoke bush, Venetian sumach

 

Bronze-pink

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple'

Purple smoke bush

 

Bronze-pink

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Oleaster, russian olive

 

Fra-grant yellow-ish

300 x 240 (800 x 600)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elaeagnus 'Quicksilver'

 

 

 

 

 

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold'

 

 

 

 

 

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Silver Queen'

 

 

 

 

 

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fatsia japonica
(Aralia japonica, Aralia sieboldii)

Fatsia, japanese aralia

 

Creamy-white

72-144 x 72-144
(180-350 x 180-350)

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cercis canadensis 'Forest Pansy'

 

 

Pink

 

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub for its foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer
from Plants recommended for Alkaline Soils in Chalk and Limestone Gardening by Sarah Coles (ISBN 1 86126 738 X)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleja alternifolia

Fountain buddleja

 

Frag-rant mauve

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleja
davidii 'Dark Knight'

Butter-fly bush

 

Frag-rant mauve

120-204 x 204
(300-500 x 500)

Deciduous tree

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleja globosa

Orange ball tree

 

Scented, orange-yellow

216 x 216 (540 x 540)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calycanthus floridus

Carolina Allspice, straw-berry Shrub

 

Frag-rant red to dark red-brown

120 x 84 (300 x 200)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carpenteria californica

Tree Anemone

 

White

96 x 96 (240 x 240)

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Choisya ternata

Mexican orange blossom

 

Frag-rant white

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cistus ladanifer

Gum cistus, ladanum

 

White with a brown-ish crimson blotch

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colletia hystrix
(Colletia armata'

 

 

Scen-ted white

120-180 x 120-180 (300-450 x 300-450)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daphne x burkwoodii

Burk-wood daphne

 

Frag-rant pink

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daphne mezereum

February daphne, mezereon

 

 

48 x 36
(120 x 90)

Deciduous Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PS

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daphne odora 'Aureo-marginata'
Daphne odora 'Variegata')

 

 

 

 

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelia x grandiflora

Glossy abelia

 

Perf-umed mauve-pink

72 x 72 (180 x 180 )

Evergreen Shrub

Shrub with Fragrant Flowers in Summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soil over chalk and limestone is almost invariably alkaline (Limey). It is usually fairly fertile, but can be shallow and consequently dries out quickly. In such cases, use drought-tolerant plants, such as ones that grow in dry soil conditions (see plants in the Dry section of the Moisture column of the soil type, aspect and moisture list page).


Sources of further information:-

  • Chalk and Limestone Gardening by Sarah Coles (ISBN 1 86126 738 X) shows how to improve the soil and which plants flourish on alkaline soils - chalk and clay.
  • Ferguson's Garden Plant Directory by Nicola Ferguson (ISBN 0 330 26594 6) shows which plants flourish on alkaline soils - shallow soil on chalk.
  • Acid soil is most common in places that experience heavy rainfall and have moister environments.
  • Find Me Plants has further details on other plants for alkaline soils, when you set Soil ph in Part 1: Surveying the planting area to Alkaline (chalky) soil, and then click on Search Now.
  • Plants for Chalky Soils from Royal Horticultural Society.

 

Action to assist in Chalk soil maintenance:-

  • Mulch the beds with a 4 inch (100mm) deep layer of Spent Mushroom Compost to improve fertility and drainage; preferably in the Autumn in between the existing plants, and top it up each year after that. This will stop the chalk soil from drying out through the action of sun and wind on its surface, and it will provide carbon to aid in soil formation and fertility. It should also prevent the annual weeds from germinating - use a hoe just below the surface of the mulch each fortnight during the spring, summer and autumn to cut through the roots of new weeds.
  • If starting a new lawn or bed, rotovate the wet chalk soil, add the 4 inch layer of Spent Mushroom Compost mulch and rotovate that in. Heel and rake the ground for a new turf (or to be seeded) lawn, before laying or seeding it. Insert plants in new bed, before installing the irrigation system and then applying a 4 inch layer of this mulch on top of it.
  • Mow the existing lawn closely before spreading a 1/4 inch (6mm) deep layer of any Top Dressing (Kiln dried Top Dressing is easier to spread, both that and sand is available from Gardenscape in small bags or in 1 tonne bags) over it, starting in late April. Repeat this each month until July for one season. This will improve the fertility of the lawn by providing silica in the form of sand together with 20% of it as loam (See What is Soil Texture Page in the Soil Section for further details). The combination of the sand with the loam can provide the quartz grains and perhaps some clay in the loam and use the bacterium in the ground to aid the soil structure (See What is Soil Structure). Spreading the same depth of sand on the flower/vegetable beds at the same time would also be beneficial for the soil structure.

 

Chalky Soil is Alkaline on the pH scale.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Created New Page structure and Pages before information added to those new pages. May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Extra plants added November 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Perryhill Nurseries sells Plants for a Purpose in these lists:-


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Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Flower Arranging Use List, Attracts Birds and Butterflies List, Honey Bee Forage Plants List and Rabbit-resistant List.

Use the following Index to see if the plant mentioned in the remainder of this table is actually detailed in this website:-
Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
 

 

 

Flower Shape

 

 

 

DK Pocket Encyclopedia , Flower Arranging by Malcolm Hillier (ISBN 0-86318-434-0) is a complete practical guide with:-

  • Photographic flower guide. It has colour-by-colour and season-by-season, fully illustrated catalogues of the fresh and dried flowers, leaves, seed heads and fruits that can be used.
  • Tips and Techniques. There is step-by-step professional guidance on preparation of plant material for fresh flower arranging for every occasion, as well as for drying and preserving.
  • Principles of Design. A guide to composition, colour and texture in flower arranging that will help you develop your own style.

The following plants can be used for flower arranging:-

Buddleia
Ceanothus
Choisya ternata (Mexican Orange Blossom)
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Delphinium
Eryngium (Sea Holly)
Geraniums (Cranesbill)
Helichrysum
Hypericum
Iris
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Rosmarinus
Solidago (Golden Rod)
Spiraea
 

Number of Petals

Petal-Less

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The small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

clematiscfloalbaluxuriansgarnonswilliams

Their is 4 to 8 Sepals for Clematis flowers instead of 4 to 8 Petals and so are Petal-less Clusters of stamens and Sepals (Clematis 'Alba Luxurians').

1

A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos bipinnatus - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

2

3

irisflotpseudacorus

An arrangement of 6 segments arranged in 2 whorls, the inner whorl of 3 petals arranged in an equilateral triangle constricted at the base by the 3 outer segments, the sepals (Iris pseuda-corus).

 

Other examples in Lily and Iris Families.

4

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Cross-shaped (Cruciform) - A flower with four petals at right angles to one another (Aethionema armenum). Typical of members of the Cabbage Family (Brassi-caceae).
Some fuchsia also have 4 petals.

An arrange-ment of eight segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 4 Petals arranged in a cross constricted at the base by the 4 outer segments, the sepals (Veronica pectinata 'Rosea').

 

The following plants have scented flowers:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Ceanothus
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Galanthus
Galanthus nivalis (Common Snowdrop)
Iris
Iris foetidissima (Stinking Iris)
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Muscari (Grape Hyacinth)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Phlox (Alpine)
Polygonum (Knotweed)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
Verbena
 

5

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

An arrange-ment of ten segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 5 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 5 outer segments, the sepals - Anemone x hybrida.

Buttercups, wild rose, larkspur, columbine (aquilegia), and pinks also have 5 petals

6 or more Petals or Tepals

anemonecflo1blandafoord

An arrange-ment of twelve segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 6 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 6 outer segments, the sepals - sepals form the outer protection of the flower in bud (Anemone blanda).

 

On many plants, the number of petals is a Fibon-acci number (0, 1, 1, 2, 3 , 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,610, 987):

  • Some delpiniums have 8,
  • corn marigolds, ragwort, cineraria, some daisies have 13,
  • some asters, black-eyed susan, chicory have 21,
  • plantain, pyrethrum have 34
  • michaelmas daisies and the asteraceae family have 55 or 89 petals
  • some daisies have 34, 55 or even 89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

Sun Aspect, Soil Type, Soil Moisture, Plant Type and Height of Plant are used in the Plant Photo Galleries in the comparison of thumbnail photos

 

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Plants required for different garden sites:-

  • Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
  • Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
  • Back of Shady Border
  • Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
  • Bee Pollinated Plant instead of wind-pollinated plant. This prevents the pollen from being blown into faces of hay fever sufferers.
    Bloom per Month
    Blooms Nov-Feb
    Blooms Mar-May
    Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
    Blooms Sep-Oct

    0-24 inches
    (0-60 cms)
    24-72 inches
    (60-180 cms)
    Above 72 inches
    (180 cms)
  • Bog Garden requires plants that prefer water in the soil round their roots.
  • Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.
  • Crevice Garden
  • Containers in Garden
  • Dust and Pollution Barrier 1, 2 - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
  • Edibles in Containers
  • Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.
  • Hanging Basket
  • Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
  • Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
  • Trees for Lawns
  • Trees for Small Garden
  • Windbreak - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
  • Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.
    The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-
    • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
    • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
    • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
    • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

      Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

      Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

      The groundcover list is sorted in the following pages under the following height of plant range:-
      Below 2 feet (24 inches = 60 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 1 Page
      Between 2 and 6 feet (24 - 72 inches = 60-180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 2 Page
      Above 6 feet (72 inches = 180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 3 Page

 

 

In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape:

Simple

Stars
 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

Stars - Stellate (Star-shaped) is a flower with many narrow petals arising separately from a central point (Anthericum liliago).

Another example is Sisyrinchium bermudianum album.

Bowls
 

Many flowers have centrally positioned sexual organs surrounded by petals and sepals that curve upwards. Doubling of the segments is common, notably roses.

Bowl-shaped - A flower with a deep dish shape, roughly hemi-spherical, with straight sides or with a very slight flare at the tips. Much the same as cup-shaped. An example is Argemone mexicana.

Cups and Saucers

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1

Saucer-shaped - A flower that is almost flat, with slightly upturned petal tips (Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina').

Another example is Geranium wallichianum.

Globes


paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a

Globe-shaped - Incurved petals that give the flowers a globular form. (Paeonia mlokose-witschii with its lemon-yellow globes, filled with yellow stamens).

Goblets and Chalices

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Goblet-shaped - Flowers such as magnolias are defined by long tapering stems, outlines that are subtly waisted and incurved petals. They suggest vessels of quality. Example of Magnolia grandiflora.

Chalice-shaped - Escallonia 'Apple Blossom' has small chalice-shaped flowers in summer and autumn.

 

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.

A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.

The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.

Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

Trumpets

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

Trumpet-shaped - A flower that starts as a narrow tube, but widens into a flared mouth, where the petals often turn back (Acantholimon glumaceum).

Another example is Petunia grandiflora.

Funnels

stachysflotmacrantha1

Funnel-shaped - A flower that widens gradually from the base, ending in an open or flared shape (Stachys macrantha) .

Salverform

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

Salverform - A flower with a long, thin tube, that widens suddenly into a flat-faced flower (Phlox subulata 'Temis-kaming').

Bells

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Bell-shaped (Campan-ulate) - A flower with a wide tube and flared lobes (petal tips), typical of the Bellflower family (Campan-ulaceae). The length of the tube is variable, and the open-ness of the flower, but campan-ulate is generally shorter and fatter than tubular, and more closed than stellate. An example is Campanula cochlear-ifolia pusilla.

Thimbles

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1

The bell or thimble is open-mouthed, but in the heaths (Erica) and others there is a graduation from fully open bells to urn shapes that are constricted at the mouth.

Thimble-shaped - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed tube, separating at the mouth into flared recurved back petals. An example is Clematis rehderiana.

Urns

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a

Urn-shaped (Urceolate) - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed globe shape, separating at the mouth into individual flared petals. An example is Erica carnea 'Springwood White'.

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

How to Grow Bonsai from Mrs Green Fingers with her Ideas and Advice for your Garden with Amazon selling Flower Genades

 

 

Flower Shape:
Elaborated

 

Higgledy Garden sells seeds which are chosen for the cut flower patch with Growing Guides, Seed Sowing Guide and Ben's Blog

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

Tubes

kniphofiaflottriangularis

Many radially symetretrical flowers are tubular, opening at the mouth to a ring of lobes that are often petal-like.

Tubular - A flower with a long, thin, straight-sided tube formed of united petals, often separating at the mouth into a flared shape (Raoulia australis).

Another example is a Kniphofia hybrid.

Lipped

antirrhinummajusflot9

Flowers that are symetrical in only one plane, as is the case with a large number that are lipped, usually have intriguing shapes, the origin of which is a snug adaptation to a particular pollinator.

Lipped (Labiate) - A flower divided into an upper 'hood' and a lower flat or pouched lip (Prunella grandiflora), typical of members of the Deadnettle/Mint Family (Lamiaceae).

Another example is Salvia texensis.

Strap

prunellaflotgrandiflora

Strap-shaped (Ligulate) - A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

Slippers

salviaflotcblackandblue

Slipper - Flowers described as slipper-shaped (Salvia Black and Blue) are pouched and inflated traps for pollinators.

Spurs

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

Spurs - Plants evolve nectar spurs to match the tongue-lengths of the pollinators. Then the process stops, and only starts again when there is a change in pollinators. Whittall and Hodges proved this idea by testing the columbine genus Aquilegia (Aquilegia formosa), which is pollinated by bumblebees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths. They found that most of the columbines' nectar spur length evolution happened during shifts in pollinators from bumble-bees to humming-birds, and from humming-birds to hawkmoths. In between these shifts, evolution of the columbines' nectar spurs came to a halt.

 

Explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked."

Lockets

dicentraflotformosavaralba1

Locket - The elaborate locket shape of dicentra flowers (Dicentra scandens) is conveyed by these common names - Bleeding Heart, Dutchman's Breeches, Lady's Locket, Lyre Flower.

Hat or Hood

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

Some plants have flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans. Usually the hood or helmet is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower.

Hat or Hood - flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. The hood is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower. (Acanthus spinosus is hooded by purple bracts)

Helmet

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

Helmet - Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans, such as Lilium martagon.

Disc

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Disc - Many daisies are easy to grow and very free-flowering. The typical colour contrast between the disc and the surround-ing rays creates a lively effect (Argyran-themum 'Maderia Santana'). Many daisies are excellent cut flowers.

Floret

heleniumautumnaleflot9

Floret - Floret is a small or reduced flower, especially 1 of a cluster in a composite flower - such as the florets of a sunflower (The very small flowers in a ring inside the yellow petals of Helianthus annuus). It is also any of the tight, branched clusters of flower buds that together form a head of cauliflower or broccoli.

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

"Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil."

Standards, Wings and Keels

Standards, Wings and Keels - Many members of the pea family are highly ornamental, having 5-petalled flowers of butterfly shape, with an upright standard, 2 lateral wings and 2 petals, more or less fused, that form a keel.

Pea-shaped (Papilionaceous) - The flower shape typical of members of the Papilionaceae, having a large upper petal called the standard, two large side petals called wings, and two lower petals, often fused together, called the keel, which encloses the stamens and stigma. This example is Cytisus 'Lena'

Another example is Lathyrus latifolius.

and another; shown below; is
Laburnum watereri 'Vossii'

Laburnumwaterivossii

Pincushions

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1

Pincushions - The pincushions of plants such as scabious (Scabiosa columbaria from BritishFlora) are in reality compound flowerheads, with a dome of central florets surrounded by larger florets.

Tufts

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Tufts - The flowerheads of many knapweeds (Greater Knapweed) and

thistles (Melancholy Thistle) consist of Tufty Florets,

Petal-less - but the small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

Cushion

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

Cushion - The Cushions of plants such as Androsace delavayi are compound rosettes of foliage with flowers just above each rosette.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a1

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Umbel

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Umbel - Umbel is where each of the pedicels initiates from about the same point at the tip of the peduncle, giving the appearance of an umbrella-like shape (Androsace bulleyana).

Button

argyranthemumflocmadeiracrestedyellow1

Double flowers play a dominant role in the modern garden. Whether neatly layered, fancifully flamboyant or simply quaint, double flowers create opulent effects in gardens and also in arrangements of cut flowers.

Button - Button is a double flower (Argyranthemum 'Maderia Crested').

Pompom

agapanthusflosafricanusbluekevock1

Pompom - Pompom is the small globelike flower head of certain cultivated varieties of dahlia and chrysanthemum (Agapanthus africanus blue).

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

Natural Arrangements

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.
 

Flower Perfume
Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose,
Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope,
Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like,
Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay,
Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

Sprays

acantholimonflos2venustumfoord1

Spray - Flowers on a stem either as a group along a flower stem or congregated along branch stems (Acantholimon venustum).

Saxifraga cotyledon also belongs to this group.

Bunch

astrantiafflosmajorkevock

Bunch - Bunched cluster of more than 1 flower - each flower at end of its own stem (Astrantia major).

Posy - A small bunch of flowers.

Plume

astilberheinlandpforcoblands

The most theatrical of natural arrangements are those on upright stems that suggest plumes and bushy tails. Some of the perennials amongst these are very tall and make powerful accents in the garden, but they have a grace and looseness that suggest free spirits rather than fixed sentinels.

Plumes - Astilbe 'Rheinland' has tiny flowers gathered together into plumes. Photo from Coblands.

Bushy Tail

eremuruscflo2018bungeifoord

Bushy Tail - The inflorescence looks similar to a long spike or a bottlebrush and consists of many flowers. Example of Eremurus bungei (Foxtail Lily) - photo taken by Mrs Foord.

Column

galtoniacflocandicansgarnonswilliams

Column - Euphorbia characias forms impressive clumps of densely set with narrowly blue-grey leaves and culminating in massive columnar heads of Lime Green flowers.

Spire

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock

Spire - Perovskia 'Blue Spire' is stiff-stemmed with grey-green leaves topped by airy spires of small tubular flowers.

Spike

ajugafforreptansatropurpurea1

Spike - Flowers on spikes create a higher vertical flower element to provide more variety in your border (Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'). Others without photo -
Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow'
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Arctic Fox'
Ajuga reptans 'Valfredda'.

Another example of a Spike of flowers is Digitalis x mertonensis.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a1

Older juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a1

Whorl

Some plants have flowers grouped in a circular arrangement, either at the tips of stems or in a series of tiers, as in the Candelabra primulas. Much more like the familiar candelabrum shape are several bold perennials and biennials with flowers arranged on branching stems.

Whorl - Monarda hybrids develop a base of aromatic pointed leaves, from which rise square stems carrying terminal whorls of hooded sage-like flowers. Monarda 'Croftway Pink' is a clump-forming herbaceous perennial to 90cm in height, with aromatic, lance-shaped leaves and terminal whorls of two-lipped, clear pink flowers 5cm in length.

Tier

lamiumflotorvala1

Tier - Morina longifolia makes a rosette of spiny leaves and produces spikes of waxy flowers arranged in several tiers of whorls.

Candelabra - The Candelabra primulas are perennial species and hybrids characterized by the way they carry their flowers in a series of whorls on upright stems.

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

Middle-aged Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

 

Chain

Flowers arranged in hanging chains and tassels are sometimes curious. The magnificient chains of wisteria, the flowers arranged spirally on a trailing stem, need to be seen hanging free, and no climbers are more deserving of a large-scale pergoda.

Chain - The common name golden rain, often given to the 2 species of laburnums and their hybrid, refers to the dangling chains of yellow pea flowers produced by these deciduous trees in late spring or early summer. Laburnum x watereri 'Vossii' is a free-flowering form noted for its trailing sprays, which can be as much as 50cms / 20 inches long.

Tassel

amaranthuscfloscaudatuswikimediacommons

Above photo from Wikimedia Commons.
Tassel - Amaranthus caudatus (Love-lies-bleeding) produces curious chenille-like tassels, up to 60cms /2 feet long, that dangle from the stems in summer and early autumn. These are composed of tiny crimson-purple flowers. See photo from Cool Tropical Plants.

Form of Rose Bush

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you do not look at all the photos of that rose in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

Sphere

agapanthusbressinghambluepfloscoblands

Sphere - Agapanthus 'Bressingham Blue' has spherical umbels on tall stems.

Dome

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigepforrvroger

Dome - Flowers clustered at end of flower stem in a dome shape (Achillea chrysocoma) with another example - shown above - of dome shape (Achillea ptarmica 'Boule de Neige').

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

Plate

achilleapforapfelblutervroger1

Plate - dense, flat-topped, terminal flower clusters in plates (Achillea 'Appleblossom' - Achillea 'Apfelblute').

Cloud

prunuscflos2018shirotaecoblands

The weightless mass of spring blossom, particularly that of flowering cherries, ranks among the most generous displays the garden can produce. Lax plants loaded with flowers garland man-made and living supports. Some plants that flower generously seem more earthbound, the flowers lying in sheets or falling in tiered cascades.

Cloud - The clouds of blossom produced by the ornamental cherries provides a relatively brief but spectacular billowing spring display. The Prunus 'Shirotae' is a wide-spreading small tree with somewhat drooping branches, which carry masses of snowy single or semi-double fragrant flowers in mid-spring. Photo from Coblands.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 


Plants:
Honey Bee Forage
Plants List

See further details in
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct


Plants:
Attracts birds
and Butterflies List

The Butterfly Gallery provides photos of butterflies with their egg, caterpillar and chrysalis stages. It also shows which plants they use/eat in their life-cycle.


Plants:
Rabbit-resistant List

 

Honey Bees with its Plants: Honey Bee Forage Plants List

So, how can I feed the bees if I have no soil in my garden?

  • You could start with a sedum roof covering for a DIY green roof on a flat roof of a house, garage, carport, on a roof which is not more than 20 degrees from horizontal, or on top of hardstanding which is at ground level. There are benefits in using a sedum roof covering with solar panels on those flat roofs as well.
  • Then, there is no reason why you could not have Green Walls as well.

You could then progress to Rootop Gardens with a bench and bin from Amerol, which may require a further strengthening of the supporting structure to carry the potential extra weight:-

If you do not fancy putting plants on the walls or your roof, then you could have a series of window box gardens and Balcony gardens using self-watering planters and boxes from Amberol.

If you have the room in the hardstanding round your property then why not use a series from the Planter Enhancement Range from Amberol. These are easy to work on - even if you are in a wheelchair or otherwise infirm - and they could still then provide flowers for the bees to use.

Using a smaller diameter planterware from Amerol inside a larger diameter plastic one, you can have a rock garden in your conservatory using Amberol plastic rocks. Drill a few holes in the smaller diameter planterware about 2 inches (5 cms) from its base to allow for drainage. Put 3 pot feet under the inside pot to separate it from the base of the outer pot. Irrigate the inner pot and if there is too much water, then that will flow though the holes of the inner pot into the outer pot. If you see that, then empty the outer pot. Since the pots are made of plastic and the pot feet from rubber, there will be nothing to rot; and light to handle as well

clematismontanaontrellisfoord

Garland

Garland - Clematis montana garlands walls, fences, pergolas, arbours and large trees with clusters of flowers bursting from every joint. Photo from Mrs Foord.

 

Cascade

Cascade - Arching stems with flowers clustered all along its length.

 

Butterflies with its Plants: Attracts birds and Butterflies List

The Country Diary Book of Creating a Butterfly Garden by E.J.M. Warren (ISBN 0-86350-203-2) is a practical guide to planning and creating a butterfly garden.

Some suggestions for wildlife friendly gardening:-

  • No herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, slug - snail - worm or mole chemical killers, or lawndressings with their weed and worm killers, or poisonous chemicals of any kind whatsoever are ever to be used.
  • Plant everything in masses, never in single plants.
  • Plant flowers of one colour rather than mixed colours.
  • Plant single flowers rather than double ones.
  • Plant medium to pale-coloured flowers rather than dark ones.
  • Plant flowers fairly close together, thus leaving less room for weeds.
  • Save water by mulching the bed with 4 inch (100mm or 1 brick depth) deep organic compost in the autumn. Either use Spent Mushroom Compost for alkaline (chalk) soils or Forest Bark with sterilized bone-meal for acid soils as the Organic Compost.
  • Feed with liquid seaweed manure (Maxicrop) or seaweed meal on lawns and beds each year.

Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe by D. Carter (ISBN 0-330-26642-x) lists their favourite food plants.

The following plants attract butterflies:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
 

The following plants attract birds:-

Aster (Michaelmas Daisy)
Aucuba
Aucuba japonica
Berberis (Barberry)
Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Cotoneaster
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Hypericum
Papaver (Poppy)
Papaver nudicaule (Iceland Poppy)
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Ruscus
Ruscus aculeatus (Butchers Broom)
Sambucus (Elder)

 

Rabbits with its Plants: Rabbit-resistant List

Rabbits are a serious problem in many rural gardens and in some urban ones as well.

The only way of stopping them eating your plants is to have a rabbit-resistant fence round your entire garden. A trench 1 foot deep (300mm) and 1 foot across should be dug out along the outside of the proposed fence. 0.9 metre wide with 13mm mesh galvanized wire net should be placed down the vertical 1 foot trench side where the fence posts are located and also laid 1 foot across the bottom of the trench away from your garden before the remaining 300mm is attached to the posts above the ground level. The trench should then be refilled either with the earth that came out of it or with Type I Roadstone and compacted. Another roll of 0.9 metre wide with 13mm mesh galvanized wire net should then be attached to the fence posts and overlap the first one by 6" (150mm). To make sure that they do not jump over the resulting fence, put barbed wire or razor wire on the top of the fence.

A rabbit tends to eat the bark of trees/shrubs close to the ground. If it succeeds in eating a strip of bark and the cambium layer underneath all the way round the main trunk, then the tree/shrub above will die. Late Winter/Spring is the time when the young are being produced and mum wants some extra material to help her!!!

Humane traps are available but gardeners have reported that the following plants do show some resistance, especially when mature.

The rabbit-resistant plant list is sorted in the following table under the following height of plant range:-


below 24 inches (60 cms) in height
between 24 and 72 inches (60 - 180 cms) in height
above 72 inches (180 cms) in height
* in the Height column indicates no entry in Plant Name pages
 

 

The Rabbit Welfare Association & Fund (RWAF) has existed since 1996 and is the combined effort of the Rabbit Welfare Association and its charity partner, the Rabbit Welfare Fund, working to improve the lives of domestic rabbits across the UK through education and communication by making people realise that rabbits are intelligent creatures that need space, exercise, companionship and stimulation and are not to be bought on a whim.

Sadly, despite being the third most popular pets in Britain, rabbits are still one of the most neglected domestic animals.

A huge proportion of rabbits live out their days in a small hutch with little or no exercise, or are unwanted and discarded onto rescue centres that are already bursting at the seams. Most cases of cruelty and neglect towards rabbits are out of ignorance; people often don't realise they are doing anything wrong because they haven’t done enough research into rabbit care and wellbeing before choosing to buy a pet rabbit.

As well as being an animal welfare agency, the RWAF also offers members the support needed to give their rabbits the best lives possible and have a huge wealth of experience to share with you.

The RHS has compiled this list of plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:-

Compiled by Andrew Halstead, RHS Principal Entomologist

 

WINTER

NOV – FEB

Clematis cirrhosa a clematis
Crocus tommasinianus a crocus
Crocus vernus a crocus
Eranthis hyemalis Winter aconite
× Fatshedera lizei
Galanthus nivalis Snowdrops - single flowered forms
Helleborus argutifolius a hellebore
Helleborus foetidus Native plant - Stinking hellebore
Helleborus × hybridus a hellebore
Helleborus × sternii a hellebore
Lonicera × purpusii a honeysuckle
Mahonia × media
Salix aegyptiaca a willow
Sarcococca hookeriana a winter box
Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna a winter box
Sarcococca humilis a winter box
Viburnum tinus Laurustinus

SPRING

MAR–MAY

Acer campestre Native plant. Field maple
Acer platanoides Norway maple
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore
Acer saccharum Sugar maple
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut
Ajuga reptans Native plant. Bugle
Arabis alpina subsp, caucasica Arabis
Aubrieta deltoidea Aubrieta
Aurinia saxatilis Alyssum
Berberis darwinii
Berberis thunbergii
Buxus sempervirens Native plant Box
Caltha palustris Native plant. Marsh marigold
Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree
Chaenomeles japonica a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles speciosa a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles x superba a Japanese quince
Cheiranthus cheiri Wallflower
Cornus mas Cornelian cherry
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Crocus spp & cultivars Crocus (various)
Doronicum x excelsum Leopard’s bane
Enkianthus campanulatus
Erica carnea a heath
Erica x darleyensis a heath
Euphorbia characias a spurge
Euphorbia polychroma a spurge
Geranium phaeum Dusky cranesbill
Hebe spp & cultivars
Helleborus x hybridus a hellebore
Iberis saxatilis a candytuft
Iberis sempervirens Perennial candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Lamium maculatum a dead nettle
Lunaria annua Honesty
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape
Malus baccata a crab apple
Malus domestica edible apples
Malus floribunda a crab apple
Malus hupehensis a crab apple
Malus ‘John Downie’ a crab apple
Malus sargentii a crab apple
Mespilus germanica Medlar
Muscari armeniacum Grape hyacinth
Ornithogalum umbellatum Star of Bethlehem
Pieris formosa
Pieris japonica
Primula vulgaris Native plant. Primrose
Prunus ‘Accolade’ a flowering cherry
Prunus avium Native plant. Wild and edible cherries
Prunus domestica Edible plum
Prunus dulcis Almond
Prunus incisa ‘Kojo-no-mai’ a flowering cherry
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel
Prunus mume a flowering cherry
Prunus padus Native plant. Bird cherry
Prunus pendula var. ascendens ‘Rosea’ a flowering cherry
persica Peach/nectarine
Prunus spinosa Native plant. Blackthorn/sloe
Prunus tenella a flowering cherry
Prunus x yedoensis a flowering cherry
Pulmonaria angustifolia a lungwort
Pulmonaria saccharata a lungwort
Pyrus communis Pear
Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant
Ribes rubrum Red/white currant
Ribes sanguineum Flowering currant
Salix caprea Native plant. Goat Willow - male form, not female
Salix hastata ‘Wehrhahnii’ a willow
Salix lanata a willow
Skimmia japonica
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders
Stachyurus chinensis
Stachyurus praecox
Taraxacum officinale Native plant. Dandelion
Vaccinium cory

SUMMER

JUNE – AUG

Achillea filipendulina a yarrow
Actaea japonica a baneberry
Aesculus indica Indian horse chestnut - resistant to leaf-mining moth
Aesculus parviflora Buckeye
Agastache foeniculum
Ageratum houstonianum Floss flower
Alcea rosea (Althaea rosea) Hollyhock single-flowered forms
Allium aflatunense an ornamental onion
Allium christophii an ornamental onion
Allium giganteum an ornamental onion
Allium nutans an ornamental onion
Allium schoenoprasum Chive
Amberboa moschata Sweet sultan
Anchusa azurea
Anchusa capensis
Angelica archangelica Angelica
Angelica gigas Giant angelica
Angelica sylvestris Native plant. Wild angelica
Anthemis tinctoria Golden marguerite
Antirrhinum majus Snapdragon
Aquilegia spp. Columbine
Aruncus dioicus Goatsbeard
Asparagus officinalis Vegetable asparagus
Astrantia major
Borago officinalis Borage
Buddleja davidii Butterfly bush
Buddleja globosa Orange ball tree
Calamintha nepeta subsp. Nepeta Catmint
Calendula officinalis Marigold - single-flowered forms
Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii Beauty berry
Callistephus chinensis Open-centred forms
Calluna vulgaris Native plant. Ling heather
Campanula carpatica a bellflower
Prunus
mbosum Blueberry
Campanula glomerata Native plant. Clustered bellflower
Campanula medium Canterbury bells
Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaved bellflower
Campsis radicans Trumpet vine
Caryopteris × clandonensis
Catalpa bignonioides Indian bean tree
Centaurea atropurpurea
Centaurea cyanus Native plant. Cornflower
Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea macrocephala
Centaurea montana
Centaurea nigra Native plant. Hard head knapweed
Centaurea scabiosa Native plant. Great knapweed
Centranthus ruber Red valerian
Centratherum intermedium Brazilian button
Cerinthe major ‘Purpurascens’ Honeywort
Cheiranthus × allionii Siberian wallflower
Clarkia elegans Single-flowered forms
Clematis vitalba Native plant. Old man’s beard/Traveller’s joy
Convolvulus tricolor Annual bindweed
Coreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis tinctoria
Coreopsis verticillata
Cornus alba Red-barked dogwood
Cosmos bipinnatus
Cotoneaster horizontalis Herringbone cotoneaster
Cotoneaster microphyllus Small-leaved cotoneaster
Crambe cordifolia a sea kale
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Cucurbita pepo Marrow/courgette
Cuphea ignea Cigar flower
Cynara cardunculus Cardoon
Dahlia Dahlia Open centred flower forms, eg ‘Amazone’, ‘Moonfire’
Dianthus barbatus Sweet William
Dictamnus albus Burning bush
Digitalis purpurea Native plant. Foxglove
Dipsacus fullonum Native plant. Teasel
Echinacea purpurea Coneflower
Echinops bannaticus a globe thistle
Echinops ritro a globe thistle
Echinops setifer a globe thistle
Echium vulgare Native plant. Viper’s bugloss
Elaeagnus angustifolia Oleaster
Erica cinerea Native plant. Bell heather
Erica erigena a heath
Erica vagans Native plant. Cornish heath
Erigeron spp. and hybrids Fleabane
Eryngium × tripartitum a sea holly
Eryngium alpinum a sea holly
Eryngium giganteum a sea holly/ Miss Willmott’s ghost
Eryngium planum a sea holly
Escallonia cultivars
Eschscholzia californica Californian poppy
Eupatorium cannabinum Native plant. Hemp agrimony
Eupatorium maculatum
Ferula communis Giant fennel
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
Fragaria × ananassa Strawberry
Fuchsia magellanica a hardy fuchsia
Gaillardia × grandiflora Blanket flower
Geranium pratense Native plant. Meadow cranesbill
Geranium ROZANNE =’ Gerwat’ a hardy geranium
Geum ‘Borisii’ a geum
Gilia capitata Queen Anne’s thimbles
Hebe spp. and cultivars
Helenium ‘Moerheim Beauty’
Helenium ‘Sahin’s Early Flowerer’
Helenium ‘Sonnenwunder’
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Single-flowered forms; avoid pollen-free cultivars.
Heliotropium arborescens Cherry pie/ Heliotrope
Heracleum sphondylium Native plant. Hogweed
Hesperis matronalis Sweet rocket/ Dame’s violet
Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris Climbing hydrangea
Hydrangea paniculata Cultivars with many fertile flowers
eg ‘Kyushu’, ‘Big Ben’, ‘Floribunda’, ‘Brussels Lace’
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop
Iberis amara Candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Inula ensifolia
Inula hookeri
Inula magnifica
Jasminum officinale Common jasmine
Kalmia latifolia Calico bush
Knautia arvensis Native plant. Field scabious
Knautia macedonica
Koelreuteria paniculata Golden-rain tree
Laurus nobilis Bay tree
Lavandula × intermedia a lavender
Lavatera olbia a shrubby mallow
Lavatera trimestris
Leucanthemum × superbum Open-centred flower forms
Leucanthemum vulgare Native plant. Ox-eye daisy
Ligustrum ovalifolium a privet
Ligustrum sinense a privet
Limnanthes douglasii Poached egg plant
Limonium latifolium a sea lavender
Linaria purpurea Purple toadflax
Lobularia maritima Sweet alyssum
Lonicera periclymenum Native plant. Common honeysuckle
Lychnis coronaria Rose campion
Lychnis flos-cuculi Native plant. Ragged robin
Lysimachia salicaria Native plant. Purple loosestrife
Lysimachia vulgaris Native plant. Yellow loosestrife
Lythrum virgatum ‘Dropmore Purple’ a loosestrife
Malope trifida Annual mallow
Malva moschata Native plant. Musk mallow
Matthiola incana Stock
Mentha aquatica Native plant. Water mint
Mentha spicata Garden mint
Monarda didyma Bergamot
Myosotis spp Forget-me-not
Nemophila menziesii Baby blue-eyes
Nepeta × faassenii a catmint
Nicotiana alata a tobacco
Nigella damascena Love-in-a-mist
Oenothera biennis Evening primrose
Olearia x haastii Daisy bush
Onopordum acanthium Giant thistle
Origanum ‘Rosenkuppel’ Majoram
Origanum vulgare Native plant. Majoram
Papaver orientale Oriental poppy
Papaver rhoeas Native plant. Field poppy
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy
Penstemon cultivars
Perovskia atriplicifolia
Persicaria amplexicaulis a bistort
Persicaria bistorta Native plant. a bistort
Phacelia tanacetifolia
Phaseolus coccineus Runner bean
Polemonium caeruleum Native plant. Jacob’s ladder
Potentilla fruticosa Native plant. a shrubby potentilla
Potentilla ‘Gibson’s Scarlett’
Ptelea trifoliata Hop tree
Pyracantha coccinea Firethorn
Reseda odorata Mignonette
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust/False acacia
Rosa canina Native plant. Dog rose
Rosa rubiginosa Native plant. Sweet briar rose
Rosa rugosa Hedgehog rose
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary
Rubus fruticosus Native plant and edible blackberry
Rubus idaeus Raspberry
Rudbeckia fulgida
Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia laciniata Open-centred flower forms
Salvia horminum Annual clary
Salvia nemorosa a sage
Salvia officinalis Common sage
Scabiosa caucasica Scabious
Scabiosa columbaria Native plant. Small scabious
Sedum spectabile Ice plant
Sedum telephium Native plant. Orpine
Sidalcea malviflora Checkerbloom
Solidago spp. and cultivars Golden rod
Sorbus aria Native plant. Whitebeam
Sorbus aucuparia Native plant. Mountain ash/rowan
Spiraea japonica
Stachys byzantina Lambs’ ears
Stachys macrantha
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry
Tagetes patula French marigold
Tamarix ramosissima Tamarisk
Tanacetum vulgare Native plant. Tansy
Telekia speciosa
Tetradium daniellii
Teucrium chamaedrys
Thymus serpyllum and cultivars Native plant. Wild thyme
Thymus spp. and cultivars Thyme
Tilia × europaea Common lime
Tilia cordata Native plant. Small-leaved lime
Tilia maximowicziana a lime tree
Tilia oliveri a lime tree
Tilia platyphyllos Large-leaved lime
Tilia tomentosa a lime tree
Tithonia rotundifolia Mexican sunflower
Verbascum olympicum a mullein
Verbascum thapsus Native Plant. Common mullein
Verbena × hybrida
Verbena bonariensis
Verbena rigida
Veronica longifolia
Veronicastrum virginicum
Viburnum lantana Native plant. Wayfaring tree
Viburnum opulus Native plant. Guelder rose
Vicia faba Broad bean
Weigela florida
Zauschneria californica Californian fuchsia
Zinnia elegans

AUTUMN

SEPT – OCT

Aconitum carmichaeli a monkshood
Actaea simplex Bugbane
Anemone hupehensis a japanese anemone
Anemone x hybrida a japanese anemone
Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree
Aster amellus a perennial aster
Aster ericoides f. prostratus a perennial aster
Aster koraiensis a perennial aster
Aster lateriflorus var horizontalis a perennial aster
Aster novae-angliae a Michaelmas daisy
Aster novi-belgii a Michaelmas daisy
Aster oolentangiensis a perennial aster
Aster turbinellus a perennial aster
Aster × frikartii ‘Mönch’ a perennial aster
Campanula poscharskyana a bellflower
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
Clematis heracleifolia a clematis
Colchicum spp. Autumn crocus
Dahlia cultivars Dahlia - single-flowered forms
Elaeagnus pungens
Elaeagnus × ebbingei
Fatsia japonica Japanese aralia
Hedera colchica Persian ivy
Hedera helix Native plant. Ivy
Hedera helix ‘Arborescens’
Helianthus × laetiflorus a sunflower
Leucanthemella serotina
Salvia leucantha Mexican bush
Salvia ‘Mystic Spires Blue’
Tilia henryana a lime tree - one of the last to flower

 

This table was copied from
Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay
to aid you in understanding what so called soil you are left with when a builder leaves your new home and hands it over to you, especially when this new building has been built in a new estate on reclaimed land - boys school knocked down and new buildings built on the rubble or old buildings knocked down and replaced with ones built on the rubble.
On the same Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay page you will find information on Rainwater Drainage followed by Drive Foundations. I continue to see new drives being built where the rainwater is allowed to exit down the drive to the outside road or down the drive to be collected in a drain from the roof guttering and that drain leads to the public storm drain in the road. Not only does this overload the water companies sewage system and flood other peoples homes, but because more of your land is now waterproof, then the rain cannot sink into your soil and in Medway's case be directed into the chalk and be pumped from there to your home for drinking etc. As Southern water has explained - the amount of rain that is going to fall in the Southeast of England is likely to drop by 30% within the next 30 years since we are progressing to a climate more like the south coast of France. We are building more dwellings on more land and that reduces the land for water collection, so we are going to run out of water. Fuel costs have gone up so creating desalination plants is going to be very expensive. Southern Water which provides the water for Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Surrey and Sussex is going to build one new reservoir in Havant. By 2030 these counties will not have enough water.

Case Studies Pages
Site Map

Case
1 - Prepare for Sale

2 - Structural Design
.....2a - New Garage
.....2b - Redesign for My Back Garden

 

 

3 - Drive Foundations
.....3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House and
...........there are Other Factors causing subsidence. Part
..............of solution is to use
...........Aquadyne Drainage System to transport
..............rainwater within garden area to evergreen
..............plants that can use it.

Pages about soil and why clay causes problems:-
How Soil is created with organic matter and
why Organic Matter is important to Soil?

Soil Formation combines Rock Particles, Humus, Water and Air into Soil Texture with
Soil Structure, which is the interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles. So
How is Clay created? ,
How is Humus made? and
How does Water act in the Soil?

What are the Soil Nutrients besides
the Carbon Cycle and
the Nitrogen Cycle.

What types of organisms are found in the soil? and
how do soil microbes recycle nutrients?

What Pysical changes occur in Soil because of weather? and what Chemical changes occur in Soil because of weather? leading to
how are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? with
how is material lost from the soil?

This leads to an
Action plan for you to do with your soil and

3b Pre-Building Work for Builders to treat polluted soil using phyto-remediation plants.
Perhaps after Builders have read the following section:-

item2a1

Then, they could follow my following Suggested Action Plan for Builders after they have built their houses:-
Lay the
Aquadyne Drainage System round the perimeter of the new garden areas.
Next to it then plant 1 of these Instant Hedges on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system:-

  • Screening Boundary Hedge
  • Stock Boundary Hedge
  • Thorny Barrier Hedge
  • Anti-graffiti Hedge or
  • Security Hedge

And finally on the same day pour a depth of 11 inches (27.5 cms) depth of the builders soil mixture detailed below onto the remainder of the new garden areas and alongside the Instant Hedging.

To provide a different requirement from the current plants used in the above Instant Hedges, plants for each of the following could be used instead:-

  • Thorny Hedge
  • Windbreak
  • Use as Garden Hedge
  • Use in Coastal Conditions
  • Use in Woodland Garden
  • Pollution Barrier

A fortnight later the following type of turf containing RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, could be laid over the proposed lawn areas.

The roots of that grass will reach the clay below and stabilise the new builders soil mix, before the proposed owners view the property a month later.

The builders soil mix should within 3 months become roughly the same proportion of clay, silt and sand which is within a Sandy Clay Loam to create a sweet spot for growing plants as shown on How is material lost from the soil? Page, since it will mix with the clay below.

 



4a - Garden Uses
......4b - Garden Plant Plan

5 - Wildlife Garden

6 - Vegetable Garden

7 - Repair of Concrete Pond

8 - Creation of Pond

 

Design Cases

When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.

In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!

The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.

 

Construction Cases

Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.

Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.

 

Maintenance Cases

If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.

Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system

Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.

 

 

 

 

Section below on Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them.

 

 

 

Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve them.

8 problems caused by clay:-

  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the top photos) that when it rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive, then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built. The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms) of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms) wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall. When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn. Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay Soils.
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn was laid on a clay topsoil.
    Solution-
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied
    Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.

     

 

Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.

soil11casestudies

The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly. At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5