Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020-21.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries


Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).



Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-


Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used











Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used



Vitamin C








Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used


Red Orange



Yellow Orange



Yellow Green

Lovely Lime


Blue Green

Light Teal


Blue Violet



Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.

Page 74

Fritillaria crassifolia 1 5 71

Fritillaria crassifolia May 72

Fritillaria crassifolia May 72

Fritillaria gracilis May 72

Fritillaria gracilis 1 5 71

Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial

Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial

Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 81

Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 81

Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 85

Fritillaria imperialis lutea 07 85 Seed

Page 75

Fritillaria imperialis rubra maxima

Fritillaria imperialis rubra maxima

Fritillaria michailovskyi

Fritillaria michailovskyi

Fritillaria michailovskyi

Fritillaria pallidiflora

Fritillaria pallidiflora

Fritillaria persica

Fritillaria persica

Fritillaria persica

Fritillaria persica Apr 85

Page 76

Fritillaria pontica

Fritillaria pontica

Fritillaria pyrenaica 28 4 68

Fritillaria seed pods

Fritillaria seed pod

Fuchsia 'Abbe Farge' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Abbe Farge' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Constance' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Constance' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Flash' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Flash' Sep 85

Page 77

Fuchsia 'General Monk' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'General Monk' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Lady Thumb' Sep 85

Fuchsia magellanica Sep 85

Fuchsia magellanica Sep 85

Fuchsia magellanica 18 6 66

Fuchsia magellanica 'Alba' Oct 78
in Sissinghurst Castle Garden

Fuchsia microphylla Mar 65 at Kew
origin from Mexico

Fuchsia 'Mrs Popple' Sep 85

Fuchsia 'Tom Thumb' Sep 85

Fuchsia - standard fuchsia

Page 78

Fulcus corrifera May 70

Gagea fisculosa 15 5 71

Gagea lutea 15 5 71 in Leichenstein

Gagea lutea 14 5 71
Furstensteig in Leichenstein

Gagea lutea 15 5 71
Furstensteig in Leichenstein

Gagea minima 15 5 71 in Leichenstein

Gagea minima 14 5 71 in Leichenstein

Galanthus elwesii Snowdrop

Galanthus elwesii 2 90
Snowdrops in Leeds churchyard in Kent

Galanthus elwesii Apr 70
Snowdrops in snow

Galanthus nivalis

Page 79

Galtonia viridiflora 08 88

Galtonia viridiflora 08 88

Galtonia viridiflora

Galtonia candicans Aug 79

Galtonia candicans Aug 79

Gaultheria shallon Sep 79

Genista cinerea Jun 82 Broom

Genista pilosa May 71

Genista pilosa Jun 71

Genista pilosa 06 89

Genista pilosa Jun 72

Page 80

Genista lydia Jun 78

Genista lydia Jul 71

Genista lydia Nov 75

Genista sagittalis var delphinensis
Jul 71

Gentiana acaulis May 78

Gentiana acaulis 12 12 70

Gentiana acaulis 23 5 70 Wisley

Gentiana asclepiadea Sep 78
Willow Gentian

Gentiana asclepiadea Sep 78
Willow Gentian

Gentiana asclepiadea Sep 70

Gentiana brachyphylla 15 7 64
Short-leaved Gentian
in Einodsbach of Austria

Page 81

Gentiana bavarica 13 7 64
Klein walsertal in Austria

Gentiana bavarica 13 7 64
Klein walsertal in Austria

Gentiana bavarica 13 7 64
Klein walsertal in Austria

Gentiana clusii 14 5 71
in Liechenstein

Gentiana clusii 14 5 71
in Liechenstein

Gentiana clusii May 71
Trumpet Gentians
in Gaflei in Liechenstein

Gentiana dahurica Jul 73

Gentiana dahurica Jul 73

Gentiana dahurica Jul 73

Gentiana kochiana 10 5 71

Gentiana kochiana 16 5 71

Page 82

Gentiana kochiana 16 5 71

Gentiana lutea 07 85

Gentiana lutea 07 85

Gentiana lutea 16 7 64
Yellow Gentian
in Hittelberg of Austria

Gentiana saxosa Sep 71

Gentiana saxosa Aug 71

Gentiana saxosa Aug 71

Gentiana septemfida Aug 79

Gentiana septemfida Aug 79

Gentiana sino-ornata 09 89

Gentiana verna 12 5 71
Gaflei in Liechtenstein

Page 83

Gentiana verna May 71
Small Gentian in
Triesenburg in Liechtenstein

Gentiana verna 15 5 71
in Liechtenstein

Gentiana verna 16 5 71

Gentiana verna 15 5 71
in Liechtenstein

Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina'
Jun 73

Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina' 07 85

Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina'

Geranium dalmanicum Jun 93

Geranium delavayi Oct 70
Wasp on this

Geranium delavayi Oct 71

Geranium delavayi Oct 71

Page 84

Geranium farreri (nepaligerum) Jun 71

Geranium maas 07 85

Geranium phaeum 23 5 70 Wisley

Geranium phaeum 23 5 70 Wisley

Geranium psilostemon
syn Geranium armenum Jul 72

Geranium renardii 06 91

Geranium renardii Jun 70

Geranium renardii Jun 71

Geranium sanguineum
lancastriense Jun 69

Geranium sanguineum

Geranium sanguineum
lancastriense Jul 69


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©December 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.



The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.



If concrete paving is the only option, then why do you not use a Sustainable Drainage System like Marshall Priora as the UK's most popular permeable block paving (CBPP) system as detailed on Permeable Paving & Suds Page of Marshalls? Combine this paver with my other ideas and you could have tree-lined streets with healthy trees throughout the world. This would:-

  • increase the value of the buildings alongside,
  • reduce crime,
  • increase contentment in the human population using these pavements
  • as well as reduce the carbon dioxide levels

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 7 Gallery:
Page 74 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Fritillaria crassifolia 1 5 71
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria crassifolia May 72
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria crassifolia May 72
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria gracilis May 72
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria gracilis 1 5 71
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 81
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 81
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis lutea May 85
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Fritillaria imperialis lutea 07 85 Seed
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve
them from Case 3 - Drive Foundations in Clay Page.

8 problems caused by clay:-


  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the above photo) that when it
    rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then
    that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive,
    then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create
    that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting
    3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting
    privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb
    the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended
    soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing
    soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the
    soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the
    water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of
    geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built.
    The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back
    garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms)
    of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward
    sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from
    entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms)
    wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the
    slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When
    the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall.
    When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the
    Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section
    at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a
    conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of
    blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped
    away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the
    middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn.
    Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back
    garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the
    house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further
    damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from
    being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and
    the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details
    at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem
    would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the
    surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would
    have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it
    would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The
    previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and
  • the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen
    Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what
    remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm)
    depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub
    prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on
    the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling
    cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before
    excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good
    soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming
    and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I
    added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop
    doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included
    making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would
    survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch
    mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus
    an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the
    mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn
    was laid on a clay topsoil.
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated
    this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden
    as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants
    and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was
    applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from
    drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to
      bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form
      domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create
      soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme
      had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged
      clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us
      disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a
      mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches
      was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable
      difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled
      leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including
      the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference
      came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to
      be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but
      the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We
      realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich,
      nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with
      good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the
    back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had
    also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a
    horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the
    next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it
    rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not
    only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at
    the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig
    the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had
    a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing
    round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.


Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.


The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly.
At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5 cms) depth
of imported topsoil, which might be the washings from the sugar beet in the sugar industry.
This is covered with turf and the unsuspecting public is offered the result. As likely as not one
of their gardens slopes towards the house and even with the modern depth of foundation wall,
there is no guarantee that subsidence will not occur.


If every garden of a new house had a 12 inch depth of soil removed from its new garden area,
then at the end of the building work, the
Aquadyne Drainage System would be laid round the
entire boundary.
Next to it then plant the relevant Instant Hedge on the non-house wall sides
to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system


The mix to change clay soil into a friable useful soil in less than 4 months for the above
domestic garden problem was in royal blue colour typing. Using the burgundy colour typing
components, the builder could create the following soil mix for his gardens

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually in the UK. Crushed glass (cullet) is
    used in Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material
    or golf bunker sand, so builders could replace the Sharp washed Sand and the
    Horticultural Grit with cullet.
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to
    bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form
    domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates).
    Poultry litter - Uric acid and organic nitrogen (N) in the bird excreta and spilled feed
  • are converted to ammonium (NH4+) by the microbes in the litter. Ammonium, a
    plant-available N form, can bind to litter and also dissolve in water. Ammonium is a
    highly reactive ion that bonds with sulfates, nitrates and phosphates to form ammonium
    salts that improve the nutrient value of litter when land applied as fertilizer.
    Plasterboard (is gypsum - Calcium sulfate dihydrate normally pressed between a paper
  • facer and backer) wastage in the UK is estimated to be 300,0000 tonnes per year.
    Builders could replace the Garden Lime with the reaction of the poultry litter on the

    The recommendations stated in the RHS article are for the finely ground garden lime
    (calcium carbonate) sold in garden centres in kilograms (kg) per square metre or
    ounces per square yard. They are based on the Department for Environment, Food
    and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommendations for incorporation into the top
    20cm (8in) of soil and are enough to raise the soil pH to pH6.5. This is considered the
    best all-round pH for the majority of garden plants.
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create
    soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

If water with 150 kgs of clay was first added to the Concrete TruckMixer and then the required
volume of cullet followed by the required volume of waste plasterboard, the mixture is then
mixed for an hour. If the cullet/waste plasterboard mixture is passed through the poultry houses
to mix with the poultry litter on the litter floor before being collected into the next Concrete
TruckMixer, then the houses would be cleaner and smell less. The required volume of
waste from beer making could replace the Peat above and the requisite Sulphate of Iron and
Sulphate of Potash could be added to the Concrete TruckMixer before that mixture from the
Poultry Farm litter floor is added.

That soil mixture could then be mixed for 30 minutes before applying it to the garden areas of
the new houses built by the builder to an 11 inch (27.5 cms) depth. The resulting mixture would
then integrate with the clay and create a deep topsoil within 3 months.

All the requirements for a soil as shown in the figure above would then have mixed together and
time will increase the bacteria and get a new soil structure created.

The following type of turf could then be laid over the proposed lawn areas a fortnight later:-

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an
underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards.
In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal
lawn turf cannot reach.
Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation,
gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the
summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and
can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring
green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.


There is other compostable waste that could be used in the above mixture - The following is from a
farmer who runs Riverford Organic Farmers who deliver weekly boxes of vegetables, meat etc from
their farms to the homes of members of the public in Britain in his weekly epistle dated Monday 4th
December 2017:-


"So why now, in my 57th year, have I seen the light?

  • Firstly, given the environmental impact of livestock, we need a more sustainable source of
    fertility than muck.
  • Secondly, I met a man who sent 10 tonnes of cooked crab waste, packed with valuable
    nutrients, to landfill every week at huge cost to him and the environment,
    then another bloke in the pub looking for a home for 1000's of tonnes of wood chip;
    the perfect high carbon material to mix with the nitrogen-rich crab.
  • Thirdly, our agnostic and practical farm team attest to compost soil and its crop improving
  • Fourthly, I met Milan, a highly practical Bulgarian organic grower and compost expert who,
    with alchemist wizardry, seems to be able to make compost from almost anything given a
    thermometer and loader. Milan brewed up a little crab, wood chip and spent wool insulation
    and tried some of the resulting compost on my cardoons and artichokes; they love it.

So, I have seen the errors of my youth and come inside. Milan tells me we have only just started.

It is shocking how much compostable material is wasted at such cost to our environment:

  • food waste,
  • sewage sludge,
  • whey,
  • wood chip,
  • hedge trimmings,
  • seafood waste,
  • abattoir waste.

The reasons are:-

  • Partly the unintended consequences of well-meaning environmental and health legislation;
  • partly the chronic failing of businesses and our market economy to solve complex long-term
    problems involving bulky, perishable, highly variable and locally specific raw materials; and
  • partly that the alternatives are just too cheap.

Time is running out; we cannot afford 100% safety when environmental destruction is 95% certain
if we continue on our current path."


If the above waste was turned into compost that would last as a mulch like spent mushroom compost,
which lasts for 2-3 years with 25-35% loss replenishment each year in the autumn, then it could be
sold to the above home owners in bags to put alongside their hedges, in planted pots and in the
flower beds throughout the year.
The present system of commercial composting of the garden waste taken from the domestic Brown
Bins by the refuse collectors each week in England produces a soil conditioner to provide nutrients
for the soil instead of a mulch material. The weeds as well as the purchased cultivated plants happily
eat it and it is treated as a richly fertilized earth under it instead of a seaparate mulch; as I
discovered in a client's garden. It does not provide the benefits that a mulch does of stopping the
germination of weed seeds and a reduction of moisture loss.
Jersey Royals Potatoes are grown using seaweed harvested from Jersey beaches as a natural
fertilizer. If the soil conditioner detailed in the previous paragraph was spread first and natural
non-dried seaweed was added on top as a mulch, then the advantages of a mulch would occur and
reduce the garden owner's time in weeding his/her garden. This mulch could be added - onto the
new soil created from the waste ingredients above - after 2 months from when that soil had been
installed and annually after that. Jersey seed potatoes could be planted in this mulched area to
provide many health benefits to its garden owners in the form of their own organically grown food.
Builders could then sell new houses with healthy soil by

  • including red clover green manure seeds sown 2 months after the new soil has been
    installed to fix nitrogen from the air, weed suppression and improve the soil structure and
  • the promise of the new owners producing their own potato crop!!!

If you cannot be bothered to buy the commercially produced soil conditioner and collect your own
seaweed to be harvested from beaches, then the following could still provide these other benefits
in the same time slots as in above paragraph:-
To promote healthy growth of potted indoor and outdoor plants and to provide the trace elements
(that other soil stimulants do not provide) ; you might consider using the following from
Burncoose Nurseries:-
"All-purpose Seaweed Stimulant
All-purpose organic concentrated seaweed feed that is a ready to use, derived from sustainable
harvested kelp, that can be used on all outdoor and indoor plants, except acid loving plants, use
our Ericaceous seaweed stimulant instead.
The product contains very high levels of auxins and cytokins that are naturally plant growth
The natural hormones in Empathy All Purpose Seaweed are taken up by the plant and promote
faster and stronger root and shoot growth. They will also promote the development of beneficial
bacteria, microbes and the Mycorrhizal Fungi in the soil."

You can incorporate seaweed into your own diet to give you Iodine for proper thyroid function, if
nothing else appeals.


China sells a lot of seaweed.

The Cornish Seaweed Company sells edible Cornish Seaweed and
Maine Coast Sea Vegetables in America sells edible seaweeds harvested from the North Atlantic.
It would appear that if you want seaweed as a mulch for your garden, then you will have to go and
collect it yourself as the farmers do on Jersey.

The following is from No Dig Vegetable Garden Website:-
"Seaweed in the garden, how do I love thee... let me count the ways:

1 Seaweed fertilizer is actually a bit mis-named. It is more of a tonic, due to the low quantity
of nitrogen and phosphorus... although it does have the full range of properties in it to improve
your soil. As well as supplying bulk to condition the soil, seaweed contains around 60 trace
elements, growth hormones and nutrients, and fungal and disease preventatives. Interestingly
any soil imbalances, such as a deficiency of nitrogen, will be corrected by adding seaweed which
will balance the soil environment so that nitrogen fixing bacteria are helped along.
2 Seaweed stays put if you put it on the garden. It doesn't blow away or clump together or
roll away.
3 Seaweed deters pests. Birds don't like to get hurt with it when it's hard and scratchy and
don't like getting tangled with it when it's wet and slinky.
4 Same with dogs, cats and many other critters. It's just too darned awkward, and for some
animals the smell is off-putting.

What's the best way to use seaweed on the garden?

  • Firstly, there is no need to wash seaweed because the sand and salt water clinging to it contains
    essential elements that will benefit plants. Unless you happen to have a high sodium content
    in your soil, remember, there is no need to wash seaweed before using it in or on your garden.
  • Secondly, don't try cutting seaweed up with a mower because there are stones, sand and shells
    hiding in it.
  • Thirdly, dry and hard seaweed is just as phenomenal for plant growth as when it's wet and soft.
    The older and harder it is, obviously the longer it will take to break down and supply nutrients
    to the soil for feeding your plants.
  • Fourthly, many countries have rules about protecting their marine coastlines, which includes the
    harvesting of seaweed. Commercial operators you are not, so it's unlikely you will deplete this
    resource by strolling along the local beach and filling up a bag with seaweed.
    However check beforehand, and if you can't find any information about your area, or there are
    no notices on the beach, follow these guidelines:
  • It is fine to pluck floating seaweed and seaweed below the high tide mark. Seaweed that has
    washed up above the high tide mark often makes a valuable contribution to the biodiversity of
    the beach and surrounds. It helps stops sand erosion and provides a habitat for local plant and
    insect life."

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.