Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - A

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Abelia floribunda

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 144 (300 x 360)

Glossy Dark Green

Bright Cerise in
June
 

Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Zone 9-11, Half Hardy
Any Soil

Abelia grandiflora 'Francis Mason'
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 72
(150 x 180)

Coppery-Yellow in Spring and Yellow marked with Dark Green for the rest of the year

White in
July-October

Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Zone 7-10, Frost Hardy
Any Soil

Abelia schumannii

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120
(180 x 300)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer and Autumn

Slightly scented Orange-marked, Lilac Pink in September-December
abeliaschumanniiflot1

Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any Soil

Abeliophyllum distichum

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Matt Dark Green turning Purple in Autumn

Fragrant White in
February

"White Forsythia"
Pruning Group 5 or 13 if wall-trained.
Full Sun.
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy.
Any Soil
Open, Spreading
The fragrant flowers are borne on the previous year's growth, so do not prune in winter.

Abies koreana groundcover grows on any, clay, lime-free (Acid) or Peaty Soil.

Conical Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 240 (900 x 600)

Shiny Dark Green, Silver beneath

Cylindrical Violet-Blue cones
abiescfloskoreanawikimediacommons
From Commons-wikimedia

"Korean Fir". Ideal for small gardens or for a large rock garden.
Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Conical

Abutilon megapotamicum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Bright Green

Yellow petals, Purple stamens, Red calyces in
July-December

"Trailing Abutilon, Brazilian Bell-flower". Good ground cover or rock-garden plant
Pruning Group 9.
Full Sun
Zone 8-11, Frost Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil
Arching Habit

Abutilon suntense

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 96
(360 x 240)

Grey-Green

White to dark Violet-Blue in
June-July
abutilonflosuntense1

Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Zone 8-9, Frost Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil and requires shelter from strong winds.

Acacia dealbata

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

600 x 240 (1500 x 600)

Glaucous Silver

Fragrant Yellow in
February-March

"Mimosa, Silver Wattle".
Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Half Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil
Open shape

Acanthus mollis

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Dark Green

White in Late Summer

"Bear's Breeches".
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9
Any Soil
Clump-forming and long flowering with attractive foliage
Compelling specimen in a mixed border. Stays fresh in a cut arrangement for nearly 2 weeks. May need winter protection.

Acanthus spinosus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Dark Green

White with Purple bracts in
June-August

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-9
Any Soil
Clump-forming with attractive seedheads and attractive foliage.
Long-lasting in cut-flower arrangements. For best contrast they need grey, hairy leaves next to them, or some of the grassy blades.
Companions to Acanthus - Large-scale grasses, geranium psilostemon, iris pseudacorus, aconitum. Excellent when planted en masse

Acer campestre

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Mid Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow with Red in Autumn

...

"Field Maple, Hedge Maple" Used as field hedge.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 4-9, Fully Hardy
Clay or Sandy Soil
Broadly Upright

Acer capillipes

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 300 (900 x 750)

Bright Green with Bright Red in Autumn

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Acid Clay, Sandy or Peaty Soil
Spreading Arching

Acer cappadocicum 'Aureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

600 x 360 (1500 x 900)

Bright Yellow in Spring, Light Green in Summer, Green with Yellow tints in Autumn

...

"Golden Coliseum Maple" Better suited to parks and streets rather than a suburban garden
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Acid Clay or Sandy Soil
Spreading

Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala (Acer ginnala) groundcover grows on any, clay, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

Bright Green, Red in Autumn

White in
June

acercfloginnalacommonswikimedia

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 4-9, Fully Hardy
Clay or Sandy Soil
Slender Arching - it often branches from the base into several long cane-like stems.

Acer griseum

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Dark Green, Red and Orange in Autumn

Yellow in
June

"Paperbark Maple" Prized for its bark - chestnut brown with paler corky dots which it sheds each year in wide curling strips.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Spreading

Acer negundo 'Flamingo'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Broad Pink margins that turn White in Summer, on Green leaves

...

"Box-elder Maple, Box Elder".
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 4-10, Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Chalk Soil
Fast-growing Upright

Acer palmatum 'Atropurpureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Reddish-Purple, Brilliant Red in Autumn

Reddish-Purple in
April

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Round-headed

Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpueum'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Bronze-Red in Spring, Purple in Summer and Red, Orange and Yellow in Autumn

Bronze-Red in
April

"Japanese Maple"
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zones 5-10, Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Mound-forming

Acer palmatum 'Senkaki'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Coral-Red in Spring, Orange-Yellow in Summer and Yellow in Autumn

...

"Japanese Maple"
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zones 5-10, Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Round-headed

Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Silver

Gold in
July-August

Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Soil
Clump-forming with attractive foliage
Divide each Spring. Contrast this tall growing Yarrow with Eupatorium purpureum. Great for drying. Good for small gardens.
Achillea companions - Asiatic lilies, erygium, salvia, ornamental grasses, rudbckia, phlox, phygelius, dahlia, hemerocallis. Achilleas are attractive to bees and butterflies; suitable for flower arrangements in both fresh and dry states.
Other smaller Achilleas for scree beds in rock gardens.

Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20
(60 x 50)

Silver

Bright Yellow in
August

"Yarrow" Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Soil
Mat-forming
Divide each Spring.
Good foliage, does not spread

Achillea ptmarmica
'The Pearl'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24
(75 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
July-August

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Soil
Divide in Spring. Vigorous spreader, self-sows.

Aciphylla aurea groundcover grows on any Soil.
 

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Grey-Green with bold Yellow margins and midribs

Golden Brown in
June-August

aciphyllacforaureawikimediacommons
from Commons-wikimedia

"Bayonet Plant". Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Rosette-forming

Aconitum anthora groundcover grows on any Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Dark Green

Pale Yellow in
July-
August

aconitumcflosanthorawikimediacommons
from Commons-wikimedia

The poison in any aconitum can be taken in through the skin, so always wear gloves and cover exposed skin when working with this plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Upright
Divide each Spring.

Aconitums are excellent cut flowers. Perfect in the border or at woodland’s edge, their bold presence makes a companion to Anemone, Helenium and late-blooming Persicaria, as well as Grasses, astrantia, astilbe, cimicifuga (actaea), eupatorium. All aconitum need to be lifted and divided every 4 years

Aconitum napellus
'Newry Blue' groundcover grows on any Soil.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 12
(150 x 30)

Dark Green

Mid Blue in July-
August
 

"Aconite Monkshood".
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Soil
Erect
Very vigorous, self-sows

Aconitum x cammarum 'Bressingham Spire' groundcover grows on any Soil.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Dark Green

Violet in
August-
October

aconitumcfornapellusnewrybluehardyplantsoc
from
Hardy Plant Society

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Soil
Erect
Does not need staking

Companions for Aconitum are grasses, astrantia, astilbe, cimicifuga (actaea) and eupatorium. Its cool-colored floral display soothes Centaurea macrocephala’s sun-struck blooms.

Actinidia kolomicta
 

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

160 x indefinite
(150 x indefinite)

Dark Green, Purple tinged in Spring, Dark Green becoming variegated with White and Pink in the top half of the leaf in Summer and Autumn

Fragrant White in
June

Pruning Group 11 in late winter.
Full Sun
Zone 8 - Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Twining Climber for garden walls and fences. Tie main vines to wires against walls and fences as required.
The roots prefer a cool shady spot and will root by layering as they spread. A good plant for holding soil on a steep plant.
 

Adiantum pedatum
 

Deciduous Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Mid Green

adiantumcforpedatumgarnonswilliams

...

"Five-finger Fern, Maidenhair Fern". Pruning Group 15.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any Soil
Erect
Grow in woodland or shady border where they slowly increase and are very hardy anywhere in Britain - see photo from The Fern Nursery. It may be interplanted with flowers or tucked into the pockets of a stone wall.

The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Adiantum venustum
 

Evergreen Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x indefinite
(15 x indefinite)

Bronze-Pink in Spring, Mid Green on black stems remainder of year

...

"Himalayan Maidenhair Fern".
Pruning Group 15.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any Soil
Grow in woodland or shady border where they slowly increase and are very hardy anywhere in Britain - see photo from The Fern Nursery.

Aegopodium podagraria 'Variegatum'
groundcover grows on any, clay, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x indefinite
(60 x indefinite)

Deep Green margined and splashed Creamy White
aegopodiumcfolpodagrariavariegatumwikimediacommons

Creamy-White in
June

"Variegated Ground Elder". Invasive plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Full or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Soil, but prefers Clay Soil
Groundcovering. Invasive - Ground Elder, Gout Weed or Bishop's Weed should be planted between barriers, such as a path and a house foundation. Mowing it 2 or 3 times a season keeps it low and even and the leaves small and compact.

Aesculus parviflora
 

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 168 (330 x 420)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in
July-August

"Bottlebrush Buckeye".
Pruning Group 1 when dormant.
Partial Shade or Full Sun in a sheltered site
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Suckering. Suitable for medium sized garden, the bush chestnut has long plumes of scented white flowers. With them flowers Sorbaria sorbifolia, which makes a thicket. Native to southeastern USA.

Agapanthus campanulatus groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Greyish Green

Blue in
July-August
agapanthuscfloscampanulatushardyplantssociety

"Lily-of-the-Nile".
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9
Any Soil
Clump-forming and good cut-flower.

Agapanthus companions - All Agapanthus contrast well with yellow flowers. Easily combined with kniphofia, crocosmia, phygelius, potentilla and iris.

Agapanthus campanulatus 'Albidus' groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)
 

Mid Green striped White

White in
August-
September
agapanthuscflos1campanulatusalbidusgarnonswilliams

Tender.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 7
Any Soil
Clump-forming
 

Agapanthus 'Dorothy Palmer' groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Dark Green

Rich Blue in
July-August
agapanthuscflodorothypalmerhardyplantsociety

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Agapanthus dyeri (Agapanthus inapertus subsp. intermedius)

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Mid Green

Blue in
August-
September

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Reddish-Purple

Dark Blue in
April-June
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea

"Bugle, Bugleweed".
Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any Moist Soil
Ajuga reptans is Mat-forming groundcover spreading by creeping stems from which root new plantlets.
Its rounded, flat and purple leaves contrast to anything with a soft feathery leaf such as geraniums or the grassy leaves of irises.

Bugle can make a carpet to replace grass as one of the plant alternatives to traditional lawn grass.

Ajuga companions - A good edge-softener for polygonatum, coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', hosta 'Sum and Substance', bronze fennel, grasses, iris, lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea', and like plants; also works well under fruit trees and bulbs.

Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow
'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Silvery Green suffused deep Wine-Red

Dark Blue in June-July

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which spreads fast but does not like to be dry.

Ajuga reptans 'Catlins Giant'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze and Purple

Dark Blue in June-July
ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcflorvroger

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming and vigorous groundcover.
Bugle is very effective when planted in the semishade of other plants or buildings.

Ajuga reptans 'Multicolor'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze Green leaves marked with Cream and Pink

Dark Blue in
April-June

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which is slow to grow

Ajuga reptans 'Rainbow'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze in Green marked with cream and pink

Dark Blue in June-July
centaurea montana flower

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which is slow to grow.

Ajuga reptans 'Variegata'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Grey-Green leaves margined and splashed Cream

Dark Blue in
April-June
ajugacfloreptansvariegata

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover
Perfect contrast to ferns. Needs oart shade for best variegation.

Akebia quinata
 

Semi-Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 36
(840 x 90)

Mid Green, Tinged Purple in Autumn

Fragrant
Red-Purple in
April

Pruning Group 11 after flowering.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zone 7 - Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Twining Climber through other shrubs or small trees or against wires on walls and fences. Has unusual shaped fruit.

Useful on slopes where it quickly covers bare ground and its deep roots hold the soil, providing some erosion control. It should be planted away from low-growing shrubs since its aggressive habit can smother them.

Alcea rosea (Althaea rosea)

Biennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Pale green

Different colours in Summer and Autumn
alceacflosroseahardyplantsociety

"Hollyhock". Cannot be grown alongside foxgloves. Grow as biennial to limit growth of hollyhock rust.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Any Soil
Tall upright inflorescences.

Alcea companions - delphinium, larger campanulas, large grasses, picket fence - remember to paint the picket fence in a contrasting colour to Hollyhock flower.

Alchemilla alpina

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)
 

Deep green, silver-edged, divided leaves

Yellow-Green in
July-September
alchemillacfloalpina

"Alpine Ladies Mantle".
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming in the rock garden.

Alchemilla companions - Works well with most blue, purple, red, burgundy, and red-violet flowers, try it with early dark red astilbe, or for high contrast, plant with 'Magic Carpet' spiraea, which has red-orange new foliage. Other companions would be grasses, white foxgloves, golden marjoram, geranium, and campanula; often planted under roses as groundcover.

Alchemilla is used in rock garden or small garden.

Alchemilla conjuncta
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12
(40 x 30)

Dark Green

Yellow-Green in
June-August
alchemillacforconjunctafoord

From the Alps. Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Alchemilla erythropoda

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 8
(25 x 20)
 

Bluish Green

Yellowish-Green in June-
September

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-10
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming with compact low mounds.

Alchemilla mollis

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 20
(50 x 50)
 

Pale green

Greenish-yellow in August

"Lady's mantle". Dead-head after flowering, as it self-seeds profusely.
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-10
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
Both the flower and foliage are invaluable for cutting. Self-sows

Alnus viridis

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 72
(300 x 180)

Mid-Green above, Yellow-Green beneath

Yellow-brown catkins in April

"Green Alder". Thrives in wet situations.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Upright

Alnus cordata

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 360 (2400 x 900)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow catkins in March-April

"Italian Alder". Thrives in dry situations.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist or Dry Soil
Conical

Althaea armeniaca
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 12
(120 x 30)

Dark Green

Deep Rose-Pink in
July-September

Pruning Group 14 Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 6
Any Moist Soil
Erect

Alyssum montanum 'Mountain Gold'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Grey

Fragrant Golden Yellow in
June

"Mountain Alison". Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Gritty Soil which is well-drained.
Mat-Forming and prostrate.

Other smaller Alyssum for scree beds in rock gardens.

Alyssum wulfenianum

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Grey or White-hairy

Pale Yellow in June

Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Gritty Soil which is well-drained
Tufted

Amelanchier laevis

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Red or Orange in Autumn

White in
April

"Allegheny serviceberry".
Blue-Black Fruit.
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly Spreading

Amelanchier lamarckii

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

276 x 240 (690 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Red and Orange in Autumn

White in
April-May

Purple-Black Fruit.
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zones 6-9, Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly Spreading

Amsonia illustris
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18
(120 x 45)

Glossy Bright Green

Light Blue in
May-June

From rocky banks, stream sides, and prairies in central and southern USA.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any Moist well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Amsonia companions - Narcissus, paeonia, achillea, euphorbia, iris; good as a speciman or in groups, and works well as a late-spring filler plant.

Anaphalis margaritacea

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Mid Green

White in
August-
October

"Pearl Everlasting". Use dried as Winter decoration, but must be cut in tight bud.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil, which must not dry out in the Summer - prefers chalky soil.
Clump-forming and cover the ground by means of root runners.

Companions - sedum, verbascum, carex, hosta, low fall asters, salvia, lychnis coronaria, scabiosa ochroleuca.

Anchusa azurea
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Dark Green

Gentian Blue in
June

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Moist Soil
Erect Clump-forming. Superseded by its cultivars.

Companions - lupinus, nepeta; useful as a filler plant.

Andromeda polifolia 'Alba'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 24
(40 x 60)

Dark Grey

White or Pale Pink in April-June

"Common Bog Rosemary, Marsh Andromeda". It grows in bog-like conditions.
Pruning Group 16
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 2
Acid Wet Soil
Semi-Prostrate

More Details can be had from Heather World as linked to in the last row in this table.

Other smaller Andromeda for peat beds and raised beds.

Anemone apennina

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Blue in
April-May

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 6
Any Moist Soil
Semi-Prostrate
Plant under deciduous shrubs as its leaves die down by midsummer. Spreads quickly in a shaded site.

Anemone blanda 'Atrocaerulea'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Blue in
April-May

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone blanda flowers are produced above the leaves.

Anemone companions - For spring bloomers - bulbs, aquilegia, dicentra, helleborus, omphalodes, ranunculus ficaria, trillium, primula. For late summer and autumn bloomers - grasses, hardy fuchsias, aster, dahlia, eupatorium, phlox, astrantia.

Anemone blanda 'Radar'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Magenta with white centres in
April-May
anemonecfloblandaradarrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Other smaller Anemones for scree beds in rock gardens, trough or sink, or peat beds and raised beds.

Anemone blanda
'Violet Star'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Amethyst with White backs in
April-May
anemonecfloblandavioletstarrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone coronaria

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Green

Blue, White or Pink in April-May

Plant in Spring. Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Light Sandy Soil
Erect

Anemone hupehensis

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 16
(60 x 40)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White or Pink in
July-August
anemonepflo1hupehensiskevock1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any Moist Soil
Erect
Extremely invasive

Anemone japonica
'Honorine Jobert'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
August-October

"Syn Anemone x hybrida".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Erect
Other Anemone japonica ground coverers are 'September Charm', 'Queen Charlotte', 'Louise Uthink' and 'Prince Henry'.

Anemone nemorosa

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
April-June
anemonenemerosacflot1a

"Windflower".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Creeping
Plant under deciduous shrubs as its leaves die down by midsummer.

Anemone ranunculoides

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18
(5 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Yellow in
April-May
anemonepflosranunculoidesrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Spreading

Anemone rivularis

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White, Blue on reverse in
May-June

From northern India and southwest China.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
 

Anemone sylvestris

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
May-June

"Snowdrop Anemone".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
Repeat bloom in autumn.

Antennaria dioica rosea

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18
(5 x 45)

Grey-green

Rose-pink
in May-June

"Cat's Ears, Pussy-toes".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any Soil
Mat-forming
Use in rock garden, growing against walls, ground cover between stepping stones or well-drained border verges.

Anthemis punctata cupaniana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Silvery-Grey with dull Grey-Green in Winter

White in
june-August

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Frost Hardy Zone 6
Any Sandy or Gravelly Soil
Mat-forming

Anthemis companions - solidago, grasses, sages, geranium, monarda, patrinia

Anthyllis montana

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Grey-green

Red, Pink or Purple
in May-June

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming with small, finely divided, silvery green leaves

Other smaller Anthyllis for scree beds in rock gardens.

Antirrhinum majus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Glossy Deep Green

White, Yellow, Red , Purple in
June-October

Use as Bedding annual and as "filler" in newly planted bed. Dead-head to prolong flowering.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 7
Sand

Aquilegia alpina

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12
(45 x 30)

Bluish green

Blue in
June

Columbine.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Gritty, Moist, Sharply drained Soil
Upright
Good for rock gardens and hummingbird garden.

Aquilegia companions - viola, alchemilla mollis, geranium, hemerocallis, paeonia, digitalis, hosta, euphorbia, pulmonaria

Aquilegia chrysantha
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Mid Green

Yellow in
May-August

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Any Soil
Erect
Good rebloomer if deadheaded

Other smaller Aquilegia for scree beds in rock gardens or trough or sinks.

Aquilegia 'Crimson Star'

Herbaceous Perennial above 2 feet in height

18 x 12
(45 x 30)

Grey-Green

Red and White in
May-June

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Any Soil
Upright
Good cut flower

Aquilegia vulgaris
'Nora Barlow'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20
(60 x 50)

Grey-Green

Red in
May-July

"Granny's bonnet". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Any Soil
Upright

Arabis caucasica 'Variegata'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Green margined pale Yellow

Scented White
in May

"Wall Rock Cress". Trim after flowering to maintain compactness. Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil and it will tolerate poor, dry, infertile soil.
Mat-forming. Perfect nook-and-crany plants. Especially suited for covering slopes, spilling over walls and tucking between stones. It will grow in containers.

Arabis Companions - Aubretia, Phlox subulata and Alyssum saxatile.

Other smaller Arabis for scree beds in rock gardens, trough or sink, or peat beds and raised beds.

Araucaria araucana
(Araucaria imbricata)

Evergreen Conifer Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

720 x 300 (1800 x 750)

Dark Green

Green cones maturing to Brown

"Chilean Pine, Monkey Puzzle Tree".
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Zones 8-9, Fully Hardy
Any sandy Soil with shelter from drying winds
Conical when young, becoming rounded. From South America

Arbutus menziesii

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Mid-Green

White in
October followed by Red fruit which ripen the following Autumn

"Madrone". Native from California to British Columbia - in the wild it grows mostly in humid areas amongst tall conifers such as redwoods.
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Zones 7-9, Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Rounded to Spreading

Arbutus unedo

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Dark Green

White in October-February

"Strawberry Tree, Arbutus". Edible red fruit. Native to the western Mediterranean and Ireland.
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Rounded to Spreading

Arctostaphylos patula
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Bright Green

White or Pink in
April-June

"Greenleaf manzanita".
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Spreading

Arctstaphyllos Companions - is effective as a large-scale planting in informal or native gardens, particularly on slopes or trailing over a wall.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Bright Green. Leaves develop intense red tones in autumn and winter.

Pinkish-White
in June-July followed by deep red berries

"Common Bearberry, Bearberry, Kinnikinnick". A completely prostrate shrub that can cascade over walls or embankments to form curtains of neat, dark green foliage
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zones 4-9, Frost Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Mat-forming

Other smaller Arctostaphylos for peat beds and raised beds.

Arisaema sikokianum
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Dark Green

Deep Purple spathe, White spadix in April-May

"Japanese Cobra Lily"
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Frost Hardy Zone 5-9
Acid well-drained Soil
Stemless
Likes a sheltered site.

Arisaema companions - Ferns, helleborus, hosta, primula, polygonatum, smilacina, disporum, disporopsis.

Arisarum proboscideum
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

Dark Green

Dark Brown-Purple in
April-May
arisarumcfloproboscideum1

"Mouse plant". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9
Any well-drained Soil
Cushion-forming
A dense, spreading, woodland plant with hidden flowers.

Arisarum companions - ferns, primula, polygonatum humile, small cyclamen, viola cornuta.

Artemisia abrotanum
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30
(75 x 75)

Grey-Green

Yellowish-Grey in
July-October

"Lad's Love".
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy, Zones 5-10
Any well-drained Soil
Erect

Artemisia companions - Ornamental grasses, lilies, white flowers, allium, aster, sedum, nepeta. Do not fertilise - even with manure mulch - and they will live longer in the garden. A hard prune in the autumn can kill most of the shrubby forms.

Artemisia arborescens
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Silvery-White

Yellow in
June-October

Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Sand
Upright

Artemisia 'Powis Castle'

Evergreen Sub-Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48
(90 x 120)

Silvery-Grey

Yellow in
July-August

Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Frost Hardy Zone 6-10
Any well-drained Soil
Dense clump
Prune well in late winter to 12 inches (30 cms). In cold climates, grow indoors over winter and planting out in spring.

Artemisias are accent plants, typically effective as borders in places where their soft, pale colour and interesting leaf pattern contrast with brighlty coloured plants

Artemisia schmidtiana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Silver

Yellow in
June-August

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Spreading silver carpet
Artemisia stelleriana makes a more dense ground-cover.

Other smaller Artemisia for scree beds, trough or sinks in rock gardens.

Arum creticum
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Dark Green from December-May

White or deep Yellow in
April-May

"Lords and Ladies".
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Frost Hardy Zone 7-9
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Mat-forming. Dormant June through September, orange-red berries.

Arum companions - Astilbe, epimedium, hosta, ferns, snowdrops and other early bulbs, helleborus orientalis, helleborus foetidus, vancouveria planipetala, xanthorhiza, disporum, smilacina racemosa.

Arum italicum 'Marmoratum'

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Pale Green with Cream-veined leaves from January-June

Greenish-White in
June

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 6-9
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Mat-forming
Has red-orange berries

Aruncus dioicus 'Kneiffii'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18
(120 x 45)

Very finely divided fern-like mid Green leaves

Cream in
Jun-July

"Goatsbeard". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Moist Clay Soil in border or woodland garden
Clump-forming and grown for its foliage which is extremely finely divided.

Aruncus companions - Campanula latiloba, shrub roses; it's good as a speciman plant, for the more wild parts of the garden, or the back of the perennial border.

Arundinaria auricoma
(Pleioblastus auricomus)

Bamboo 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Brilliant Yellow with Green stripes and margined with fine bristles

...

Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Arundinaria fortunei
(Pleioblastus variegatus)

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

15 x 12
(37 x 30)

Dark Green with Cream stripes

...

Pruning Group 17
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Arundinaria japonica

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

138 x 30
(345 x 75)

Mid Green

...

Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Grow as dense hedge or screen

Arundinaria murielae
(Fargesia murieliae)

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 36
(300 x 90)

Bright Green in Spring, Yellow-Green rest of year

...

"Umbrella Bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Clump-forming
Grow as dense hedge or screen

Arundinaria nitida
(Fargesia nitida)

Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

156 x 36
(390 x 90)

Dark Green

...

"Fountain bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Grow in a large container

Arundinaria pygmae
(Pleioblastus pygmaeus)

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 36
(40 x 90)

Mid Green

...

"Pygmy bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Asarina procumbens

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Grey-green

Yellow
in June-August

"Creeping Snapdragon".
Pruning Group 16
Partial Shade
Frost Hardy Zone 7
Any well-drained Sandy Soil
Trailing over shady walls or rocks, raised beds or a shady bank.

Asarum europaeum
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-Purple then Brown in
May

"European Wild Ginger".
Pruning Group 16
Partial to Full Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Acid well-drained Soil
Creeping.
Use as ground cover at the edge of a border or grow among shrubs. European wild ginger spreads slowly.

Asarum companions - Ferns, rhododendron, trillium, hosta, ajuga, vancouveria, astilbe, polygonatum.

In a naturalistic woodland garden, gingers form an exceptionally attractive dense mat. Combine with evergreen shrubs or wildflowers.

Asplenium scolopendrium
 

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Glossy bright, strap-like, leathery Green fronds with wavy margins

...

"Hart's tongue fern". Pruning Group 15
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Alkaline well-drained Soil with added grit
Stemless.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Aster alpinus

Herbaceous Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18
(25 x 45)

Mid-Green

Violet with Yellow florets
in June-July

Daisy-like flowers. Aster novi-belgii. avoid dwarf varieties.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Spreading, clump-forming.
Mulch all asters annually after cutting back in late Autumn. A wilt from lack of water when in full growth will trigger a bad case of mildew. Be vigilant wth summer water.

Aster companions - Grasses, old roses, Japanese anemones, phlox paniculata, sedum, fennel, solidago, coreopsis, rudbeckia, monarda, aconitum, late kniphofias, hardy fuchsias, salvia. Asters look best in large groups.

Aster amellus 'King George'
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue in
August-October

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-7
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novae-angliae
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Purple in
August-October

"New England Aster".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming
Mildew resistant

Aster novi-belgii
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36
(120 x 90)

Mid Green

Violet in
August-October

"Michaelmas Daisy". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming.
Mildew is a problem.

Aster novi-belgii
'Ada Ballard'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Mid Green

Lavender-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novi-belgii
'Royal Velvet'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster x frikartii 'Monch'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18
(75 x 45)

Dark Green

Lavender-Blue in
July-September

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-9
Any well-drained Soil
Upright

Astilbe
'Fanal'

 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Crimson in
June-August

"False Spirae, Meadowsweet".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Best for red spring foliage

Astilbe companions - Hosta, pulmonaria, helleborus, epimedium, ferns, polygonatumJapanese iris; particularly effective in groups.

Astilbes are attractive near pools and streams and in woodland settings. They combine well with bergenias and adapt to container culture.

Astilbe
'Professor van der Wielen'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 39
(120 x 98)

Mid Green

White in
July

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Good cut flower

Other smaller Astilbe for scree beds in rock gardens.

Astilbe 'Straussenfeder'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Bronze tinted Green in Spring, Dark Green in Summer and Autumn

Coral-Pink in
August-September

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Vigorous

Astiles make an excellent cut flower if harvested when half open. Many are also cut and air-dried then used in dried floral arrangements. The seedheads can be left on to extend the interest in the winter.

Astrantia major
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple-Red in
June-July

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-9
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Plant near a lightly shaded patio or path where you can enjoy their detail. This is an ideal cut flower, fresh or dried. Self-sows.

Astrantia companions - Lilium martagon, iris sibirica, milium effusum 'Aureum', hosta, pulmonaria, chaerophyllum, pimpinella, campanula, phlox paniculata, adenophora, geranium.

Athyrium filix-femina
 

Deciduous Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Light Green fronds like shuttle-cocks

...

"Lady Fern".
Pruning Group 15
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Acid moist Soil in sheltered site
Erect. It makes excellent ground cover in woodland gardens or along streams.
The 'Plumosum Cristatum Group' all have beautifully crested and finely cut fronds.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Aubretia x cultorum 'Argeneovariegata'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Mid-Green margined Silvery-White

Pinkish-Mauve
in March-May

"Aubretia".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Alkaline well-drained Soil
Mat-forming. Use in rock garden and for edging.

Aubretia Companions - Phlox subulata, Alyssum saxatile and Iberis sempervirens.

Aucuba japonica

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Mid Green

Purple in
May

"Spotted Laurel, Japanese Aucuba".
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Shade or Full Sun
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded
Thrives even in dark corners in town gardens. This continues to spread by basal sprouting and self-layering of its weak, soft-wooded stems and, as it thickens up, the mass of stems will support one another, allowing it to reach 120 inches (300 cms).

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Green mottled Yellow

Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 120
(90 x 300)

Dark Green

Red-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Green, Yellow speckled

Reddish-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aurinia saxatilis 'Citrina'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Grey-Green

Lemon-Yellow
in May-June

"Basket of Gold, Yellow Alyssum". Very popular as a rock garden or wall plant.
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Zones 4-9, Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Mound-forming. Plant it in a prominent spot to show off its brilliant colour. It can also be grown in containers and moved to suitable spots in the landscape.

Azalea

Shrub

 

 

 

Azalea nectar is toxic to bees.
Lime-free soil mixed with humus in partial shade is required. Leave the fallen leaves of the evergreen Japanese Azaleas to complete its groundcover. Use Rhododendron kiusianum, Rhododendron indicum and Rhododendron simsii varieties. The Scottish Rhododendron Society have articles of interest, with review and yearbook back issues as well as – Hannah Miller have a Guide to getting children started with gardening and garden sustainability

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Welcome to Heather World

Heather World extends a very warm welcome to everyone entering the world of heathers, especially to newcomers who have recently developed an interest in these attractive shrubs. The four heathers groups, Andromeda, Calluna, Daboecia and Erica are shown in the cultivar lists, together with images of many.

Every aspect of heathers, from the wild heathers of European heaths and moorlands to the rare and unusual splendours of South African or “Cape” heaths can be seen here. Cultivation tips, including choosing, growing and propagating heathers, to scientific studies and nomenclature, are available. Here is the Publications published by The Heather Society.

The website was also home to the old Heather Society, a group of heather enthusiasts who were dedicated to enhancing the interest in heathers to the world. The society closed at the end of 2020, but their Yearbooks and Newsletters can be viewed here.

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses


with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


Topic
Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.

 

 

 

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1

 

item15 item15 item17 item17 item18 item18 item19 item19 item1d1 item1d1 item1e1 item1e1 item4e1 item4e1 item3i1 item3i1 item1n1 item1n1