BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map

Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery

...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Approaching the
Coast (Coastal)
.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use for Flowering Plants

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

 

 

 

 

 

DUCKWEED TO FERN WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 3

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed 1
(o)Bed 2



 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree


SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

WILDFLOWER INDEX
Botanical Name
Common Name
 

 

See current Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

See current Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names.

 

WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; then

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

A

G

M

S

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
Abura-na
Acker-Hellerkraut
Ackersenf
Adder's Tongue
Adder's-tongue Spearwort
Agriao
Alder
Alder Buckthorn
Alliare officinale
Allysum
Alpen-Gemskresse
Alpine Arctic Cudweed
Alpine Blue Sow-thistle
Alpine Clubmoss
Alpine coltsfoot
Alpine Fleabane
Alpine Forget-me-not
Alpine Lady Fern
Alpine Meadow-Rue
Alpine Penny-Cress
Alpine Rock-Cress
Alpine Sow-Thistle
Alpine Woodsia
American Bellbine
American Land-Cress
American Water Cress
American Wintercress
Annual Delpinium
Arragone
Arrow Bamboo
Asarabacca
Ash of Jerusalem
Atinian Elm
Austrian Field Cress
Austrian Yellow Cress
Autumn Hawkbit
Averill
Awlwort

Gallant Soldier
Garden Arabis
Garden Cress
Garden Golden-Rod
Garden Radish
Garlic Mustard
Garlic Pennycress
Gazon de Marie
Gemeine Nachtviole
German Tea Chamomile
Giant Bellflower
Giant Butterwort
Giant Goldenrod
Giant Horsetail
Gibbous Duckweek
Gillflower
Glanz-Rauke
Goatsbeard
Globe Flower
Gold of Pleasure
Golden Buttons
Golden Marguerite
Golden-Rod
Golden Samphire
Golden-Scaled Male Fern
Goldilocks
Goldilocks Aster
Goldilocks Buttercup
Goldlack
Goosegrass
Goose Tongue
gordaldo

Grand Passerage
Grauer Bastardsenf
Graukresse
Gray Northern Woodsia
Green Spleenwort
Great Bindweed
Great Broomrape
Great Duckweed
Great False Leopardbane
Great Horsetail
Great Lettuce
Great Sea Stock
Greater Bladderwort
Greater Dodder
Greater Hawkbit
Greater Prickly Lettuce
Greater Spearwort
Greater Yellow Cress
Green Alkanet
Green Amaranth
Green Hellebore
Green Houndstongue
Green Pigweed
Groundsel
Grutzblume
Gtodek
Gymnocarpium robertianum

Ma chieh
Madwort
Magellan Ragwort
Maidenhair Fern
Maidenhair Spleenwort
Male Fern
March Everlasting
Marguerite Daisy
Marsh Arrow-Grass
Marsh Bedstraw
Marsh Clubmoss
Marsh Cress
Marsh Cudweed
Marsh Fern
Marsh Horsetail
Marsh Marigold
Marsh Ragwort
Marsh Sow-Thistle
Marsh Yellow Cress
Mary's Cushion
Mastuerzo Montesino
Matronal
Matthiole sinuee
Mauer-Doppelsame
Mauer-Felsenblumchen
Mayweed
May-weed Chamomile
Meadow Buttercup
Meacan-Each
Meadow Cress
Meadow False Fleabane
Mediterranean Radish
Medium-flowered Winter-cress
Meerkohl
Meerrettich
Metake
Mexican Daisy
Mexican Fleabane
Michaelmas Daisy
milfoil
Mithridate Mustard
Mittleres Barbarakraut
Mizu-Garashi
Monkshood
Moonwort
Moretti's Sea Radish
Mostarda-Preta
Mostaza Blanca
Mostaza Negra
Mostaza Silvestre
Mother's Heart
Mountain Bamboo
Mountain Bladder Fern
Mountain Clubmoss
Mountain Cudweed
Mountain Everlasting
Mountain Groundsel
Mountain Male-fern
Mountain Mustard
Mountain Rock Cress
Mouse-Ear Cress
Mousetail
Moutarde blanche
Moutarde des champs
Moutarde noire
Mugwort
Muli

Saat-Leindotter
Sagesse des chirurgiens
Saint George
Saint Geourges
Saint Jean

Saint Martins Buttercup
Salad Cress Plain Leaf
Salad Mustard
Salad Rape
Salgam
Salsify
Sand Quillwort
Sanguinary
Santa Barbara Daisy

Saracen's Woundwort
Scaly Male Fern
Scented coltsfoot
Scented Mayweed
Scentless Chamomile
Scentless Mayweed
Schmalblattriger Doppelsame
Schmalwand
Schwarzer
Schwarzer Senf
Scilly Buttercup
Scots Elm
Scottish Filmy Fern
Scottish Wormwood
Scurvy Grass
Sea Alyssum
Sea Arrow-Grass
Sea Aster
Sea Bindweed
Sea grass
Sea-green Whitlow Grass
Sea Kale
Sea Mayweed
Sea Rocket
Sea Radish
Sea Ragwort
Sea Spleenwort
Sea Starwort
Sea Stock
Sea Wormwood
Selada-Air
Senf
Senfspinat
Sessile Oak
Shady Horsetail
Shaggy Soldier
Sheepsbit
Shepherd's Cress
Shepherd's Purse
Shepherd's Purse (rubella)
Silver Birch
Silver cineraria
Silver Ragwort
Simmara
Simon's Bamboo
Singer's Plant
Siyah Hardel
Skunk Cabbage
Slender Bedstraw
Slender Marsh Bedstraw
Slender Wart Cress
Small Alison
Small Balsam
Small Bladderwort
Small Bugloss
Small Bur-Reed
Small Cudweed
Small Fleabane
Small-Flowered Buttercup
Small-flower Galinsoga
Small-flowered Land-Cress
Small-flowered Wintercress
Small Goosegrass
Small-Leaf Elm
Small-leaved Elm
Small Male Fern
Small Quillwort
Small tumbleweed mustard
Smith's Cress
Smith's Pepperwort
Smooth Bedstraw
Smooth Catsear
Smooth Sow-Thistle
Smooth three-ribbed Goldenrod
Sneezeweed
Sneezewort
Sneezewort Yarrow

Snowdrop
Snowflake
Soft Comfrey
Soft Shield Fern
soldier's woundwort
Son-before-father
Sophienrauke
Spanish Chestnut Spoonwort
Spiked Rampion
Spiny Annual Sow-thistle
Spiny Cocklebur
spiny cockleburr
Spinks
Spotless watermeal
Spotted Catsear
Spreading Bellflower
Spring Quillwort
Spring-Schaumkraut
Spring Snowflake
Squinancywort
St. James' wort
St John's Plant
St. Sophia's Herb
Stagshorn Clubmoss
Star Duckweed
Steinkraut
Stengelum-fassendes
Hellerkraut

Sterile Watercress
Sticky Groundsel
Stiff Clubmoss
Stinkende Kresse
Stinking Chamomile
Stinking Groundsel
Stinking Hellebore
Stink Weed
Stinkweed
Stoloniferous Pussytoes
Strandrauke
Strong-scented Lettuce
Summer Snowflake
Suterisi
Swamp Lantern
Sweet Alison
Sweet Alyssum
Sweet Chestnut
Sweet Dame's Violet
Sweet Flag
Sweet Rocket
Swinecress
Swine Cress
Swollen Duckweed

 

B

H

N

T

 

Bai jie
Ball Mustard
Baneberry
Barbarakraut
Barbaree
Barbenkraut
Barberry
Barestem
Bargeman's Cabbage
Bastard Cabbage
Bastard Cress
Bastard Pellitory
Bathurst burr
Bauernsenf
Bayirturpu
Beach Wormwood
Bedstraw Broomrape
Beech
Beech Fern
Beggar-Ticks
Behaarte Gansekresse
Belle Isle Cress
Bell Rose
Berro
Berro de Prado
Besenrauke
Big-seed False Flax
Bird Rape
Birthwort
Bitter Cress
Bittere Schleifenblume
Black Mustard
Black Spleenwort
Bladder Fern
Bloodtwig Dogwood
Blue Anemone
Blue-eyed-Mary
Blue Fleabane
Bogbean
Blue Sow Thistle
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Boreal Fleabane
Boston Daisies
Boston Horsetail
Bourse de cure
Bourse de Judas
Box
Bracken
Branched Bur-Reed
Branched Horsetail
Brass buttons
Brauner Senf
Breckland Mugwort
Breitblattrige
Bristly Hawkbit
Bristly Ox-Tongue
Bristol Rock-Cress
Brittle Bladder Fern
Broad Buckler Fern
Broad-leaved Bamboo
Broad-leaved Cudweed
Broad-leaved Ragwort
Broad-Leaf Peppergrass
Bronkors
Brown-Leaved Watercress
Brown Mustard
Buchanweed
Bulbous Buttercup
Bulbulotu
Bunias d'orient
Butterbur
Butterfly-Bush
Buttonweed

Habb Ar Rashad
Hairy Bamboo
Hairy Bittercress
Hairy Brassica
Hairy Buttercup
Hairy Galinsoga
Hairy Rock-Cress
Hairy Rocket
Halim
Hard Fern
Hard Shield Fern
Harebell
Hartstongue
hawkweed
Hawkweed Ox-Tongue
Hay-Scented Buckler Fern
Heath Bedstraw
Heath Cudweed
Heath Groundsel
Hederich
Hedge Bedstraw
Hedge Bindweed
Hedge Garlic
Hedge Mustard
Herb-Barbaras
Herbe Aux Charpentiers
Herbe aux cuillere
Herbe de Saint Barbe
Hemp Agrimony
Hierba De Santa Barbara
Herb-Sophia
Hierba del Ajo
Highland Cudweed
Highland Fleabane
Hill mustard
Himalayan Balsam
Himalayan Bamboo
Hirtentaschelkraut
Hoary Alison
Hoary-Alyssum
Hoary Cress
Hoary False Alyssum
Hoary Groundsel
Hoary Mustard
Hoary Ragwort
Hoary Stock
Hoary Whitlowgrass
Hohe Rauke
Holly Fern
Holm Oak
Horse Chestnut
Horse-Radish
Houndstongue
Hsi ming
Hurf Al May
Hutchinia
Hutchinsia
Hutchinsia alpina
Hybrid Watercress

Nabo
Nachtviole

Narihira Bamboo
Narihiradake
Narrow Buckler Fern
Narrow Cudweed
Narrow-fruited Water-cress
Narrow-Leaved Bittercress
Narrow-leaved Eel-Grass
Narrow-leaved Lungwort
Naveterinary
Nettle-leaved Bellflower
Narrow-Leaved Pepperwort
New York Aster
New Zealand Bittercress
Nodding Bur-Marigold
Northern Bedstraw
Northern Beech Fern
Northern Buckler Fern
Northern Fir-moss
Northern Rock-Cress
Northern Water Forgetmenot
Northern Yellow-cress
Norwegian Cudweed
Norwegian Mugwort
nosebleed plant

Tall rocket
Tall Sisymbrium
Tall Wormwood
Tambouret des champs
Tansy
Tenby Daffodil
Teraspic
Thale Cress
Thlaspi Blanc
Thoroughwort Penny cress
thousand-leaf
thousand-seal

Three-lobed Crowfoot
Thread-leaved Water-Crowfoot
Thyme Broomrape
Todrilal
Toothwort
Touch-Me-Not Balsam
Tower Cress
Tower-cress
Tower Mustard
Tower Rock-cress
Traveller's Joy
Treacle Mustard
Trifid Bur-Marigold
Trumpet narcissus
Tuberous Comfrey
Tufted Forget-me-not
Tumble Mustard
Tumbling Mustard
Tunbridge Filmy Fern
Turkey Oak
Turkish "Rocket"
Turm-Gansenkresse
Turnipweed
Twisted Whitlow-Grass

 

C

I

O

U

 

Cakilier
Camelina
Camelina pilosa
Cameline ciliee
Canadian Fleabane
Canadian Goldenrod
Canadian horseweed
Canapicchia glaciale
Candytuft
Canola Oil Plant

Canterbury Bell
Caquillier maritime
Cardamine des pres
Carraspique
Carrot Broomrape
catsear
Cat's-foot
Celery-leaved Buttercup
Chalice flower
Chamois Cress
Changing Forget-me-not
Charlock
Ch'ing chieh
Chimakizasa
Chinese Mugwort
Chou
Choux-Marin
Cleavers
Cliff Clubmoss
Clove-Scented Broomrape
Clown's Mustard
Clustered Bellflower
Cochleaire
cocklebur
Coclearia
Coeur de cure
Col Marina
Coltsfoot
Columbine
Colza
Colza Oil Plant
Common Amaranth
Common Annual Sow-thistle
Common Blue-sow-thistle
Common Buckthorn
Common Broomrape
Common Buckler Fern
Common Butterwort
Common Catsear
Common Chamomile
Common Clubmoss
Common Comfrey
Common Cudweed
Common Dodder
Common Dog Mustard
Common Duckweed
Common Dutch Agrimony
Common Eel-Grass
Common Elm
Common Fleabane
Common Foreget-me-not
Common Giant Mustard
Common Gromwell
Common Horsetail
Common Lungwort
Common Meadow-Rue
Common Moonwort
Common Penny-Cress
Common Pepperwort
Common Polypody
Common Quillwort
Common Ragwort
Common Salsify Common Scurvy-Grass
Common Spleenwort
Common Wart Cress
Common Water-crowfoot
Common Whitlow-Grass
Common Winter-Cress
common yarrow
Common Yellow Rocket
Confused Michaelmas-daisy
Copper Beech
Coralroot Bittercress
Coral-Wort
Corn Buttercup
Corn Chamomile
Corn Cleavers
Corn Daisy
Corn Gromwell
Corn Marigold
Corn Sow-Thistle
Cornish Bellflower
Cotswold Penny-Cress
Cotton weed
Cottonweed
Couve-Marinha
Cranson
Cranson officinal
Creamy Butterbur
Creases
Creasy Greens
Creeping Bellflower
Creeping Buttercup
Creeping Forget-me-not
Creeping Spearwort
Creeping Water Forgetmenot
Creeping Yellow Cress
Creeping Yellow Field Cress
Cressen
Cresson
Cresson alenois
Cresson d'eau
Cresson de fontaine
Cresson des fontaines
Cresson des jardins
Cresson de terre
Cressonette
Crested Buckler Fern
Crisp Rockbrake
Crocus-leaved goatsbeard
Crosswort
Crowberry
Crystal Carpet
Cucharita
Cuckold's Beggar-ticks
Cuckoo Flower
Cape Cudweed

Immergrunes Felsenblumchen
Indian Balsam
Indian Fountain Bamboo
Indian Posey
Inflated Duckweed
Intermediate Polypody
Interrupted Clubmoss
Inundated Clubmoss
Irish Bladderwort
Irish Fleabane
Isle of Man Cabbage
Italian Alder
Italian Wild Radish
Ivory Bells
Ivy Broomrape
Ivy Duckweed
Ivy-leaved Bellflower
Ivy-leaved Crowfoot
 

Oak Fern
Oblong Woodsia
Old-man-in-the-Spring

old man's pepper
Oranda-Garashi

Orange Balsam
Oregon Grape
Oriental Borage
Orientalis Rauke
Ornamental Cabbage
Ornamental Cress
Ornamental Kale
Oruga Maritima
Ox-eye Chamomile
Ox-Eye Daisy
Oxford Ragwort
Oxtongue Broomrape
Oyster Plant

Ukonnauris
Unbranched Bur Reed
Upland Cress
Upland Scurvy-Grass
Upright Hedge Bedstraw

 

D

J

P

V

 

Daffy-down-dilly
Daisy
Damask Violet
Dame's Rocket
Dame's Violet
Dandakorn
dandelion
Danish Scurvy Grass
Devil's Beggar-ticks
devil's nettle
Disc mayweed
Dittander
Dogberry
Dogwood
Downy Birch
Drave blanchatre
Drave printaniere
Dutch Rush
Dune Cabbage
Durmast Oak
Dwarf Birch
Dwarf Cornel
Dwarf Cudweed
Dwarf Eel-Grass
Dyer's Chamomile
Dyer's Weed
Dyer's Woad

Jack-by-the-Hedge
Jack-Go-To-Bed-At-Noon
Japanese Sweet Coltsfoot
Jersey Buttercup
Jersey Cudweed
Jersey Fern
Jersey Forget-me-not
Jerusalem Ash
Jerusalem Star
Jewel-Weed
Ji cai
Jim Hill Mustard
Jointed Charlock
Johnny-go-to-bed-at-noon
Joseph and Mary
Juliana
Julienne des dames
Juniper

Pale Butterwort
Pale Forget-me-not
Pale Madwort
Paris Daisies
Parsley Fern
Pasque Flower
Passerage des Champs
Pearl Everlasting
Pearl-flowered Life Everlasting
Pedunculate Oak
Penny Cress
Pennycress
Peppergrass
Pepperwort
Perennial Cress
Perennial Peppercress
Perennial Pepperweed
Perennial Sow Thistle
Perennial Wall Rocket
Perfoliate Pennycress
Pestilence Wort
Pfeilkresse
Pheasant's Eye
Pigweed
Pineapple Weed
Pink Shepherd's Purse
Piperisa
Ploughman's Spikenard
Plymouth Pear
Pond Water-crowfoot
Prairie Sagewort
Prickly Comfrey
Prickly Lettuce
Prickly Sow-Thistle
Pszonak drobnokwiatowy
Purple Beech
Purple Clematis
Purple Coltsfoot
Purple Gromwell
Purple Salsify
Purple Toothwort
Purple Viper's Bugloss
Pyrenean Columbine

Variegated Horsetail
Variegated Monkshood

Various-leaved Crowfoot
Vegetable Oyster
Venus's Looking-Glass
Verschieden-blattrige Kresse
Viper's Bugloss
Viper's Grass
Virgins Bower

 

E

K

Q

W

 

Early Adder's Tongue
Early Cress
Early Forgetmenot
Early Golden-Rod
Early Scurvy-Grass
Early Winter-Cress
Early Yellow Rocket
Eastern Marsh Ragwort
Eastern Rocket
Echte Brunnenkresse
Echtes Barbarakraut
Elecampane
Elecampane inula
English Elm
English Scurvy-Grass
Erba Barbara
Erbe Sophia
Erismo
Erva Adheira
Erva-De-Santa-Barbara
Erva-Pimenteira
Erysimum
European Goldenrod
European Pellitory
Evergreen Oak

Kasikotu
Kelch-Steinkraut
Khardal Aswad
Killarney Fern
Knapweed Broomrape
Knoblauchsrauke
Kresse
Krodde

Queen's Gilliflowers

Wall Bedstraw
Wall Daisy
Wall Lettuce
Wall Rocket
Wall Rue
Wall Whitlow-Grass
Wallflower
Wallflower Cabbage
Warty Cabbage
Watercress
Water Crowfoot
Water Forget-me-not
Water Hawthorn
Water Horsetail
Wavy Bittercress
Wayside Cudweed
Weedy Cudweed
Wegrauke
Western Polypody
Western Skunk Cabbage
White Alyssum
White Amaranth
White Butterbur
White Comfrey
White Cross
White Mustard
White Pigweed
White Tansy
Whitetop
Wild Arugula
Wild Cabbage
Wild Candytuft
Wild Daffodil
Wild Madder
Wild Mustard
Wild Pellitory
Wild Radish
Wild Rauke
Wild Rocket
Wild Roquette
Wild Turnip
Wild Wallflower
Willow-leaf Lettuce
Willowleaf Yellowhead
Wilson's Filmy Fern
Wieczornik
Wiesen-Schaumkraut
Wilde Sumpfkresse
Winter Aconite
Winter Cress
Winter Heliotrope
Winterkresse
Woad
Wood Anemone
Wood cudweed
Wood Forget-me-not
Wood Goldilocks
Wood Horsetail
Woodland Ragwort
Woodruff
Wormseed Wallflower
Wormwood
Wych Elm

 

F

L

R

XYZ

 

Fair-maid-of-France
false dandelion

False Flax
False London Rocket
False Mayweed
Fan-leaved Buttercup
Fan WEED
Fat Duckweed
Feld-Kresse
Fen Bedstraw
Feverfew
Field Bindweed
Field Cress
Field Elm
Field Fleawort
Field Forget-me-not
Field Gromwell
Field Horsetail
Field Madder
Field Mustard
Field Pennycress
Field Peppergrass
Field Pepperweed
Field Pepperwort
Field Sagebrush
Field Sagewort
Field Southernwood
Field Wormwood
Finkensame
flatweed
Fir Clubmoss
Fleur de Nostra-Dama
Flixweed
Floating Bur-Reed
Flor de pasque
Forked Spleenwort
French Meadow-Rue
French Weed
Fringed Quickweed
Fringed Water-Lily
Fruhes Barbarakraut
Fruhlings-Hungerblumchen

Lady Fern
Lady's Bedstraw

Lady's Smock
Lanceolate Spleenwort
Land Cress
Land Quillwort
Large Bindweed
Large Bittercress
Large Cuckoo Pint
Larkspur
Late Goldenrod
Lauch-Hellerkraut
Lauchkraut
Lauchrauch
Least Adder's Tongue
Least Bur-Reed
Least Lettuce
Leindotter
Lemon-Scented Fern
Lent cock
Lent Lilly
Lent Rose
Leopardsbane
Lepidio
Least Duckweed
Least Pepperwort
Lesser Bladderwort
Lesser Celandine
Lesser Clubmoss
Lesser Duckweed
Lesser Hawkbit
Lesser Meadow-Rue
Lesser Spearwort
Lesser Swinecress
Life everlasting
Limestone Polypody
Little Clubmoss
Loddon Lily
Loffelkraut
London Rocket
Long-Leaved Scurvy-Grass
Long-rooted Cat's Ear
Lords and Ladies
Lundy Cabbage
Lut Putiah

Rabanillo
Rabanillo Blanco
Rabaniza
Rabano Picante
Rabano-Picanto
Rabano Rusticano
Rabano Silvestre
Raifort
Raifort Cran
Raiz-Forte

Rampion Bellflower
Rape
Rapeseed
Raphanus landra
Ravenelle
Red Cole
Red-Tipped Cudweed
Rigid Buckler Fern
River Water-Crowfoot
Roadside Pennycress
Rock Clubmoss
Rock Cress
Rock Whitlow-Grass
Rocket Candytuft
Rocket Cress
Rocket Larkspur
rooted catsear
Rootless duckweed
Roqueta de mar
Roquette-de-mer
Rosy Cress
Rotliches Hirtentaschelkraut
Rough Comfrey
Rough-fruited Buttercup
Rough Hawkbit
Rough Horsetail
Round-Headed Rampion
Round-leaved Crowfoot
Royal Fern
Runch
Russian Comfrey
Rusty-Back
Rusty Cliff Fern
Rzezuszka

Yabani Hardal
Yabani Tere Otu
Yarrow

Yarrow Broomrape
Yellow Anemone
Yellow Birdsnest
Yellow Chamomile
Yellow Cress
Yellow crowbell
Yellow Field Cress
Yellow Mustard
Yellow Rocket
Yellow Skunk Cabbage
Yellow Watercress
Yellow Whitlow-Grass
Zachenschotchen
Zurron de Pastor
Zweiknotiger Krahenfuss
Zwerg-Steppenkresse

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.

Ivydene Gardens Duckweed to Ferns Wild Flower Families Gallery:
True Ferns - Polypody Family.

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

True Ferns: Polypody Family:-

"Ferns and their allies are a very ancient order of flowerless plants, comprising the Ferns, Horsetails, Clubmosses and Quillworts, all perennial except for the rare Jersey Fern (Polypody Family). They have no seed, but reproduce themselves by minute dust-like spores. These are produced in tiny capsules (sporangia), and give rise without any sexual process to tiny short-lived plants called prothalli, which bear male and female organs and carry out the reproductive process in the presence of moisture and not by insect or wind fertilisation, leading to the formation of a new fern plant. This process is called alternation of generations. In the Ferns the prothalli are usually small green heart-shaped scale-like plants, 1/4 - 1/2 inch across, which may often be found in damp shady spots near fern colonies, sometimes with tiny fern plants growing from them.

The Mosses, Liverworts, Stoneworts (Chara and Nitella species), Algae, Seaweeds and other more primitive flowerless plants have only cellular and not fibrous or vascular tissue, and lack true roots and usually stems as well, but are sometimes very hard to distinguish except by a knowledge of their reproductive habits.

The true fern families (Royal Fern Family, Filmy Fern Family and Polypody Family) have ferns which are non-woody perennials, except for the rare Jersey Fern (Polypody Family), with an obvious family resemblance, their leaves (fronds) folded crozier-like in bud and arising from a creeping or an often well-tufted rootstock that may be covered with a brown shaggy mass of decayed leaves. Only Hartstongue (Polypody Family) has completely undivided leaves, the rest being either deeply lobed (Rusty-back in Polypody Family) or 1-3 pinnate. The spores are contained in minute cases, which are grouped into raised brown heaps (sori), covered by an indusium, on the back or edges of the leaves, except in the Royal Fern (Royal Fern Family). Many species are very variable, and young plants, especially sterile ones, are extremely hard, if not impossible, to identify. They all affect damp or shady places, and so are plentiful in Western England.

The great majority of our British ferns belong to this family, all but the Hartstongue having divided leaves, and all having opaque leaves.

" from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978

True Ferns: Polypody Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Habitat Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months

Habitat

Alpine Lady Fern

Athyrium alpestre (distentifolium)

July-August

A deciduous fern of the higher mountains, growing on rock ledges, gullies, block screes and in shallow hollows where snow lies late into summer. It prefers more stable, acidic block screes with a N. or N.E. aspect and some degree of soil accumulation. Found from 455 m in the Breadalbanes (Mid Perth) to 1220 m (Ben Macdui, S. Aberdeen).

item1n

item237

falpinefolladyfern

falpineforladyfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Applecross Pass

Form from Applecross Pass.

Alpine Woodsia (Gray Northern Woodsia)

Woodsia alpina

July-August

This grows on the steep, free-drained, bare faces of calcareous rocks, including pumice tuffs, basalts, mica- and hornblende schists, slates and limestones. Sites are very free-draining, with little competition. From 525 m to 975 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).

item1b1

item2a1

item2b1

item2c1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Beech Fern

(Northern Beech Fern)

Thelypteris phegopteris (Dryopteris phegopteris, Lastrea phegopteris, Phegopteris connectilis, Phegopteris polypodioides)

June-August

A creeping, rhizomatous fern, most common in ancient woodlands dominated by Quercus petraea on neutral to acidic soils, where it frequently occurs on deeper soils on gully sides where base-rich water percolates. It can also be found amongst boulders and on wet rock faces in the uplands where it is afforded protection from grazing. 0-1120 m (Breadalbanes, Mid Perth).

item1d1

item2f1

fbeechfolfern

fbeechforfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Black Spleenwort

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum

June onwards

This evergreen perennial fern occurs on a wide range of well-drained, usually basic substrates, in lightly shaded habitats where there is little competition. It is found on cliffs and screes, in quarries, on lane banks and walls. Generally lowland, but reaching 575 m at Moor House (Westmorland) and possibly higher in the Cairngorms.

fblackfru1spleenwort

fblackfrusspleenwort

fblackfolspleenwort

fblackforspleenwort

Spores from Richborough Castle

Spores from Richborough Castle

Foliage from Richborough Castle in Kent in August

Form from Richborough Castle in August

Bladder Fern (Syn. Brittle Bladder Fern)

Cystopteris fragilis

June-September

A fern of damp, shaded rock crevices, cliffs, cave entrances, ravines and mortared walls, always growing on a mineral-enriched substrate, and most frequent over limestone. It is also found on field boundary banks where water seeps from improved pasture, and in Fraxinus woodland. 0-1220 m (Breadalbanes, Mid Perth).

fbladderfru1fern

fbladderfru2fern

fbladderfol1fern

fbladderfor1fern

Spores at Corkscrew Hill in County Clare on 18 June

Spore at Corkscrew Hill on 18 June

Foliage at Corkscrew Hill on 18 June

Form from Millers Dale on 21 May

Bracken

Pteridium aquilinum

July-August

A deciduous fern of moorland, hill pasture and other habitats on acidic soils. It is most vigorous when growing on deep loam, sands or alluvium and is rare on base-rich soils. 0-585 m (Lochnagar, S. Aberdeen), and probably higher elsewhere.

item1f1

item2m1

fbrackenfol1

fbrackenfor

Spores

Spore-cases

Foliage from Oldbury Hill in September

Form

Common Spleenwort (Syn. Maidenhair Spleenwort)

Asplenium trichomanes

May onwards

A perennial, evergreen fern which grows in a range of rocky habitats, including cliffs, rock faces, screes, mine waste and, perhaps now most commonly, on walls. 0-870 m (Macgillycuddy`s Reeks, S. Kerry).

item1g1

item2r1

fcommonfolspleenwort

fcommonforspleenwort

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Slieve Elva in County Clare on 17 June

Form

Common Buckler Fern (Syn. Broad Buckler Fern)

Dryopteris dilatata

July-September

This deciduous fern grows on moderately to very acidic, well- to poorly-drained substrates. Habitats include deciduous and coniferous woodland, hedgerows, ditches, open moorland, rocky slopes, boulder scree and rock fissures. It can also be epiphytic in damp climates. 0-1050 m (N. of Loch Rannoch, Mid Perth), and reportedly to 1125 m in Scotland.

fcommonfru1bucklerfern

fcommonfru5bucklerfern

fcommonfol1bucklerfern

fcommonfor1bucklerfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Common Polypody

Polypodium vulgare

June-September

An evergreen, perennial, rhizomatous fern of well-drained, predominantly acidic substrates, including dry-stone walls, roadside banks and rock outcrops. It also occurs as an epiphyte on Quercus and other deciduous trees, mainly in W. Britain and Ireland, and is also found in conifer plantations. It is very tolerant of exposure, growing, for example, on montane scree.

pcommonfru1polypody

item2x1

pcommonfol1polypody

pcommonfor1polypody

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Crested Buckler Fern

Dryopteris cristata

July-August

This deciduous fern grows in mildly acidic `floating` fens that develop within or from more base-rich fens. It is characteristic of Sphagnum lawns, where it can tolerate the shade of invading Phragmites, and Salix and Betula scrub. It can persist in fen carr. Lowland.

fcrestedfru1bucklerfern

fcrestedfru2bucklerfern

fcrestedfol1bucklerfern

fcrestedfor1bucklerfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Forked Spleenwort

Asplenium septentrionale

June onwards

An often long-lived, evergreen fern of well-drained, exposed, sunny, usually acidic rock faces, metalliferous mine spoil and the sides of unmortared stone walls. In Ireland, it grows on ultrabasic rocks. 0-535 m (Moel yr Ogof, Caerns.), formerly to 715 m at Llyn y Cwn (Caerns.)

 

 

 

 

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Golden-Scaled Male Fern (Syn. Scaly Male Fern)

Dryopteris borreri

(Dryopteris affinis)

July-August

A deciduous or evergreen fern found in deciduous woodland, along rides in coniferous plantations, in ditches, on shady banks and road verges, usually on acidic substrates. In more oceanic areas, it grows in the open on well-drained West- or South-West-facing hillsides, scree slopes and mountain ledges. It is also found on brickwork in urban areas.

item1k1

item231a

fgoldenscaledfol1malefern

fgoldenscaledfor1malefern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form from Ardcharnich in Ross and Cromarty on 18 June

Green Spleenwort

Asplenium viride

June-September

This is an evergreen fern of moist, sheltered crevices in basic rocks, and very rarely also on mortared walls. It is occasionally a colonist of old metal mine workings. From sea level on the coasts of W. Britain and Ireland to 975 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).

item1m1

item234a

fgreenfolspleenwort

fgreenforspleenwort

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage on 14 May

Form on 14 May

Hard Fern

Blechnum spicant

June-August

This evergreen calcifuge fern grows on damp peaty or loamy soils in deciduous and coniferous woodland. In suitably wet climates it extends onto open moorland, streamsides and hedgerows. 0-1065 m (Aonach Beag, Westerness), and reportedly to 1185 m elsewhere in Scotland.

item1o1a

item240a1

fhardfolfern

fhardforfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Loch Cuilin on 22 June

Form from Loch Cuilin on 22 June

Hard Shield Fern

Polystichum aculeatum

July-August

This evergreen species is characteristic of mountain gorges and steep wooded river valleys where it grows in thin but damp, mildly acidic to base-rich soils between rocks and in crevices. It also grows in the grikes of limestone pavement, on shady mortared walls, on hedge-banks, and around cave entrances and mine shafts. It is rarely plentiful in S. England, usually occurring as scattered individuals and only becoming common in the north of its range.

fhardfru1shieldfern

fhardfru2shieldfern

fhardfol1shieldfern

fhardfor1shieldfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Hartstongue

Phyllitis scolopendrium

July-August

An evergreen perennial fern of sheltered, humid, moist habitats, including rocky woodlands, stream and hedge banks, grikes in limestone pavement, and on brickwork and walls, where it often grows in a stunted form. It avoids the most acidic substrates. 0-700 m (Great Dun Fell, Westmorland).

item1o2a

item240b1

fhartstonguefol

fhartstonguefor

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Corkscrew hill in County Clare on 18 June

Form near Cadgwith in Kent

Hay-Scented Buckler Fern

Dryopteris aemula

July-September

A fern of moist but well-drained acidic to neutral soils of low base content, growing on banks, sea-cliffs and wooded slopes. In the Weald (Sussex) it occurs in deep, steep-sided wooded ravines which emulate its Atlantic habitats. Generally lowland, but reaching 640 m in Macgillycuddy`s Reeks (South Kerry).

item1o3a

item240c1

chayscentedfol1bucklerfern

fhayscentedfor1bucklerfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from North Yorkshire

Form from North Yorkshire

Holly Fern

Polystichum lonchitis

(Polypodium lonchitis, Aetopteron lonchitis, Aspidium lonchitis, Dryopteris lonchitis, Hypopeltis lonchitis, Polystichum asperum)

June-August

This evergreen species is a calcicole, growing in well-drained, cool and moist positions at the base of cliffs, on rocky ledges, and particularly in stabilised boulder-scree. It also grows in deep grikes of limestone pavements. Polystichum lonchitis is a poor competitor, but is long-lived once established. From 180 m at Inchnadamph, W. Sutherland, but generally above 600 m and reaching 1150 m in the Breadalbanes (Mid Perth).

item1o4a

item240d1

fhollyfol1fern

fhollyfor1fern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form from Allt Nan Uamp in Sutherland on 17 June

Jersey Fern

Anogramma leptophylla

(Anogramma caespitosa)

March-May

A small fern found on moist but well-drained shady lane banks, especially where granite is used to support the bank. Some say it is confined to banks in the Channel Islands. It prefers bare soil where some surface erosion reduces competition. It is the only British fern with an annual sporophyte; its spores mature early (usually April) and plants die soon afterwards. Its prothallus, however, is perennial and may over-winter in warm crevices to produce new sporophytes the following year. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Lady Fern

Athyrium filix-femina

July-August

A deciduous fern that prefers moist but well-drained acidic soils, but can tolerate more basic substrates if these are overlain by mildly acidic layers. It is particularly frequent in deciduous woodland, especially on stream banks, and in moist, rocky habitats, but is also found in hedgerows and drainage ditches. It is one of few species able to colonise metalliferous lead and tin mine deposits. 0-1005 m (Carnedd Llewelyn, Caerns.).

item1o6a

item240f1

fladyfol1fern

fladyfor1fern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Lanceolate Spleenwort

Asplenium obovatum

June-September

This perennial, evergreen, calcifuge fern is mainly a plant of sheltered, shady crevices and ledges on maritime cliffs and on rock outcrops. It also occurs on well-drained, acidic, loamy lane banks and dry-stone walls. Most of its sites are near the sea, and the plant is not vigorous in its colder inland sites. Lowland.

 

 

 

 

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Lemon-Scented Fern

Thelypteris oreopteris

(Oreopteris limbosperma)

July-August

A fern of acidic, peaty or humus-rich soils in open woodland, along drainage ditches and streamsides, and on damp heaths, upland grassland and damp rock ledges. It is especially associated with the edges of watercourses, including man-made ditches, and is therefore more frequent on poorly-drained substrates. 0-1010 m (Ben Ime, Main Argyll).

item1o8a

item240h1

item241h1

item242h1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Limestone Polypody

Thelypteris robertiana

(Gymnocarpium robertianum )

July-August

A deciduous fern of cracks, fissures and scree in limestone rock, but also found in shallow grikes of limestone pavement, and, rarely, on chalk. It prefers warm, sunny exposures but can tolerate light shading. It has become established as a garden escape on walls and culverts. Lowland to 585 m at Carreg yr Ogof (Carms.).

item1o9a

item240i1

item241i1

item242i1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum capillus-veneris

May-September

A semi-evergreen fern found in areas with an oceanic climate on wet, calcareous cliffs where its rhizomes are protected in crevices; in the Aran Islands (W. Donegal) and the Burren (Co. Clare) it grows in grikes in limestone pavement. Many inland records in sheltered warm sites, such as damp mortared walls, railway sidings and canal locks, arise from spores derived from cultivated plants. Lowland.

item1o10a

item240j1

fmaidenhairfolfern

fmaidenhairforfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from the Burren in County Clare

Form from The Burren

Male Fern

Dryopteris filix-mas

July-August

This is a common deciduous fern of woodlands, hedgerows, ditches, roadside verges, stream banks, rocky hillsides, cliff ledges and scree slopes. It prefers light, well-drained but moist soils that are mostly acidic to neutral, though sometimes slightly basic. It is also found in urban habitats, including railway embankments, bridges, walls and gardens. 0-960 m (Macgillycuddy`s Reeks, S. Kerry).

fmalefru1fern

fmalefru2fern

fmalefol1fern

fmalefor1fern

Spore-case (Sorus) with Spores on 25 July

Sori with Spores from Borough Green in Kent on 25 July

Foliage from Nairn on 4 July

Form from Rievauex Abbey

Marsh Fern

Thelypteris palustris

July-August

A perennial fern of open or recently wooded fen or open carr, where the soil is permanently wet and organic, but not too acidic. It is a characteristic component of Phragmites-Cladium fen, but also persists as vigorous colonies in fen Alnus woods or Salix carr. Generally lowland, but formerly at 335 m (Braemar, S. Aberdeen).

item1o12a

item240l1

fmarshfol1fern

fmarshfor1fern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Goonhilly in Cornwall on 24 May

Form from Goonhilly on 24 May

Mountain Bladder Fern

Cystopteris montana (Polypodium montanum)

July-August

A deciduous fern of sheltered, humid, North- or East-facing limestone and mica-schist cliffs where there is periodic irrigation. It prefers dripping rock ledges, cliff bases, gullies and steep, unstable scree slopes. From 490 m on Ben Lui (Main Argyll) to 1125 m on Aonach Beag (Westerness).

item1o13a

item240m1

fmountainfol1bladderfern

fmountainfor1bladderfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Liechenstein

Form from Allt Nan Uamp in Sutherland on 17 June

Narrow Buckler Fern

Dryopteris spinulosa (carthusiana)

July-September

This deciduous fern is found in a range of damp habitats, including wet heaths, fens, mires, raised bogs, carr and wet woodland. It prefers rich alluvial soils with a high water table. More rarely it extends onto open moorland, possibly as a relic of former woodland. Generally lowland, but reaching 730 m in Atholl (E. Perth).

item1o14a

item240n1

item241n1

item242n1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Northern Buckler Fern

Dryopteris expansa

August-September

A deciduous fern found growing in open wet woodland and around rock outcrops at low altitudes, and in damp, sheltered hollows of upland boulder scree. Its substrates are usually mildly acidic, but it can grow in scree derived from quite base-rich mica-schists. 0-945 m (Stob Binnein, W. Perth).

item1o13a1f

item240m1a6

item241m1a6

item242m1a6

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Oak Fern

Thelypteris dryopteris (Gymnocarpium dryopteris)

July-August

A gregarious, deciduous fern growing in rocky deciduous woodland and ravines, along stream banks, and on cliff ledges and stable block screes. It prefers moist but open, light-textured mineral soils with a high humus content, and tolerates a moderate range of pH. 0-915 m (Rannoch, Mid Perth).

item1o15a

item240o1

foakfol1fern

foakfor1fern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage on 18 May

Form on 18 May

Oblong Woodsia (Rusty Cliff Fern)

Woodsia ilvensis

July-August

An evergreen fern, growing in cracks and fissures in cliffs and crags on rocks ranging from calcareous tuffs and hornblende schists to more acidic tuffs, grits and shales. Sites are very free-draining, with little competition. Reproduction is probably mostly vegetative. From 365 m to 760 m (Cumberland).

item1o16a

item240p1

item241p1

item242p1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Parsley Fern

(Crisp Rockbrake)

Cryptogramma crispa

June-August

This small, deciduous, long-lived fern is a strong calcifuge and is found in well-drained sites on relatively stable, steep scree slopes, where it is a pioneer species. It also occurs on cliff ledges and mortar-free dry-stone walls. From 80 m (Glen Etive, Main Argyll) to 1280 m (Ben Nevis, Westerness).

item1o12a1

item240l1a

fparsleyfolfern

fparsleyforfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Applecross Pass on 25 June

Form from Applecross Pass on 25 June

Rigid Buckler Fern

Dryopteris villarii

(Dryopteris submontana)

July-August

A deciduous fern of limestone pavement, screes and rock crevices, where moist, humus-rich soils develop. It prefers some degree of shelter, often growing in grikes, but is intolerant of shade. It can extend onto more exposed rock, but only where low woody scrub affords some protection. It is also recorded from limestone walls, and from other base-rich rocks. 0-465 m (Highfolds Scar, Mid-W. Yorks.).

item1o12a1a

item240l1a1

item241l1a1

item242l1a1

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Rusty-Back

Ceterach officinarum

April onwards

A perennial, calcicole fern found on crags and cliffs of basic rocks, especially limestone, and also on limestone pavements and mortared walls. Generally lowland, reaching c. 550 m in Wales.

item1o12a1b

item240l1a2

frustyfolback

frustyforback

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Ivy Thorn in Somerset on 23 December

Form from Ivy Thorn in Somerset on 23 December

Sea Spleenwort

Asplenium marinum

June-September

An evergreen perennial fern, predominantly found in cool, moist crevices and fissures in maritime cliffs, and often within range of sea-spray. It occasionally grows on walls in coastal areas, but, because of its requirement for a frost-free environment, it is only exceptionally found on rocks inland. Lowland.

item1o12a1c

item240l1a3

fseafolspleenwort

fseaforspleenwort

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from Melvaig Ross on 21 June

Form from Melvaig Ross on 21 June

Small Male Fern

(Mountain Male-fern)

Dryopteris abbreviata

(Dryopteris oreades Fomin)

July-August

This deciduous fern grows in colonies on well-drained rocky ledges, steep, loose scree slopes and in gullies. Substrates include relatively acidic sandstones, slates and mica-schist. It is very sensitive to grazing, often becoming confined to inaccessible ledges and unstable scree slopes in heavily grazed areas. From 105 m (Llyn Padarn, Caerns.) to 850 m (An Sgurr, Mid Perth and Coire na Creiche, N. Ebudes).

item1o12a1d

item240l1a4

item241l1a4

item242l1a4

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Soft Shield Fern

Polystichum setiferum

July-August

This semi-evergreen fern is a moderate calcicole, occurring in shaded deciduous woodland, hedgerows, lane banks and sheltered streamsides, and also in the peaty bottoms of grikes in limestone pavement. It grows on a wide range of soil types, from those derived from sands to clays, but prefers sloping or well-drained ground. Generally lowland, but reaching 305 m on Walla Crag (Cumberland).

fsoftfru1shieldfern

fsoftfru2shieldfern

fsoftfol1shieldfern

fsoftfor1shieldfern

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form on 5 July

Wall Rue

Asplenium ruta-muraria

June onwards

This perennial, evergreen fern occurs naturally on limestone and other basic rocks, where it grows on steep, bare faces and in crevices; it is also found in hollowed clints in limestone pavement. However, in most lowland areas it is now abundant on mortared walls and other man-made structures. 0-625 m (Ingleborough, Mid-W. Yorks.).

item1o12a1f

item240l1a6

fwallfolrue

fwallforrue

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage from North Yorkshire

Form from North Yorkshire

Western Polypody

(Intermediate Polypody)

Polypodium interjectum

September-February

An evergreen, perennial, rhizomatous fern that prefers more basic substrates than Polypodium vulgare but can be found in acidic conditions where exposed to salt-laden air. It is found in a wide range of habitats such as mortared stone walls, hedge banks, rock exposures, mature sand dunes and as an epiphyte, especially near the sea.

item1o13a1h

item240m1a8

item241m1a8

item242m1a8

Spore-case

Spore-cases

Foliage

Form

Colonists of limestone dry stone walls In Winsley, West Wiltshire

British Pteridological Society Spore Exchange 2011

List of spores available 2011 - Cancelling all previous lists.

 

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak