Ivydene Gardens: WELCOME
Ivydene Gardens informs you how to
design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.
It also compares Cultivated and UK Wildflower plants either grown and/or sold in the UK.

A green background to this Page Title area indicates an empty page.

 

TOPIC TABLE

is TABLE 1

on left has the same topic list menu on every page of this website

with its
background colour changing for each topic row containing separate topics for a theme -

like tip colour background to Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process row.

 

 

This TOPIC TABLE may be moved to the extreme right due to the constraints imposed by the other tables

 

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This row details what each section of this page is about.

DATA TABLE

is TABLE 2

is this second one for a page of data about that chosen topic.

Top row of the DATA TABLE states the Page Title and Bottom row states Ivydene Gardens Copyright, Logo and email.

It has Design, Construct and Maintain Private Garden topic summaries with Plant Selection Methods precis in

White Background.

PAGE/INDEX TABLE
is TABLE 3

is on the right of this one for a topic containing menu to data pages for the chosen topic.

If this topic is in the Plant Photos Galleries section below Row 1

and
it does contain pages on plants, which do not have their own separate A to Z Index Pages in the data page menu above,

then
its Plant Index menu of all the species/cultivars described for that Plant Type will be below the Page link menu,
in

Tip Colour Background

-----

Words in red on this page are website user instructions/ details.

The
TOPIC TABLE, DATA TABLE and
PAGE/INDEX TABLE
are on every page of this website

Within
PAGE/INDEX TABLE 3

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? in

Color 2 Background

OTHER
TABLE 5
Has the Madeira update report from February 2022.

To get to Tables 4 and 5 you will need to use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars at the bottom and the extreme right hand side of your screen to see the 4000 x 3000 pixel digital photos; I investigate - and you can see in 100's of photos - the danger that Funchal local government have put their own population and tourists through during the last 10 years and continue to do so.

Within
PAGE/INDEX TABLE 3

Living in UK will kill you -

UK Government by 1 Aug 2022 is increasing UK National Debt by £5,170 per second. It has increased by over £426 billion since end of 2021, which is over 53% of Annual UK Tax Revenue. It would appear that the UK Government intends to spend almost twice its Revenue this year and will have tripled the National Debt between Jan 12-Dec 22 to £3,000,000 million.

Any money given to UK population to help with gas prices and cost of living adds to their current 53.25% revenue over-spend.

National Debt Interest Rate for 83 billion on £2,382.8 billion is 3.483%. I have paid 15% on my mortgage - if this rate became the National Debt interest, then it would be £357.45 billion each year on last year's National Debt.

--->

Within
PAGE/INDEX TABLE 3

Living in UK will kill you -

The homes being built in my home town of Medway - beside Medway river - are being bought by people from London, who are still suffering their river sewage pollution.
The overflow pollution
Diagram on this Action on sewage in rivers from South East Rivers Trust, shows how the excess waste sewage and rainwater automatically overflows the control device to go via the open drain to the Medway river or the sea.
Medway Council, as do the remainder of the authorities in England who make use of this automatic process to keep on building under instruction from the UK Government.

Southern Water has been fined for 6,971 sewage discharges.

London Tideway Tunnels hopes to reduce its Thames river sewage pollution

--->

Within
PAGE/INDEX TABLE 3

Living in UK will kill you -

Homeless because water in Southern Water for homes will run out before 2030.
With the chemical pollution in every river, is our drinking water safe?

Gas explosion from incorrectly installed home boiler,

Totally unsafe electrical work from NAPIT registered installer,

A land warfare conference heard that at Russian rates of fire the UK miltary would run out of shells in 2 days in

Wet Background
and further expanded in Mission Statement Page.

School children are being poisoned by nitrous dioxide from their parent's cars (Petrol/Diesel fuel duty is 57.95 pence per litre plus VAT at 20% is then charged on both the product price and the duty - further expanded in Medway Proposed New School page. and
Mission Statement Page.

 

OTHER

TABLE 4

Cultural needs of plants are VERY IMPORTANT, which has been ignored in Madeira for their trees in pavements.

There is also my current ambition in the creation of this website, in

Yellow Background.

Other TABLES can be added when required on any page to the right, below and within the TOPIC TABLE ,
DATA TABLE
or
PAGE/INDEX
TABLE
.

 

 

There are topics on how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting in this website, with the following further detail:-

Garden Maintenance
When you get a private garden, you need to know about your soil so that possible remedial action can be taken. When you know whether it is acidic or alkaline then it's maintenance is easier for you.
This can be followed by organic garden maintenance to understand what are the problems and joys of your garden. The relevant sections of the
glossary, tool shed and library should aid you.

Hard Landscaping Garden Design
If you decide to change a portion of your garden, then design the whole of your private garden; rather than doing bits which become unrelated to each other or to the house. If your soil is clay, then this has major design ramifications. The library with case studies will aid the hard landscaping design, especially on drives.

Soft Landscaping Garden Design
The
offbeat glossary, the plants,
the
plant photographic galleries - Aquatic , Bamboo , Bedding , Bulb , Climber , Conifer , Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Fern , Grass , Hedging , Herbaceous Perennial , Herb , Odds and Sods , Rhododendron , Rose , Soft Fruit , Top Fruit , Vegetable , Wild Flower -
and
companion planting aid the soft landscaping design. To aid your flower colour selection:-

  • for complementary or contrasting colour schemes; the Colour Wheel - Flower Petal has been created as shown in the Plant Selection Method 1 below.
  • The 12 colours per month in the Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month provide a crossection of bulb, climber, shrub etc plants with the same flower colour in the same month as shown in the Plant Selection Method 2 below.
  • The Plant Selection Methods 7 - and part of 6 - below can be used by HayFever sufferers to use plants that are Bee-Pollinated instead of being wind pollinated.
  • The Rock Garden Plant Index in Plant Selection Method 3 below aids your selection of Rock Plants for your rock garden.

The Wild Flower Gallery and the Wildlife on Plant Butterfly Gallery show the relationship between the Butterfly and its plant to aid the creation of a wildlife friendly section to your garden. See plant details of all UK Wildflowers in Wild Flower Botanical Names Index or Wild Flower Common Names Index.

Garden Construction
Having done the structural and detailed design process, garden construction can then take place in stages with the aid of getting materials using useful data, before returning once more to organic garden maintenance.

On to Plant Selection by locating each of the UK Wildflower -
each wildflower has which countries within Europe/ states for USA/ provinces or territories for Canada/ or Soviet Union/ or areas in China; that it is native in
- or Cultivated Plants detailed in this website by its:-

  1. Botanical Name in the Plant Botanical Index A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
    W, X, Y, Z
  2. or Botanical Name in the 4000 x 3000 pixel Camera Photos Index A 1, 2, B 1, C 1, D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
    E 1, F 1, G 1, H 1, I 1, J 1, K 1, L 1, M 1, N 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1, R 1, 2, 3, S 1, T 1, U 1, V 1, W 1, X 1,
    Y 1, Z 1
  3. or Botanical Name in the UK Wild Flower Botanical Names Index of Botanical Name with Common Name,
    Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:-

    AC
    , AG,AL,AL,AN,AR,AR,AS,BA,BR,BR,CA,CA,CA,CA,CA,CA,CA,CE,CE,CH,CI,CO,CR,DA,DE,DR,EP,EP,
    ER,EU,FE,FO,GA,GA,GE,GL,HE,HI,HI,HY,IM,JU,KI,LA,LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,NA,OE,OR,OR,PA,
    PH,PL,PO,PO,PO,PO,PU,RA,RH,RO,RO,RU,SA,SA,SA,SC,SC,SE,SI,SI,SO,SP,ST,TA,TH,TR,TR,UR,VE,
    VE,VI
    Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant.
    Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.
    EXTRAS 91,92,
  4. and Common Name in the UK Wild Flower Common Names Index of Common Name with Botanical Name,
    Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:-
    AC,AL,AS,BE,BL,BO,BR,CA,CL,CO,CO,CO,CR,DA,DO,EA,FE,FI,FR,GO,GR,GU,HA,HO,IR,KN,LE,LE,LO,
    MA,ME,MO,NA,NO,PE,PO,PY,RE,RO,SA,SE,SE,SK,SM,SO,SP,ST,SW,TO,TW,WA,WE,WI,WO,WO,YE
    Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant
    will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.
    EXTRAS 57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,


whose 4 sets of links are in the Topic Table in the same places on every page.
So you can use the correct native plants within your country in your garden as well as the cultivated plants for that country.

Then use Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery which will contain (starting in February 2022) the wildflower/cultivated plants from the following books to provide Landscaping Lists by Flower Shape, Site, Flower Colour, Habit, Bloom by Season, Preference, Use, Planted in Soil and Plant Form:-

  • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
  • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
  • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
  • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
  • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.


or:-

Choose 1 of these different 11 Plant Selection Methods followed by details in the respective row below:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower Families

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape or Fragrance:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.
Night-scented Flowering Plants.
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

7. Choose a Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers from its own gallery with comparisons per month of 12 flower colours. All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12 ...Index

8. Choose plant by its use as part of the design process
Other Plant Uses is given in the indices
in each row of the right hand table in the relevant Photo Gallery, or
in each row of the relevant page in its Index Page per letter of the Alphabet for that Photo Gallery
and
More Plant Uses in
Plant Colour Wheel Uses
Gallery together with
bulb use,
bedding use and
rose use as linked to in the 4th row from the bottom of the topic table on the left on every single page.

9. Choose plants for butterflies to use.

10. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
    • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

or

11. Choose ground cover plants.

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintainance.

  • Groundcover A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W,
    XYZ with 14 Special Situations of Ground cover plants for:-
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts

     

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel Gallery below to Compare Flowers with that same Colour from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

Takes 15 Seconds to load

Click on number between 1-7 from 12 Colour or 1-6 from Black Sections or Wild White to see all the plant flowers (1381 cultivated - with another 115 roses in the Rose Plants Gallery, another 270 bulbs in the Bulb Gallery, and 628 native to the UK wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Common Name,
  • Botanical Name and
  • Months of Flowering

in one of the above 53 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create your colour coordinated flower schemes.

Each Plant Description can then be selected by clicking on the:-

The Colour Wheels of 1. and 2. add many of these plants from 3. together for comparison purposes.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery (The Colour Wheels of 1. and 2. add many of these plants from 3. together for comparison purposes.)

or from

8. Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

722 Bulb
flower colours
in each month
with their

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee
Jan

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot
Feb

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger
Mar

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1
Apr

anemonecflobaldensiskevock
May

dahliacfloedinburghrvroger
Jun

alliumcfloschoenoprasumforscatervroger
Jul

100 Allium and
Anemone,

50 Colchicum,
72 Crocus,
46 Dahlia,

alliumcflotriquetrumgeetee
Allium

anemonecflonemerosaalleniirvroger
Ane-mone

colchicumcflospeciosumalbumrvroger
Coch-icum

crocuscflochrysanthussaturnusfoord
Crocus

dahliacfloludwighelfertrvroger
Dahlia

dahliacflolilactimervroger
Dahlia

dahliacfloplayablancarvroger
Dahlia

209 Gladiolus,
65 Lily,
67 Narcissus, and
6 Tulip Plant Description Pages

gladioluscfloterrynagc
Glad-iolus

lilliumcflonepalenservroger
Lily

narcissuscflopseudonarcissusdeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflojetfiredeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflomerlindeeproot
Narc-issus

tulipaflotbatalinii
Tulip

tulipaflotviolacea
Tulip

 

129 Climber
flower colours
in each month
with their

ercillacflovolubilisroseland
Mar

gelsemiumcflosempervirensroseland
Apr

clematisflotmrscholmondeley
May

bomareacflohirtellaroseland
Jun

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland
Jul

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland
Aug

passifloraflotcaerulea
Sep

71 Clematis and
58 Other Climber Plant Description Pages

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland
Cle-matis

billardieracflolongifloraroseland
Bill-ardiera

cissuscflostriataroseland
Cissus

solanumflotjasminoides
Sol-anum

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory
Fre-mont-odend-ron

campsiscfloradicansroseland
Cam-psis

dregeacflosinensisroseland
Dre-gea

 

43 Deciduous Shrub
flower colours
in each month
with their

jasminumflotnudiflorum
Mar

kerriaflotjaponicamay68
Apr

loniceraflotcaerulea
May

paeoniadelavayiflot
Jun

abeliaschumanniiflot
Jul

hydrangeaflotmacrophylla
Aug

leycesteriaflotformosa
Sep

45 Deciduous Shrub Plant Description Pages

paeoniasouvenirdemaxinecornuflot
Pae-onia

loniceraflotxylosteum
Lon-icera

paeoniasuffruticosaredtreeflot
Pae-onia

hydrangeaflotvillosa
Hyd-rangea

berberisthunbergiiatropurpureadartsredladyfolt
Ber-beris

paeonialuteaflot
Pae-onia

paeoniasuffruticosafflot
Pae-onia

 

104 Evergreen Perennial / Alpine flower colours
in each month
with their

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord
Apr

alyssumcflosaxatilefoord
May

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord
Jun

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord
Jul

aethionemacflowarleyrosekevock
Aug

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock
Sep

anemonecflo1hybridafoord
Oct

68 Evergreen Perennial A-L and 36 Evergreen M-Z Plant Description Pages and also

bergeniacflos1autumnmagiccoblands
Ber-genia

erinuscflo1alpinus
Erinus

lavateracflomaritima
Lav-atera

prunellaflotgrandiflora
Pru-nella

raouliaflotaustralis
Rao-ulia

saxifragaflotcebennensis
Sax-ifraga

sedumflotacre
Sedum

94 Evergreen Perennials in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling
5 Petals

anthericumcfloliliagofoord
Star Shape

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord2
Spurs Shape

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1
Discs Shape

saxifragacflopaniculata
Sprays Arrang-ement

androsacecfor1albanakevock
Dome Arrang-ement

alyssumflotmontanumflowermay84
Dome Arrang-ement

 

46 Evergreen Shrub
flower colours
in each month
with their

iberisflotsaxatilis
May

kalmiaflotangustifolia
Jun

lavateraflotrosea
Jul

nandinaflotdomestica
Aug

oleariaflothaastii
Sep

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor
Oct

mahoniaflotjaponica
Nov

46 Evergreen Shrub Plant Description Pages,

dryasflotoctopetala
Dryas

hypericumflot
Hyp-ericum

loniceraflotnitida
Lon-icera

lupinusflotarboreus
Lup-inus

oleariaflotnumulariifolia
Ole-aria

prunusflotlaurocerasus
Prunus

thymusflotcilicicus
Thy-mus

126 Heather Shrub,
flower colours
in each month
with its
Heather Index (current progress - 52 of 700 detailed by 12 May 2015),
and their
Andromeda,
Bruckenthalia,

Ericacarneamargeryfrearsoncflogarnonswilliams
Jan

Ericacarneaclarewilkinsoncflogarnonswilliams
Mar

Ericacarneadavidsseedlingcflo1garnonswilliams
May

Ericawatsoniiclaireelisecflogarnonswilliams
Jul

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19f
Sep

Ericadarleyensisgeorgerendallcflo1garnonswilliams
Oct

Ericacarneajanuarysuncflo1garnonswilliams
Dec

Calluna,
Daboecia,
Erica: Carnea,
Erica: Cinerea and
Erica: Others Plant
Description Pages (74)

Ericacarneagoldenstarletcflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

Ericacarnearubracflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea






 

91 Herbaceous Perennial / Alpine
flower colours
in each month
with their

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock
Feb

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands
May

achilleafilipendulagoldplatecflorvroger
Jun

agapanthusalbusccflokevock
Jul

kniphofiaflotroyalstandard
Aug

kniphofiaflottriangularis
Sep

cichoriumintybusalbumcflorvroger
Oct

91 Herbaceous Perennial Plant
Description Pages,

astilbepurplelancecflokevock
Astilbe

gunneraflot1tictoria
Gun-nera

papaverorientaleflot
Pap-aver

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger
Dig-italis

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigecflorvroger
Ach-illea

alcearoseachatersdoublerosecflorvroger
Alcea

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock
Aco-nitum

176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials Plant
Description Pages in the
Mixed Borders in
RHS garden in Wisley
and

achilleacfloclothofgoldkavanagh
Ach-illea

actaeacflos2simplexpinkspikegarnonswilliams
Actaea

baptisiacflo1australisgarnonswilliams
Bap-tisia

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh
Cen-taurea

echinaceacflopurpureamagnuskavanagh
Ech-inacea

geraniumcflo2psilostemongarnonswilliams
Ger-anium

helianthuscflo1lemonqueengarnonswilliams
Hel-ianthus

175 Herbaceous Perennial in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

crambecflomaritimagarnonswilliams
4 Petals

euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams
Cup Shape

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot
Goblet Shape

agapanthusbressinghambluecflocoblands
Funnel Shape

lobeliacardinalisflot
Lipped Shape

lysimachiapunctataflot
Tier Arrang-ement

astilberheinlandcflocoblands
Plumes Arrang-ement

 

343 Rose Plant
Description Pages of roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2007 (Group 1) with its Rose Index
and
flower colours
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with their

rosatwiceinabluemooncflo1
Other Colours

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Orange

rosathefairycflorogerltd
Pink

rosaroyalwilliamcflorogerltd
Red

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1
White

rosagoldenweddingflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Yellow

rosabarrystephenscflorogerltd
2 or More Colours

82 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley A-F (Group 2), with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

rosaawhitershadeofpalecflo2garnonswilliams
A Whiter Shade of Pale

rosabonicacflomidgarnonswilliams
Bonica

rosacarmenettacflomidgarnonswilliams1
Carme-netta

rosadarcybussellflomidcgarnonswilliams1
D'Arcey Bussell

rosaeasygoingflomidcgarnonswilliams
Easy Going

rosafascinationflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Fascin-ation

rosaflowercarpetwhiteflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Flower Carpet White

37 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley G-R (Group 2),
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

rosagoldspiceflomidcgarnonswilliams
Gold Spice

rosaharlowcarrcflomidgarnonswilliams
Harlow Carr

rosaicebergkorbincflomidgarnonswilliams
Iceberg

rosajackswishcflomidgarnonswilliams
Jack's Wish

rosakeepsmilingcflomidgarnonswilliams
Keep Smiling

rosakentcflomidgarnonswilliams
Kent

rosamacmillannursecflomidgarnonswilliams1
Mac-millan Nurse

12 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleriesRHS garden in Wisley S-Z (Group 2)
with another
85 Roses in Group 2 Rose Index Menu and

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1a
Silver Anniv-ersary

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1
Simply The Best

rosaskylarkflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Skylark

rosastrawberryhillflomidcgarnonswilliams
Straw-berry Hill

rosathecharlatanflomidcgarnonswilliams1
The Charl-atan

rosawildedricflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Wild Edric

rosayorkminsterc1flomidgarnonswilliams1
York Minster

Rose Bloom Shape and Rose Petal Count Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website.

See Rose Care at bottom of middle table for detailed instructions.

Click on
Other Roses to see the further
161 roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2015 (Group 3)
with its Other Roses Index in the righthand table of
Rosa 'Sally Thomas'

rosabigchiefcflorogerltd
Hybrid Tea Shape

rosasarahvanfleetcflorogerltd
Quart-ered Bloom Shape

rosapimpinellifoliaflot
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1
Glo-bular

rosafruhlingsmorgencflorogerltd
Single with 1-7 Petals

rosabeholdcflorogerltd
Double with 16-25 Petals

rosairrisistiblecflorogerltd
Very Full with over 40 Petals

 

99 Bedding
flower colours
with their

salviacfloguaranticablackandbluegarnonswilliams
Blue

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1b
Orange

verbenacflohomesteadpurplegarnonswilliams
Purple

pyrethrumcflo1roseumdurogarnonswilliams
Red

gypsophyllacflocoventgardengarnonswilliams
White

dianthuscflo1barbatuskaleidoscopekavanagh
White / Colour

dahliacfloabacussolgarnonswilliams
Yellow

99 Bedding
Plant Description Pages,

dahliacflojessicagarnonswilliams
Dahlia

salviacflo1patenskavanagh1
Salvia

cannacflophasiongarnonswilliams
Canna

cosmoscflosulphureusgarnonswilliams
Cosmos

salviacflosplendenssalsapurplegarnonswilliams
Salvia

penstemoncflowhitebedderkavanagh
Pen-stemon

verbenacflosxhybridasaintgeorgegarnonswilliams
Ver-bena


Flower Shape and
Petal Count
Pages
followed by

osteopspermumcflo1sunnycecilgarnonswilliams
Stars Shape

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams
Saucer Shape

penstemoncflopenningtongemgarnonswilliams
Trum-pet Shape

salviacflotrelissickgarnonswilliams
Lobes Shape

dahliacflofascinationgarnonswilliams
Floret Shape

dahliacfloteesbrookeaudreygarnonswilliams
6 or More Petals

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1
6 or More Petals

 

1115 Wildflowers have flower colour pages to compare the plants with the same flower colours:-

from all the Native-to-the-UK-plants-in-1950 in their following 180 families. Each plant in each Family Page is aimed to have the following photos with it:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers
  • Foliage
  • Shape

as well as the text giving its

If its Plant Description Page has been created
(297 created by May 2015 - see number created from each family on far right),
then its Common Name in the Page will be linked to it.
All the Wildflower Plants in these Family Pages also have External Website Links to

 

  • and the other Photo Galleries in the Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics on the left at the top of each page.

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape or Fragrance:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.
Night-scented Flowering Plants.
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

You can select plants for your garden using the following hierarchy as further detailed in Plants:-

7. Choose a Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers from its own gallery with comparisons per month of 12 flower colours. All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12 ...Index

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with the same Colour from Bee-Pollinated Flowers:-

Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in Bee Bloom Gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses.
 

Click on the OOO in the Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of

ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144

8. Choose plant by its use as part of the design process.


Part of the design process for choosing plants by their use in your garden, involves comparing:-

Other Plant Uses are given in the indices
in each row of the right hand table in the relevant Photo Gallery, or
in each row of the relevant page in its Index Page per letter of the Alphabet for that Photo Gallery
and
these Plant Uses in
Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery:-
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...
Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Birdt

...Attract Butterfly 1, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees 1, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover <60cmr

60-180cm
>180
cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bulb in Bulb Shape Gallery:-
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor House-plant
...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

with these Rose Use and Bedding Use Pages:-

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

Rose Use Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website and see the 4000 x 3000 pixel camera raw photos of roses from Peter Beales Roses and RV Rogers
with

rosababymasqueradecflo1a
Bed-ding

rosamrssammcgredyclimbingcflorogerltd1
Cli-mber

rosalinvillecflorogerltd1
Cut-Flower

rosasilverghostflomidcgarnonswilliams1a
Gro-und Cover

rosafryessexwildfireflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Grow in Pot

rosawarmwelcomecflorogerltd1
Fra-grant

rosathefairycflorogerltd1a
Not Fra-grant


and

Bedding Use Pages

geraniumcflowlassovianumbluestargarnonswilliams1
Bed-ding out

argyranthemumcflopetitepinkgirlgarnonswilliams1
Filling In

salviacflophyllisfancygarnonswilliams1
Scree-ning Use

verbenacflos1lafrancekavanagh1
In Pots

bidenscfloferulifoliagoldeneyegarnonswilliams1
In Window Boxes

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1
In Hang-ing Bas-kets

dahliacflo1moonfiregarnonswilliams1
Sum-mer Bed-ding

9. Choose plants for butterflies to use.


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....
Story of their Common Names
....
Use of Plant with Flowers
....
Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....
Edible Plant Parts
....
Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....
Food for Butterfly/Moth
...Cream Common Names
....
Coastal and Dunes
....
Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....
Broad-leaved Woods
...Mauve Note
....
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....
Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....
Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....
Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....
Marshes, Fens, Bogs
...Purple Note
....
Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....
Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....
Saltmarshes
....
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....
Other
...White Q-Z Note
....
Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....
Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....
Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....
River Banks and other Freshwater Margins

Poisonous Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous (Chalk) Soil,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

10. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.
         

monkeyorchid1a1a1a

This is a sad story about our native Monkey Orchid....

It is so sad, that she has to lie down, and...

monkeyorchid2a1

Irrelevant material like this row, with

  • Ivydene Gardens Logo
  • Ivydene Horticultural Services Email Link and
  • copyright is added at bottom of each page.

...to prevent cows from eating our native orchid plants, we must put the orchids in chicken-wire cages:-monkeyorchid3a1

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Amended May 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

"The Green Tree of Love's Mystery" by
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires
thegreentreeoflovesmysterybymadeleinepires1a1a1a1

"As well as producing oxygen for us to breathe, trees are for humans a place of refuge, source of building material and for me, a living testament to the bounteous beauties inherent in nature. In our fast-moving contemporary city life, I believe it is important to at least have pictures of trees around us to enrich our lives, since they are designed to make our environment healthier." from Madeleine F. Williamson Pires.

HOME PAGES - Use this website in Landscape mode on an iPAD instead of an iPHONE, when away from home.
Welcome *
About Chris Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,
Contact Chris Garnons-Williams - Contact Information (Never Fail Cake Recipe),
Website Design History - Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.
Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map - usually each of the educational not commercial 212 topics (none of these 212 linked websites sell or buy anything, nor do they take or give commission, and the only adverts are of products/services that I believe would benefit my visitors and are inserted by me) has its own Site Map, which is normally the first page of that Topic linked to from other topics.
Every page should have 3 separate tables - the Topics Table, the Data Table and the Pages/Index Table.
Each page has its own resources and is not data-base driven, so can be downloaded - downloading the whole website of 20.44 GB (3 Dec 2021) annually, with pages being between 1200 and over 6000 pixels wide and between 16k and over 33k long would provide you with an updating resource when either visiting a garden or planning your own.
Usually 3 or 4 clicks gets you to any page in these 9763 pages in these folders from any other page.
Usually the top gallery of a plant type has all the flower images of that and the subsidiary galleries in 1 of 6 colours per month pages, with that flower thumbnail being in each month page that it flowers.
Clicking on the middle of that thumbnail will transfer you to that flower's page or row in data table within that page description; and
its link - the link may not work the day after it was created - to a mail-order nursery selling you that plant directly should be in the Comments row of that Plant Description Page.
The majority of the original images in this website are inserted, published in Freeway which produces a 72 pixel per inch Freeway image. This is exported to a File, and the image published by Freeway replaced by the re-imported Freeway image file as a pass-through image; before that is published again and the resulting folder website uploaded for visitors. The lower resolution speeds up the display of the 28,398 JPEG images - some of these images are re-used in different comparison pages of different galleries and therefore added to the resources of each of those galleries (6,508 images have garnons williams or garnons-williams as the ending of the filename and those can go in the public domain as of 5 June 2019, but all the remainder are
copyrighted by others and may not be re-used elsewhere without the permission of the copyright holder).
Camera photos of Coleus RHS Bedding Trial starts the process of displaying the complete 4000 x 3000 pixel original photos from Chris Garnons-Williams. Since each photo can be 3.5-6.0 Mb and there may be 11 of these on a page; each page may take a long time to download .

Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Besides informing you how to

 

Other items in the Home Section - further expanded in Mission Statement Page - which have nothing to do with gardening, but reading them might deter you from visiting Great Britain; or employing its workforce; or trusting its local or main government:-

  • In 2020, there were over 400,000 discharges of untreated sewage into English waters, and the UK ranks last in EU countries for bathing water quality.
    combinedsewersystembaxbaum
    from
    REB Research Blog by Dr. Robert Buxbaum. This has not added the water from the paved over front garden used as car park

    Do you mind bathing in raw sewage within a river or off the beach, eating a wild or farmed fish from it, washing yourself in it or drinking the mostly cleaned sewage water? There may still be some dangerous chemicals in that sewage from humans or farming or industry, which have not been removed? You can get leptospirosis if soil or freshwater (such as water from a river, canal or lake) that contains infected pee gets in your mouth, eyes or a cut – usually during activities like kayaking, outdoor swimming or fishing.
    No English river is free from pollution - Parliament report - 13 January 2022. "Raw sewage, microplastics and slurry are coursing through all of England's rivers, putting health and nature at risk, a parliamentary report concludes. Agriculture and water companies are the biggest contributors to this "chemical cocktail", the Environmental Audit Committee warns. People across the country using rivers for activities ranging from sports and swimming to fishing risk falling ill from bacteria in sewage and slurry. Microplastics worn away from car tyres and brakes are being washed from busy roads into rivers - the committee said National Highways and the Environment Agency are not doing enough to prevent this pollution." This report is from the Environmental Audit Committee, but "what it can't do is force the government to act on its reports or push its recommendations through Parliament. The committee's main power is to draw attention to any failures or shortcomings. So the hope will be this report shames the government and its regulatory agencies into raising their game on river pollution. What it can't guarantee is that your local river will actually be cleaned up any time soon."
    "UK rivers the worst in Europe for chemical pollution from prescription drugs - Paracetamol, caffeine and hay fever treatments in sewage released by water companies have implications for animal and human health" from
    The Telegraph (14 February 2022).
    ""What we know now is that even the most modern efficient wastewater treatment plants aren't completely capable of degrading these compounds before they end up in rivers or lakes. The most polluted sites were largely in low- to middle-income countries, and in areas where there was sewage dumping, poor wastewater management and pharmaceutical manufacturing." from Pharmaceuticals in rivers threaten world health - study by the
    BBC.

    We the British have the
    Stiff Upper Lip and do nothing but drink this muck and allow government to kill us off, but it would not be sensible for anyone to visit this country with this state of affairs, otherwise you could return home in a wooden box. "The total waiting list currently sits at an alarming, record high 5.98 million and continues to grow." from Pressure Points in the NHS report by the BMA - updated on Tuesday 14 December 2021, so you might not survive the wait for treatment in the UK.
    "A nurse in a 220-mile challenge to swim the length of the River Severn is in hospital after "swallowing sewage" in June 2019."
    "Ms Pierrot - 1 of 13 from London - who travelled to Kent for a swim on a July Sunday - and 12 of them became ill. Ms Pierrot had put her head under Medway river and ended up in hospital. Just 14% of English rivers are of good ecolological standing, according to the Environment Agency, and all rivers fail standards for chemical pollution. Live water quality monitoring exists only at designated bathing water sites - and only 2 of these in the UK are on rivers but River Medway is not one of them" From I newspaper of 30-31 July 2022. People moving in from elsewhere will not know that they should not visit their local river, have a boat trip on it, swim in it, catch fish from it or anything else with it otherwise they could end up in Medway Hospital which went into Special Measures in 2013 and came out of it 4 years later.
  • UK National Debt by Tejvan Pettinger - "According to the OBR  in 2022-23, debt interest payments will be £83 billion." 83 billion is more than 10% of the UK Tax revenue annually. UK government raises £800 billion in revenue each year.
    United Kingdom National Debt:-

    "The United Kingdom national debt is the total quantity of money borrowed by the Government of the United Kingdom at any time through the issue of securities by the British Treasury and other government agencies.
    At the end of December 2021, UK General Government gross debt was £2,382.8 billion, or 102.8% of Gross domestic product.
    Distinct from both the national debt and the PSNCR is the interest that the government must pay to service the existing national debt. In 2012, the annual cost of servicing the public debt amounted to around £43bn, or roughly 3% of GDP.
    In 2012, the British population numbered around 64 million, and the debt therefore amounted to a little over £15,000 for each individual Briton, or around £33,000 per person in employment. Each household in Britain paid an average of around £2,000 per year in taxes to finance the interest." UK's National Debt was £1,004 billion in December 2011. UK Government have only been able to increase that to £2,710 billion by 4 August 2022 - an average of £160 billion annually. So it does not matter what the new prime minister in the UK might reduce or increase taxes, that the UK is becoming more bankrupt and the politicians in charge have no idea of any fiscal policy to the extent that tax revenue raised will be going on paying the interest on the debt rather than on paying the NHS to look after the patients who do not have Covid. Liz Truss's spending policies would cost £82.5 billion with this PM candidate suggesting that Britain can afford to borrow more - £82.5 + £160 = £242.5.
    National Debt in 1993 was £225.457 billion and in 1994 was £274.243 billion. Liz Truss was born on 26 July 1975, she intends to increase the National Debt, by the National Debt of 1993/94 when she was 19, in 2022-23. In 28 years the UK government has increased the National Debt by 889%.
    The UK would run out of bullets in the first 2 days of a war with Russia - the UK citizens cannot even do the same as the people in Ukraine have done in taking up arms and defending themselves.
  • My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers (with the return pipe being connected to the flow of the boiler instead of the return connection) and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
    Do you mind being in a gas explosion?
  • Over 1100 school children will be poisoned by nitrous dioxide from their parent's cars, 4 new school buses and 4 new bus routes ending at the proposed new school; which will transport them in Medway.
    The UK Government Department of Education has approved the building of this school, but maybe the UK Government Department of Health might not approve? The new school opened in September 2021. Are their doctors to treat them or will the patient have to wait more than 12 hours after being delivered to A&E at hospital before they are seen? Further details in Medway Proposed New School page.
  • We wrote the
    Manderson emails to us about re-wire;
    concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
    Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
    re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
    which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
    Pages
    10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
    "The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
    Would you like to pay thousands of pounds for a British Workman to create the conditions for you to be electrocuted and/or have your house burn down because of shorting wires causing by poor workmanship?
    NAPIT is a wonderful organization designed to make the UK public believe that the electrical work being done would be safe. If there is a problem, they get you to write answers on their NAPIT form and then get you to send it to the perpertrator so that he can fix it? More than 1100 metres of new cable were used in the rewire by a qualified electrician, who also removed all the previous wiring, including the 2 fuseboards installed by Manderson, which were each attached to a different 13 amp power socket from the original fuseboards; and the 5 original fuseboards. They were replaced with 1 fuseboard, where each fuse was labelled, unlike the 2 fuseboards installed by Manderson.
  • Drinking Water deprivation in Medway, England
    "Terror - Extreme fear; person or thing causing this;
    Reign of terror - time in which community lives in dread of death or outrage" from Volume 2 M-Z of The Reader's Digest Great Encylopaedic Dictionary.
    Drinking water deprivation in Medway, England. No tap water for 30,000 out of 45,000 newly built houses by 2035. In compensation for the additional water requirement; too much water will be taken from the chalk aquifers and this will lead to no water left in the aquifer for any Medway resident.
    Too much water has also been abstracted from underground in India.
    Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.
    "Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from
    Southern Water.
    Is it very kind to get the UK population to buy a house with no water, and then for people who have already bought their houses to deprive them of their existing water supply?

    Other items are expanded in the next row in this table with this wet background.

 

Other items in the page below might be of interest:-

  • Trees falling down from within pavements in Funchal, Madeira in the second row below and then in the second table on the right.
    Since it was 1 of 6 tree experts from Portugal that have monitored and advised Madeira about these trees, then I would be extremely worried about the trees under his control falling on me when I might visit either Portugal or Madeira.
    My reaction on this situation in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2022:-
    • Reaction 1 from 2018 - 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect during 2018).
    • Reaction 2 from 2019 - Photos 6 and 7 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 show a tree in a pavement with 70% of its heartwood rotted away from the earth to the base of the Forked Leader of the trunk as it splits to form another trunk going up. See Forked Leader in Photo 4 in Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page to see why this section of the trunk had been cut away before; but it never has had its wound dressed to prevent this rotting process.
      See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this tree in pavement damage. This may have caused Funchal to get 1 of the 6 tree experts from Portugal to come in September 2019.
    • Reaction 3 from 2020 - Further photos were taken of the trees and added to the website after contacting a member of the staff in Funchal local government.
    • Reaction 4 from 2022 - The photos in the second table on the right show that a tree with most of its heartwood rotted away was cut down, and that at least one other tree that was cut down had more than 80% of its trunk rotted before it was cut down. Both trees were cut down in February 2022. They had both been rotting for years within 2.5cms (1 inch) of traffic on a main road. The trees or parts of them like their main branches could have fallen down at any time - even when under an expert tree man from Portugal, who has been monitoring them for the last 2.5 years; and declared them safe to the taxidrivers.
       
  • Tree roots being denied rainwater, nutrients, air exchange and death of the soil surrounding their roots within tarmaced pavements in Guernsey. Nor do they provide an organic mulch or green manure to feed their trees or redcurrant bushes.
     

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020 1, 2 pages by his department.
See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this damage.
The following 12 sections provide more detail; with section 12 providing a cheap start to improving the life for the roots:-

  • 1. This tree trunk in Madeira will fall because of the heartwood being rotted away.
  • 2. Electrical cabling tied to trees in Madeira is killing the tree.
  • 3. Constriction of trees by metal, tarmac, stone, concrete etc will cause the tree to grow over the constriction. At some point that tree will break at this fulcrum and fall over; due to the weight above that fulcrum being in excess of what the heartwood at that fulcrum can support.
  • 4. Growing trees within 2 metres of a vertical drop in the soil and thus automatically restricting it's circle of roots means that the tree will have complete lack of support from a large section of root and is vulnerable to falling down from wind. Also the Eucalyptus roots extract a lot of water from the soil causing that soil to lose its cohesion and fall away.
  • 5. The weight of a growing unbraced shrub/tree in a small volume of soil, surrounded by impervious material, is going to exceed the weight of that soil. That means that that plant will fall down at the fulcrum of that trunk with the ground.
  • 6. Constriction of trees by plastic twine, baling twine, metal wire will cause the same problem as in Sections 2 and 3.
  • 7. Photograhic evidence of damage to 166 trees in Funchal, Madeira with explanations and possible solutions.
  • 8. In Medway, England the council has sprayed herbicide round the base of trees in public spaces to kill off the grass. The grass dehydrates the roots of the tree below.
  • 9. This explains why grass is detrimental to other plants growing in it.
  • 10. The cultural needs of plants for water, gas exchange and nutrients is explained. If these are not met then that plant will die.
  • 11. Earthworms provide the transport system in the soil for the rainwater, gas exchange and nutrients dissolved in that water to reach the tree roots via tunnels. No access for earthworms, no earthworms, cultural needs of plants not met.
  • 12. Although some solutions have been given in the previous sections, this provides a start for improving the cultivation conditions for the roots of those plants in Madeira and in other countries.

 

1. Could Madeira use this tree in its current state as Cheap Staff Accomodation for

  • staff at the Forum Shopping Centre
  • or
  • for me as accomodation, while I sort out their tree problems
    (at least when I would fall asleep, it would be sitting up as required below? Madeirans care for their staff in knowing that I would not have far to travel to go to work)?

Photo 10 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6063.JPG in
Damage to Tree Roots in Madeira caused by People Page in Section 7.
The hole in the trunk could be sold by the Tourist Office or rented out, who would install a thin front door (you would need to go inside your
bijou residence sideways) with a toilet behind it ( you could also sleep on this toilet saving hotel bed costs), a small sink to the side and hanging space for one's clothes for a very reasonable selling or renting price. A camping stove could be set up outside to cook your meals - or you could eat in the establishments within a 150 metres in the Forum Shopping Centre; and then you could use a small fold-up stool for seating outside. Rubbish could be installed in a bag behind you, which could be lent against as a cushion/pillow at nightime.
Household insurance to cover the flat from being blown down could be expensive. You would need to scrub off the charcoal from the burnt inside of the trunk, before you could paint it magnolia. You might not be able to extend the living space within the trunk without structural collapse.

Try not to be on the zebra crossing when it does fall if there is no repair.

damagetotreeroots10garnonswilliams1


2. The following 2 photos illustrate how easy it is for an electrician to kill a tree by tying a metal/plastic tie so tight that it cuts through the Outer Bark, the Inner Bark or Phloem and the Cambium layers depriving the trunk above and kills it, without him/her knowing that is what will happen. Combine that with no maintenance of these trees in pavements and so the population and the paying visitors prepare to endure the failure of branches/trunks of these trees and hope that they are not underneath or that those trees will not interfere with gas tanks which are below them:

lightsontrees11garnonswilliams1

 

lightsontrees12garnonswilliams1

note the splits in the exposed heartwood, where the heartwood is starting to fail.

Below is a diagram showing how thin are the 3 top layers of a tree/shrub which provide protection and power to live for that tree and how easy it is to be damaged without the tree being able to repair that damage:-

 

trunkdiagram2garnonswilliams1

 

3. The following photo comes from Madeira Island News.com with the accompanying text dated 30 July 2018:-

ironfoundationringsmadeiranews1

"A set of iron foundations placed around some trees of regional road 104, in the stretch between the PSP and the Ponte Vermelha, in Ribeira Brava, are conditioning the growth of the trees and generating controversy.
According to one reader to JM, the fact is that the same bases, which are completely rusty as the image demonstrates, are clearly affecting the growth of the species in question, which in their opinion may lead to the destruction of the species.
In addition, it indicates that many of these bases are even reaching the interior of the trees and there are cases of some species that are already higher in relation to the pavement.
Several popular have already expressed concern about what happened. They understand that the solution is to remove the iron bases."
If these iron bases are reaching the interior of the trees, that means that as that tree grows it will at some point be too heavy to be supported by the trunk at the base level and it will fall down - WHY DOES NOBOBDY IN MADEIRA GET EDUCATED ABOUT HOW TREES GROW AND SHOULD BE MAINTAINED, OR DO THEY PREFER TO HAVE ANOTHER 13 PEOPLE KILLED BY FALLING TREES AS HAPPENED IN 2017? AND WILL THEY MAKE THE SAME MISTAKE WHEN PLANTING 288,000 TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE ECOLOGICAL PARK? Since nobody in Portugal or Madeira is reading this during April 2019, perhaps somebody might tell them or will you also be wasting your time?

 

4. Another report from Madeira about trees:-
PPM WARNS TREES AT RISK OF FALLING ON THE ROAD BETWEEN CANHAS AND PAUL DA SERRA
TOBI HUGHES 22ND FEBRUARY 2019
The PPM Madeira was today on the road connecting the parish of the Canhas to Paul da Serra, according to the request of the people who contacted the party, to see the danger of some large trees that are in danger of falling.

“What we saw there is very worrying,” says Paulo Brito, who photographed some of the trees with their roots in sight without the necessary support to stand. In his opinion, “a stronger wind is enough that they come down”, others that have been severely burned by the last fires and are dead, “just waiting to fall”.

We saw large branches and trees already with a level of inclination for the road, almost at a stage of a possible tragedy.

The road also needs a lot of attention as it is in a very bad state  and is a road used by locals and many tourists, as one of the main routes to Paul da Serra.

exposedtreerootsmadeiranews1

Taken from Funchal News.
This tree does not have any root support for over 50% of its circular root area. There are at least 3 trees in this photo that are within 1 metre of the cliff face to the road. I wonder if these trees are Eucalyptus (one of the reasons for the introduction of Eucalytus to the Island was for the production of paper) which has one of the highest demands for water and therefore if grown on a slope with many others, the ground underneath this tree may have reached the Permanent Wilting Point. Then, the soil between the tree roots falls off the side of a cliff as shown here; and the ground becomes too dry to support the other trees in this wood. In this photo there are at least 2 trees which are no longer vertical and if the ground moisture below them has reached beyond the Permanent Wilting Point for those trees, then they likely to continue the descent to ground.
Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent Wilting Point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

 

 

5. If you put a shrub/tree in a very small volume of ground and allow it to grow, there will come a point where the weight of the tree/shrub above ground exceeds the weight of the earth/roots below the ground and so it becomes unstable and falls over as you can see in an evening for falling trees in October 2017 article. The earth in the hole where the shrub is surrounded by impervious material is not enough area or depth for its roots to continue to provide itself with a stable platform as it matures.

Tree Root Systems - 130/95/ARB - by Martin Dobson of Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service:-
Tree root systems are wide spreading, extending radially in any direction for distance in excess of the tree's height; frequently no deeper than 200 cms (80 inches, which as noted above; soil moisture is generally considered to be in the upper 80 inches) - see What to do about subsidence caused by clay page to see the effect of the length of different tree roots. Roots grow predominantly near the soil surface (see photo below with tree roots on the soil surface) - over 90% of all roots, and virtually all the large structural supporting roots, are in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. Soil disturbance within the rooting are should be avoided, as this can significantly affect tree stability and moisture uptake. Lateral roots taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms distance they are usually only 2-5cms (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm.
Roots branching from the upper side of laterals grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated, to form fans or mats of thousands of fine non-woody 'absorbing' or 'feeder' roots. In woodland, they grow horizontally between the 2 to 3 year old fallen leaves to absorb moisture and nutrient uptake. In order for roots to survive, oxygen must be available in the soil immediately surrounding them. Depositing toxic or impermeable materials on the roots will damage the roots" by stopping access to oxygen and soil moisture from above. Having grass over the tree roots is also detrimental as shown in section 9 below.
Our local church has a very large yew tree, where the local authority have removed the leaves, dead church flowers, prunings from the rest of the churchyard and grass cuttings to make sure that it has no nutrients and the grave-diggers continue to dump 60cm (24 inches) depth of the subsoil from new graves onto the yew tree roots robbing them of both moisture and oxygen - noted on 6 January 2022.
Why is it that nobody in Great Britain in parks or gardens open to the public, or gardens of homeowners understand the cultural needs of plants, as shown onsection 10 of this row? and why do they want to kill these plants as shown in the sections of this row in Madeira? Every country in the world puts tarmac on top of tree roots in pavements of roads, right up to the trunk. Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then, collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.

 

 

6. "This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.

gardenmaintenanceimprove1a
Please also do not use tarred cord as it will last too long and cause the same problem as above, use garden twine which will rot within a few years and then allows the plant' stem to expand. For trees or shrubs remember that the stake is only a support for the first 3 years at most, in order to stop the plant from being uprooted and to allow the stem above the 18 inches (45 cms) where it is tied to being able to sway in the breeze and strengthen rather than being tied at 60 inches (150 cms) and then when the support is removed the tree trunk is not strong enough and breaks in a strong wind. If you going to support climbers then also use garden twine, since when you cut it to move or remove that branch every 2 or 3 years, it can then lie on the ground and be recycled by your friendly earth organisms!" from Growing Edibles in Containers in Plants Extra.
If the tree is constricted by a metal ring as shown above; then it will grow over that ring and when the weight of growth above is too much for the area of heartwood within that metal ring, it will also snap off at that point.

 

 

7. 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages (and further detailed in the following Camera Photo Galleries Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4):-

The people of Madeira and/or VAN DEN BERK NURSERIES could SOLVE THESE TREE PROBLEMS
or

they could continue to kill these trees and others in the same situation elsewhere on the island
and then continue to be killed by those trees falling on them or on a 1000 gallon cooking gas tank for each of 2 hotels, causing leaks, followed by explosions

or
invite me to do the work unpaid, with Madeira providing food/drink, work clothes, materials and equipment for these tree problems (Madeira would donate the use of the following sleeping facility with my ankles and head above my stomach to drain my ankles and prevent drowning from phlegm created in my throat during my sleep together with 11 medications for heart failure, head tumour, diuretics, blood thinners, reduction of heart rate by 60 beats a minute, glaucoma, and 3 of those medications for diabetes, etc).
It might take me a little time

  • to gather over 50 tons of seaweed/ cow manure and mix it before delivering it 3 times a year to each tree and pavement flower bed in this section within Funchal; more would be needed to cover the others in the island,
  • removal of pavers and white/black marble pavements and replace with reduced size pavers with 2 inch depth of sharp sand under them,
  • deal with unsealed tree branch cuts and rotting holes,
  • deal with rotting tree roots,
  • deal with root/lorry problems,
  • retighten tree braces,
  • erect steel structures over gas tanks to prevent damage by falling trees,
  • provide irrigation to the trees in those pavements on a weekly basis
  • create database of all trees/flower beds in pavements in Madeira, with repair schedule and paver replacement/ irrigation/ fertiliser creation; and irrigation and fertilising time schedules.
  • following my use of 6 FAIL (Fortran Assisted Instruction Lecture) written notes, so that the students from Years 1 and 2 of the Architecture Dept of Portsmouth Polytechnic would receive the next 1 hour lecture notes at the end of the previous, I taught the Fortran language, hardware, software, flowcharting and documentation to them within 6 hours followed by 2 afternoons of practical in creating stats from an experiment in the laboratory. Those students passed with 75% following my exam of a waffle, flowchart and program questions supervised by the Computer Science Dept. I graduated with a 2.2 in Psychology from Brunel University the previous year to this teaching, having spent 18 months under Section 22 from falling on my head at 60mph in Wales from a motorbike and then recovering the use of the spoken and written English language by myself. I was passed mentally fit in the January of the year that I took my finals. Due to 1/3 of my brain being detached from my skull, I am discouraged from engaging in contact sports. Following close contact between a female dentist and my teeth, which resulted in a 2 month hiatus in my blood-thining medication, I am also allergic to close contact with the female species, unless my eyes are closed until they move 2 feet (60 cms) away. I have a temperature range between 18-20 degrees Celcius, so it can be a problem where air-conditioning only brings the temperature down to 24 degrees Celcius as in cinemas, theatres and banqueting halls.
    Then perhaps I could teach the following students:-
    • Tree-surgeons to get trees thinned, crowned, etc to aid the purpose for which those trees were planted, not pollard the whole tree and produce a very dangerous result when used for trees in pavements, or for hanging electricity lighting schemes on them - the ties slowly cutting through the bark and the cambium killing the trunk/branch above.
    • Bed maintenance staff in how to prune, which does not mean chopping a rose to ground level each year and nor does it mean using a flail to chop shrubs into rectangles or turn shrub borders into oblong hedges.
    • Bed and tree maintenance staff with use of green manures, seaweed/cow-, pig-, sheep-, chicken-manure, recycled food waste from restaurants and food markets mixed with shredded shrub/tree prunings and used as a mulch to feed the plants under their care.
    • hotel and restaurant staff in checking the state of their toilets to stop the leakage of thousands of gallons of water from the overflow in the cistern or the washer seals into the latrine bowl.
      Having had to reveal 2 leaks in the 2 toilets in the Pestana Promenade Hotel suite in 2018 followed by a leak in 1 of the toilets in the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Suite in 2018 followed a year later in the Pestana Promenade Hotel Suite with one of the same toilets still leaking and it taking an hour for the Maintenance Manager to cure it this time, I am hopefull that next year there will not be a repeat performance.
      Your toilet cisterns remind me of the self-cleaning tumble dryer that used the water removed from the drying clothes to wash the condenser into the same match-box tank with foam pressure valve which activated a pump to transfer that water into a large tank at the top. Unfortunately when the system washed the fine dust into that matchbox, it clogged the foam and activated the pump. When no more water could be pumped, it refused to allow the machine to start drying. That tank was inaccessable to the machine owner and so cost £180 a time to get emptied. Brilliant - a machine designed to fail if it carried out its function, rather like the toilets in Madeira in wasting water.
    • educate the public about their relationship with plants that come into their environment to realise that without them they would be dead from lack of oxygen. In public spaces, it is advisable to be careful since many people suffer from hay-fever, so plants from All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month could be used, which would not affect them and those planted areas could be identified for them.

I could use Companion Planting, but I am sure that the above is enough for me to start with in taking 400 hours per day leaving my time schedule for sleep and nourishment not executed,
if
the people of Madeira do not wish to sort out these tree/shrub plant problems themselves as can be seen from the lack of response to what I wrote last year in the Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page.
 

Although the above is about the trees in the pavements in Madeira, other towns in other countries may find the information within it useful. There are also Problems with Trees in Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019 Page.

 

 

8. I have noticed in my home town that herbicide has been spread

  • round the trees on lawn-grass between the kerb and the tarmac pavement and
  • under the hoop barriers
    (hoop-barriers would probably be easier than the more effective Brett Trief Vehicle Containment Kerb system) stopping cars from parking on that verge in March 2019.
  • Also, where trees are in lawn-grass on steep slopes so that their roots are exposed up the bank, that that lawn-grass has been removed - instead of herbicide being used - between those visible roots.


Perhaps Green Manure seeds will be sown in these areas.
If the Green Manure (Mustard is bee-pollinated) is bee-pollinated rather wind-pollinated, then hay-fever sufferers would not be affected when it flowers and sets seed.
Then,

  • if the contractors using their ride-on mowers or rotary mowers cut into the green manure as well, it will not matter as the seed generated from that green manure will grow and replace the damaged legumes.
  • These legumes under the hoop barriers and besides the trees will then feed nitrogen to the roots of those trees and
  • what rain water that these legumes do not use will be available for those same tree-roots. This will help the trees
  • as well as reduce the possible damage to the bark of those trees by strimmers from those same contractors and
  • reduce the amount of grass mowings being put into the storm drains, when it rains after those mowings have strayed onto the tarmac road. Green manure instead of grass in and around hoop barriers within a very thin strip of grass between the road and the tarmac pavement will not require strimming as the grass it replaces does.
  • if the grass next to private household fences/walls/ telegraph poles/ other items within public grassed areas or next to public buildings is also killed off with herbicides and replaced with green manure like mustard, then the strimming of that public grassed area next to those boundaries could be stopped.

The legumes like mustard between spring to autumn will replace the bare earth, which would otherwise grow weeds and look unsightly - it does not matter if some mustard grows into the grassed areas, since it would be cut down.
Use Lawn Aerating Shoes to spike the bare earth, spread the green manure seed thinly and spread using a soft brush into the holes created by the spikes. Spray the seeded ground with water to dampen the ground, before spreading a thin layer of sharp sand over the seeded area and leave the seeds to grow.
Repeat this next spring, since the first frost during the previous autumn will have killed the top growth of the mustard and the worms will then clear the ground. It becomes too cold for the weeds and just replanting in the spring with mustard will superseed any new growth of weeds.

Overall maintenance cost would thus be greatly reduced and the trees would benefit.

 

 

9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-

hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1a

This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

 

Have you ever wondered how much grass is at a Major League Baseball stadium?
We did and found the answer. The average professional baseball field in America will use around 100,000 square feet of turf (~2.25 acres), which will need approximately 62,500* gallons of water per week (under normal watering schedule of 1″/week). This is equivalent to the amount of water 89 homes will use in the same amount of time. 62,500 gallons = 284130.63 litres. This is used by 89 homes in 7 days = 456 litres per day per home.
This water is being used by the grass every week and if you do not irrigate, then it gets it from the soil and when it rains. Ever wondered why the ground under turf in public areas is so dry to the detriment of trees/shrubs growing within it or in beds alongside.
In Bevan's speech, he warned that because of climate change, by 2040, more than half of UK summers were likely to exceed 2003 temperatures – meaning more water shortages. By 2050, the amount of water available could be reduced by 10%-15%, with some rivers seeing 50%-80% less water during the summer months. This would result in a higher risk of drought, caused by the hotter, drier summers and less predictable rainfall. Water shortages are not uniform across the UK, with the North-west, Wales and Scotland generally having an adequate supply and the South-east experiencing the greatest pressure. According to the Greater London Authority, London is pushing close to capacity, is likely to have water supply problems by 2025 and “serious shortages” by 2040.
Building Regulations 
There have been changes over the years to the Building Regulations in order to try to reduce water consumption. Main changes in the 2015 edition of the Building Regulations include the introduction of an optional requirement for tighter water efficiency in Regulation 36 (section G2). 
The amendments are separated into two levels:
(a) 125 litres per person per day; 
(b) or the optional requirement of 110 litres per person per day (which may be a requirement of the water companies within that region). Planning Authorities in the South-East have decided on the 110 litre per person per day; produced by the builder fitting different taps, etc that will reduce current usage of 131 litres per person per day to 110, without the buyer in the South-East of England being aware.

ALTHOUGH THE VOLUME OF DRINKING WATER IS REDUCING IN THE SOUTH-EAST, MANY NEW HOMES ARE BEING BUILT AND SO FAR DESALINATION PLANTS OR MORE RESERVOIRS HAVE NOT BEEN BUILT TO KEEP UP WITH THE EXTRA DEMAND. AS EACH HOME IS BEING BUILT IT REDUCES THE LAND AREA FOR RAIN TO SOAK INTO THE LAND TO BE COLLECTED IN CHALK AQUIFERS OR WATER RESERVOIRS - THE NUMBER OF CHAMBERS FILLED WITH BULLETS IN THE REVOLVER FOR RUSSIAN ROULETTE IS INCREASING FROM 3 TOWARDS ALL 6 AND THIS IS BEING CARRIED AS GOVERNMENT POLICY.

 

hotelgardens5garnonswilliams1

Photo 5 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG_6222.JPG

The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is witin an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?

10. Since I am currently adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-
This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
Nitrogen Cycle -
Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
Oxygen Cycle -
No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
Carbon Dioxide -
Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

11. Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from tree roots

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of
Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting the requirements then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree.
The roots of each tree covered by tarmac, concrete or stone (in any country in the world) will create a Russian Roulette situation, where the asphixiated, dehydrated and starved tree may fall down. In this situation, there is only one place where the tree may get the water and nutrients requiired and that is by taking them from a branch, normally the ones nearest the ground to be able to compete for new branches and leaves at the top in competition with either other trees or buildings shading their tops. This can be seen in dense forests.
Human beings must be the only animal that is determined to kill itself by denying itself oxygen to breath.

Nitrogenous fertilizers tend to create acidic conditions, which are fatal to the worms, and dead specimens are often found on the surface following the application of substances such as DDT, lime sulphur, and lead arsenate. In Australia, changes in farming practices such as the application of superphosphates on pastures and a switch from pastoral farming to arable farming had a devastating effect on populations of the giant Gippsland earthworm, leading to their classification as a protected species. Globally, certain earthworms populations have been devastated by deviation from organic production and the spraying of synthetic fertilizers and biocides with at least three species now listed as extinct but many more endangered.
Vermicomposting of all organic "wastes" and addition of this organic matter, preferably as a surface mulch , on a regular basis will provide earthworms with their food and nutrient requirements, and will create the optimum conditions of temperature and moisture that will naturally stimulate their activity.

This earthworm activity aerates and mixes the soil, and is conducive to mineralization of nutrients and their uptake by vegetation. Certain species of earthworm come to the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil. Because a high level of organic matter mixing is associated with soil fertility, an abundance of earthworms is generally considered beneficial by farmers and gardeners.

 

12. The easiest and quickest solution for existing pavement areas using pavers or paving slabs is the SuDSFLOW System using paving spacers for permeable paving. Simply take up the paver/paving slab and re-install with the spacer and laying coarse if you cannot afford to also install the correct subgrade. You would then end up with redundant pavers/paving slabs and the same system could be used elsewhere.
The same SuDSFLOW System could be used on Domestic Driveways, Patios and Terraces, Car Parks and Footpaths including the laying coarse and subgrade to absorb the rainfall even if the soil is clay underneath. This would prevent the rainwater falling on your land from leaving it - which is illegal in the UK.
Instead of wasting your time using the existing compost bins in private gardens; use the
vermicomposting system to create a better product for your home garden.
Use the same
vermicomposting system on organic waste from restaurants, hotels and supermarkets, before mashing it into small compost particles and put into a water solution to give a monthly supply to the trees in your pavements in your village/ town/ council area.

Difficulties for van drivers in locating your property.
It may be best to use
what3words to get your front door address and this can be used by anyone to locate your address.
Then, get the overhead photo by clicking on the button next to the person button in the bottom right corner of the map to see exactly where that 3m square is, and that would enable someone to drive to your location.
If you want delivery to be to your neighbour when you are out, then locate the 3m square on his property where you wish the driver to drop it.
If you are not going to be able to park on the property where you are going, then the same process can be used to provide you with the 3 words of where you can park.
What3words has divided the world into 3m squares and given each square a unique combination of three words.
what3words addresses are easy to say and share, and as accurate as GPS coordinates.
51.520847, -0.19552100 ←→ /// filled.count.soap

 

If the idea of saving trees does not appeal, perhaps you could aid damsels in distress:-

  • A friend of mine recently had a problem with the hanging loop on the side of the backless dress having the zip, that the zip got caught in the hanging loop while she was pulling it up. This caused some lengthy period of time before - being by herself - she was able to free herself.
  • If the hanging loop attached to the dress either side of the zip at its top was instead a tube of material which went into an open-ended pocket on each side of the zip. Then, these 2 open-ended pockets on each side of the zip inside the dress would extend beyond the zip at the bottom of the zip. The loop of material could be threaded through on each side, before its ends were sewn together perhaps with a tassel end. The bottom of the loop would be on the outside of the dress, whereas the top of each pocket would be on the inside of the dress.
  • This same idea could be used on the other side with each open-sided pocket being the same length as the zip-side and it would be attached to the inside of the dress at the same distance away from the dress seam as for the zipped side.
  • When the dress is removed from its hanger, and the dress has been put on, then the woman can pull the bottom of each hanging loop or tassel before she does up the zip. This should stop the hanging loop from being caught up in the zip. The flat tassel would make it look as part of the fashion of the garment.
  • Another friend has a problem with large handbags. She buys second-hand ones from charity shops and besides the normal items, she prefers to top up coffee with brandy and so has a brandy flask while having meals in restaurants. She has shopping bags in the handbag, but if there is too much then the remaining shopping goes in the handbag as well. This causes damage in normal handbags to the lining and seams.
  • Leather Design and Craft at www.leatherdesignandcraft.co.uk attend craft fairs and make tough items for longevity. So my friend designed the handbag and here is the result where the leather used is the same strength as in the bags carried by bus conductors some years ago:-
  • handbag1a1
    My friend is fond of cats, so the cat was added at my request.

  • handbag4a1

     
  • My friend designed it so there would still be enough room for purse, keys, glasses and further shopping, without damage to the handbag!!! Undamaged handbag still going strong - 24 June 2022.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
...F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
...L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
...R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........Flower Shape
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -
Many types of plant in the following Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with their number of colours appended as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira:
Photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in
Madeira
taken in February 2022.


Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the
original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools,
or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

IMG0001

Item is
IMG 0001.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack1garnonswilliams

At least 40% of the horizontal area of this tree trunk has rotted, before this tree was
cut down in February 2022. The rot has occurred of most of the heartwood together
with all the central nervous system in this rotted trunk section. This hole in the trunk leading to
this rotted area has been there for many years as you can see from the tree growth rings,
where this was pushed in breaking through the bark and the softwood to the heartwood inside.
A minor safety issue for a government employed civil engineer is
that you can see that

the rotting process has been visible to the naked eye of the inside
of this trunk FOR MANY YEARS,

and yet nobody has done anything during that time except wait
for it to fall, kill people and then bemoan the fact that they did not
know why this has occurred - see article in my page
Continuation of Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal,
Maderia,
which shows why this tree fell, and killed people who
happenned to be in its fall down.
The population of Madeira love to play Russian Roulette every time
they pass a tree, and the tourists are unaware of that danger as
they pass the same trees ANYWHERE ON MADEIRA OR PORTUGAL.

The central nervous system of this tree which goes up the trunk and branches off to
potential branches and actual branches is used by the tree to manage itself -

  • if a series of caterpillars start to eat its leaves, then it come with an antitode
    as perhaps a bitter taste or poison and this tends to prevent these caterpillars
    in the future
  • if it gets windy, then the trunk and its main branches are strengthened by
    additional growth sideways to prevent them from breaking
  • if a branch or the top of the trunk is broken off, then one or more of the
    dormant branches will be activated to grow to recover the process and
    rebalance the tree, etc,etc,etc...

Unfortunately, when this central nervous system is destroyed, then there is no way that the
entire tree can manage itself and resolve problems. This tree has become a watershoot
and instead of the watershoot developing its own central nervous system, the one on this
tree has been destroyed at ground level and its nerves above the destruction will have
no place to send the signals. Because of this trunk becoming a watershoot without a
functioning central nervous system, then that could explain why the other same species
of tree in this road that had their main branches tipped during the last 2 years had allowed the tips
to absorb the dew (which absorbed the salt spray from the ocean) on the cut ends and thus
kill off the leaves turning them brown. The signals sent by the main branches had nowhere to
go; thus no response could be made by the tree against this attack. See IMG 0013 photo
text down below about salt in sand and its effect on trees.

See Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal,
Madera to understand why this makes this tree extremely dangerous to the local
population, who then decide to climb all over it and attach lights to it 2 or 3 times a year,
then climb up and take the light system off and tear off fresh new branches in the process.

Every time any tree has a branch cut off or the branch damaged by wind, etc, then due
to the complete non-maintenace program by humans, the wound will rot and the tree
will rot away and fall down. This can also occur when new trees are planted and they
have crossing branches, then the branches will either split apart from the trunk or rub
against each other and expose the heartwood and then the rot will set in again. See
Crossing Branches in trees in Funchal, Madeira page.

 

"This is the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow
College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a
Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case
of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical
strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air
and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The
cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as
possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly
a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which
may alight on the cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it
is quite easily forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is
involved. All cuts over 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young
specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period
without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests -
in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they
are reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these
preparations, however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing
has been completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary
to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications,
although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural
to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the
surface of a large wound as it dries out. These need to be filled in as they open and the
surface covered with further applications of a wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (
this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be
the most up to date version
), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I
switched to Black External Masonry Paint (this B
edec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently
seems to be a very good one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.

Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-
"Cavities
These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that
degenerative processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into
the parent branch or trunk by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues
the whole snag becomes rotten and may hold considerable moisture which encourages
further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete healing and the resultant callus forms
a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots away completely. When this
happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,and this encourages
further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......

q9cavitiesgarnonswilliams1

Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in
time, if allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be
making light of the situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and
decay is often more extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay
is usually most rapid in the softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting
below the cavity is of course natural, for water often collects in the hollow, either as a
result of rain or because of the seepage of sap from neighbouring living tissues. Once
moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a progressive increase in the
activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very rapidly if there are
other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join up with
each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to
leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent
to the area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the
hollow trunk is left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a
drastic shortening of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and
the health of the tree deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers.

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-
"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is
to a certain extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated
by the terminal bud. This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near
the base often do not develop but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for
many years, perhaps throughout the life of the tree. However, should a break or a
pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these lower buds may develop and grow out.
It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace with the developing stem over the
years, ready to break out should the need arise."
" from Monitoring of trees in Funchal Page 1.

 


Madeira seems to adopt the system - as you can verify by looking at some of the other
over 400 photos that I have inserted into this website - of either ignoring the rotting process
altogether - or by placing a metal grid over the hole to prevent rubbish being thrown into it -
and then later on a cigarette of a lit match sets the rubbish alight and burns the inside of the trunk.

I have reported that the government of Madeira managed to get one of the the 6 tree
experts from Portugal to come and report on these trees in the pavement. Identity tags
were fixed to the trees from that September and I saw them in January the following year.
I did not see any evidence that anything had been done to save those trees. Now in February
2022, I see this tree stump and now understand what the taxi-drivers outside the Forum
told me - these trees are inspected and then passed as safe presumably by the use of a machine
to measure the density of the trunk. So if the density is insufficient, then the tree is cut down.
This is ignoring the visible evidence of the rot within the trunk which can be seen and totally
ignoring the actual state of the tree. The heartwood of a tree is what keeps it standing up and
if the majority of that is destroyed, then the tree is likely to fall. This and many others in the
pavements have been allowed to rot for many years. In the table on the left, you can see the
bijou residence for a worker in the Forum where a great deal of the centre of this tree trunk's
heartwood and all its central nervous system in that section has rotted away - and it has been
allowed to rot further during the last 2 years and is currently included in a refurbushed pavement.
As tourists we are extremely grateful to the government of Funchal in providing trees that can
fall down at any time along any road in Madeira due to the complete misunderstanding in
Madeira for pedestrian safety and total lack of tree maintenance for the health of the tree.
Lighting engineers climbing these trees and putting electrical lighting systems on them -
or off them - damage the trees when fixing them to the tree and the cables between those trees.

Perhaps if this 1 tree expert from the 6 tree experts in Portugal used TreeRadar; that
he could see the true health of every one of the more than 4000 trees that he had
investigated between arriving in September and me looking at the tree idendity discs in
the following January. "Much like an MRI solves a critical medical need for very
high-resolution, non-invasive imaging of the body, the Tree Radar Unit (TRU™) radar
imaging system creates the same type of high-resolution, non-invasive image of the
internal structure of a tree and its root mass." from TreeRadar. This would show him
that not only is the tree trunk rotten, but that its roots are too thin as well - as
shown in IMG 0004 below.
These thin roots cannot be the laterals - Horizontally growing side shoots (laterals)
form at an early age and soon become largely responsible for structural support
.
Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming
the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are
usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more
in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches)
distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage
they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend
to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper',
lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable
further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch).
They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although
most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be
2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.

They are probably 'Feeder' roots - Roots branching from the upper side of laterals
grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated,
to form fans or mats of thousands of fine (<2mm diameter) non-woody 'absorbing'
or 'feeder' roots.

Feeder roots are not strong enough to support its own tree and these trees did not have any
water, oxygen or access to the air above for root food (compost, manure, or chemical
fertiliser) and waste gases.

Photos in the Evergreen Trees Gallery Site Map Page show what I did to save a very old yew
tree in my local churchyard more than 10 years ago. That tree is healthier and is currently
growing well during 2022 - it's crown is many metres in diameter.
Any tree can be saved - a hollow tree in a client's garden could be pushed over by
me. Instead, I carried out the same procedure of expanding foam and bottles to fill the
hole in the trunk as for the yew tree above. A year later that tree was firmer and did not
move as much as it did when I had pushed it a year previously. In other words, the
growth ring had occured and a previous growth ring had been lignified in turning it into
heartwood without that year's growth being rotted away.

 

IMG0003

Item is
IMG 0003.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack2garnonswilliams

It is great to see how close the traffic came to this tree.

IMG0004

Item is
IMG 004.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack3garnonswilliams

Further along this stretch of pavement, this is the stump or stumps of the same height
and type of trees that are as shown on the left of the photo. The road is being restricted in width
and the extra space is going to have a 2 way bicycle lane inserted. I asked the workers doing
the work why the trees were being cut down and was directed to talk to the management team
having a discussion nearby. One of the team was a civil engineer and she pointed out that the
trees were damaging the concrete retaining wall in the background.

You may note that there is part of the trunk, which is mosly rotten, with a very narrow part on
the left at the bottom of this trunk where the heartwood has not yet rotted.
To the right of that rotten trunk, you can visualze some very thin roots, which would not hold
up a tree of this size.
Below these roots you can see a branch attached to a different part of the trunk, which is also
rotting.
As tourists, we are grateful to the Funchal government for letting us either walk alongside these
rotten trees or be driven past them in buses or taxis anywhere on the island.

IMG0006

Item is
IMG 0006.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack4garnonswilliams

A view - from that dump of cut down tree in the previous photo - towards The Forum.
There used to be tall old trees in this ripped up pavement.
You may well find the photos taken of the trees that were in this section in previous years
in the other pages of this Home topic and
within these others like pages 26 and 27:-

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Photos 6 and 7 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 show a tree in a pavement
with 70% of its heartwood rotted away from the earth to the base of the Forked Leader
of the trunk as it splits to form another trunk going up. See Forked Leader in Photo 4
in Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page to see why this
section of the trunk had been cut away before; but never had its wound dressed
to prevent this rotting process.
It does not warm the cockles of my heart to see the attitude
of the population of Madeira in creating this Russian Roulette situation, which could
kill many people as this tree falls, especially if it falls on a moving bus or a loaded lorry
that then moves off the road and through the concrete retaining wall on the left.
 

IMG0009

Item is
IMG 0009.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack5garnonswilliams

Completed new pavement and viewing back to the standing tree on the left in photo
IMG 0004.JPG above.

IMG0013

Item is
IMG 0013.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack6garnonswilliams

Black sand being laid as the base for the new concrete pavers as the top surface of the pavement.
Madeira does have black sand on Seixal Beach where the sea runs over it.
I wonder if the sand has been washed before being laid; since salt is not appreciated by tree roots.
Being Beach Sand, it is moved around a lot by the sea, and is called a soft black sand,
which probably means that is has become like builders sand which is spherical and like ball-bearings.
This means that combined with water that it tends to wash away, whereas sharp sand being
jagged - like pyramids - is not washed away when wet. It tends to go together and form a more
solid surface. Standing on wet builders sand, you tend to sink to the bottom of the sand.
Standing on wet sharp sand does support you with little slumping and this why it used in
this situation - See Drive Foundations page.

"The trees' roots also end up absorbing the salt. In cases like this, it takes a longer time for the salt
to accumulate in the trees' bodies, but it can still result in killing a tree with salt. When they enter
the plant through the roots, the sodium ions in the salt will block magnesium and potassium,
which the plants use to create chlorophyll. According to the Muskoka Watershed Council,
around 5.5 million tons of salt get released into the environment each year in Canada alone."
from How to Spread Salt on the Ground to kill small Trees by Home Guides.
That could explain why many of these trees between the Forum and the Lido have now got brown leaves
over the last 2 years. Has the black sand been used in the new section of bicycle lane between the 2 or
is it simply the tipping of many of the branches that has allowed the salt in; which is within the
seawater being blown in from the beach? Why does Madeira not like plants?
 

IMG0014

Item is
IMG 0014.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack7garnonswilliams

In the table on the left, you can see the bijou residence for a worker in the Forum
where a great deal of the centre of this tree trunk has rotted - and it has been allowed to
rot further during the last 2 years and is currently included in a refurbushed pavement.

The central nervous system of this tree besides the majority of the heartwood has rotted
away years ago and still the government are quite happy to allow many tons of tree to be
above this.
"E: Heartwood is the central, supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or
lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers
bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. A
piece 12” long and 1” by 2” in cross section set vertically can support a weight of
twenty tons!
D: Sapwood is the tree's pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood.
As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to
heartwood." from Anatomy of a tree by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
When most of the Heartwood has rotted away IN ANY PORTION OF A TRUNK OR BRANCH, THEN
YOU ARE GOING TO RELY ON THE SAPWOOD, WHICH DOES NOT HAVE THE STRENGTH OF
HEARTWOOD BECAUSE WHERE THE LIGNIN GOES IN; IS WHERE THE WATER GOES UP AND
DOWN. IT IS STRANGE BUT WATER IS NOT ALL THAT STRONG. PERHAPS IF YOU HAVE A 12" (30 CM)
LONG BY 1 INCH (2.5CM) X 2 INCH (5 CM) CROSSECTION OF HEARTWOOD LEFT; THEN YOU
CAN SUPPORT A VERTICAL WEIGHT OF 20 TONNES, BUT NOT WHEN THAT IS BEING MOVED
FROM SIDE FOR THE TRUNK OR UP AND DOWN FOR A BRANCH BY THE WIND.
You can see a yellow bus by the zebra crossing and new bus stop - I am certain that the waiting
passengers will have no problem with this tree falling onto them.
 

IMG0020

Item is
IMG 0020.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack8garnonswilliams

Looking back to the zebra crossing where the tree in Photo IMG 0014 is located, these
trees have been left in the pavement and hopefully the black sand above their roots has
been washed to remove the sea salt.The new lane on the right of the bus stop is probably
the 2 lane bicycle track.

It is interesting to note that these trees used to reduce the wind tunnel effect between the
8 story hotels, flats and shopping centre - Bring roller skates and a strong umbrella and you
will be able to use windpower instead of a taxi or bus in one direction to town.

I must learn to appreciate the view from my time-share of 32 stories of painted concrete
buildings and the new Savoy residence (see part of their building site towards the top of photo
IMG 0003 above) being built above the top of my timeshare, where they are excavating the
45 degree slope of volcanic rock to build on a horizontal surface of greater than 300 metres in
length, so that they can view me on my balconies on the top floor of this Pestana Hotel.

It is a pleasant idea to move from one building site of concrete and brick such as Medway into
another of just using concrete for a holiday.

Remember to bring earplugs, if you do not wish to sleep with the double glazing windows and doors
closed between 1:00 and 4:00 on Saturday and Sunday Morning as the local worker population
return home from the bars, nightclubs or retaurants after celebrating their week's work while
conversing loudly- new added attraction this year in 2022.
 

 

"Madeira Name Meaning - Portuguese: metonymic occupational name for a carpenter, from madeira
‘wood’, ‘timber’ (Late Latin materia, from classical Latin materies ‘material’, ‘substance’). local name
from the island of Madeira, which was named with Portuguese madeira ‘timber’ because of the
timber that grew there." from Madeira Family History.

 

Looking at the photos of these trees in Madeira, I have seen almost every possible way that the people
in Madeira manage to kill them rather than maintain them - does no one in Madeira get tree
maintenance, planting instruction and Urban Vegetation Management education?
Does no safety civil engineer in Madeira understand what happens when you build
multi-storey high buildings either side of a road, that you get a wind tunnel effect and that it
could be restrained by these trees that you are killing and cutting down?

We the tourists are very grateful to be blown about by this wind.

 


Just thought that I might read the following from:-

A. Tree roots Leaflet No. 6 Published by the Arboricultural Association in 1991:-

"There is a popular misconception that the roots of a large tree growing under typical British conditions will penetrate to a depth of several metres. People refer to these as "tap roots" or "anchor roots".

Under most conditions of soil and climate in Britain this picture is far from the truth. Tree roots need to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen from the soil. These are usually most readily available near to the surface, and carbon dioxide produced by the roots disperses more readily there. As a consequence, most roots are normally found in the upper 600mm (24 inches) or less.

On poorly drained clay soils in areas with a moderate or high rainfall all the roots of a large tree may be in the upper 300mm (1 foot = 12 inches) or less.

Roots will sometimes penetrate to a depth of 400 or 500cms, particularly in drier parts of Britain, but that is the exception rather than the rule; and even there, the majority of roots are likely to be in the upper 600mm.

All roots contribute to the moisture supply and stability of the tree, and there is no meaningful distinction between what are often called "feeder roots" and "support roots". The uptake of moisture and nutrients takes place mainly through very fine hairlike roots at the ends of the smallest woody roots. Many of these fine roots may die in the autumn and grow again in the next spring. These could be called "feeder roots", but would not include any roots more than 1mm diameter.

Typical tree on typical soil, in Britain (An indication of root spread of a typical tree, where root development is unimpeded by ditches, walls or other obstructions.):-

  • Height of tree about 2000cms
  • Main rooting depth about 60cm
  • Maximum rooting depth about 100-200cm
  • Branch spread about 900cm
  • Main root spread about 1200cm outer limit of root system about 2000cms, or more

Narrow or fastigiate forms may have a smaller branch spread, but can have a similar root spread. The size of the root system is related to the amount of foliage which the tree supports, not just to the height or branch spread.

"Tap roots" are a feature of some tree seedlings, such as oak, which tend to send down a single main root; but as trees grow, the main direction of root growth is in a lateral direction, and the "tap root" does not continue to develop to such a great extent as the upper parts of the tree. A mature oak tree will not therefore be a scaled-up version of an oak seedling, but will hav a differently shaped root system.

The roots of most (but not all) trees sub-divide rapidly, so that most of the roots are relatively thin except within 200 or 300 cms of the main stem. It can often be possible to cut through the complete root system 300cms from the tree without seeing any roots more than 25mm (1 inch) thick.

The extent of the root system will vary with the soil, climate, tree species, and other factors, but will normally extend further than the branches.

Ploughing, trenching, raising or lowering the soil level, or digging even the top 200mm (8 inches) of soil may destroy a major proportion of the root system of a tree." In other words when service repair, renewal or a new service installation is done, then further damage is done to the tree roots.

 

 

B. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 36 97 TRL Tree Roots and Underground Pipes by G. Brennan, D Patch and F R W Stevens Published in January 1997 ISSN No. 1362-5128:-

"...Underground services are laid in trenches cut through the soil and then backfilled. ... If a pipe is cooler than the surrounding soil, moisture will condense around it creating conditions conducive to root growth. When pipes are excavated, a mass of fine roots may be found forming a sheath round the pipe, and this may lead engineers to blame tree roots for causing direct damage to the service. ... Roots do not break pipes or force their way into pipes to gain access to water and nutrients.

Apart from the problems associated with clay or mortar packing, why do pipes and their joints fail? On highly shrinkable clay soils tree roots may contribute to soil drying, and where as a result a clay shrinks pipes may then move. But more important are the design and quality of the pipe materials, the standards of workmanship and supervision during construction of the pipeline. In addition, later excavations adjacent to the line of the service can result in slumping of soil and distortion of the pipe. All of these could cause cracks in pipes or weakening of joints.

If moisture escapes from a water-carrying underground pipe, a moisture gradient will develop in the soil. Tree roots in the vicinity of the pipe may flourish in the moist soil and penetrate the pipe at the seepage point. Roots will then proliferate within the pipe; eventually they may create a blockage. This is probably the most dramatic and troublesome form of tree root damage to a pipe - particularly if the pipe is carrying foul water. However, roots are most unlikely to grow into a pipe that is leaking under pressure (e.g. a water main)."

The above might explain the 2 ways that trees in pavements get their water supply, but not how they get gas exchange for the oxygen or carbon dioxide, but may explain the small amount of nutrient gained from the surrounding of the storm drain with its detritus.

 

 

C. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 59 2012 The effects of Weed Competition on Tree Establishment by R.J. Davies and J.B.H. Gardiner Published in June 1989 - Revised with minor alterations May 2012:-

"Many sites are grassed before tree planting to improve their appearance. All plants compete to some extent but grasses and clover are particularly competitive. ... The roots of weeds close to the tree also compete for moisture and nutrients and on grassy sites this is more important than competition for light. ... Mowing often increases the sward's transpiration, and thus the moisture stress suffered by the tree. See effect of grass on trees in section 9 of damage to trees in pavements of Funchal, Madeira in the second table on the left.
Moisture and nutrient compeition are interrelated: weeds may compete directly for nutrients or by drying the soil render them unavailable to the tree. Trees suffering competition often appear nutrient deficient, wheras weed-free trees have larger greener leaves with higher nutrient concentrations. But fertilsing alone rarely relieves competition; it often invigorates weeds and the tree suffers.
Effective weed control must free the tree roots from this competition:-"

  • "Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on higher ground in South-West England" from Wikipedia.
  • Followed by :-"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
  • so at 1 inch a week that is 52 inches and at 2 inches a week that is 104 inches,
  • so you can see that turf round tree roots can absorb more than the annual rainfall in South-West England, leaving no water for the tree roots.

 

 

D. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 110 93 ext Water Tables and Trees by D R Helliwell Published in February 1993:-

"Over much of lowland Britain, the annual precipitation (rain and snow) is in the order of 600mm.The canopy of a deciduous tree will intercept about 15%, which is evaporated directly back to the atmosphere, and cover of evergreen trees will intercept about 30%.
The precipitation which reaches the ground may enter the surface layers, where it is held initially against the pull of gravity in the fine pores and spaces. Any additional water which falls onto the surface will enter the ground and move downwards, wetting successive layers. Precipitation falling on impervious surfaces is often channeled into drains, and so it may not contribute to the soil moisture system - as happens with the rain falling onto the tarmac, concrete or paver covering the roots of trees in covered pavements.

A question is often asked is "If a large tree takes 200 gallons of water from the soil per day, how can it survive if it can not draw on the 'water table'?. The answer is that in most locations the soil in which the tree is rooted can store sufficient 'available moisture' to keep the tree alive during dry weather in most summers. Recharge of soil moisture around the roots is from precipitation.
A large tree may have roots in an area of 300m2, to a depth of 1m or more. In that volume of soil there may be more that 45,000 litres (10,000 gallons) of 'available water' at the start of the growing season, which is enough to keep the tree fully supplied for at least 50 days at peak demand, even if no more rain falls in that period.
A typical figure for annual uptake of water in Europe is around 330mm. Assuming that, in an average year the soil is at 'field capacity' at the start of the growing season, and taking a rainfall figure of 600mm, less the amount which is intercepted, there should be sufficient moisture for tree growth if there is a moderate depth of retentive soil. There is no need to invoke the 'water table' as an explanation for the survival and successful growth of trees. Dieback or death of trees following particularly dry years may not be related to the depth of the 'water table'."
Mature trees in pavements do not have any stored rainwater in the soil or any replenishment of it.

 

Nobody involved in roads or public spaces like parks appears to know, care or maintain the plant requirements upon which they depend for the oxygen that keeps them alive, but keep on finding ways to damage that plant world.

Solutions:-

1."Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly planted trees
The results of an experiment planted with sycamore, hawthorn and Italian alder transplants on the grassed verges of a newly constructed trunk road at Ripley, Derbyshire, illustrate that assertion. The treatments where no weed control and 54, 76 and 106cm diameter areas around the trees sprayed with paraquat once each summer for three years. The figure (page) shows survival growth after 3 years. The annual paraquat applications gave incomplete weed control; better control would probably have produced greater responses. The shapes of the graphs suggest that spots larger that 106cm diameter might have given greater responses. Many weeding experiments using broadleaved species on grassy sites over the length and breadth of England have produced similar survival and growth responses.
Tree growth is related to the area weeded around the tree. A one metre diameter herbicide spot size is often appropriate for transplants, although larger areas usually give more growth. Larger planting stock should receive larger weed-free spots."
Instead of chemical control, why not use plants as shown in section 9 in the second table on the left?
"
The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with
GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is within an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?"

2. Provide 'Available Water' for trees in pavements
Install a
French Drain under the pavement to release the water into the surrounding soil and return the other end to the Aco drainage system to allow for overflow. Use a silt trap between this perforated pipe and the Aco Drainbox to prevent silt from blocking the French Drain. This should vastly reduce the volume of stormwater being output to the local rivers or the sea.

Plant the new tree at least 50cms (18 inches) away from pavementedge to road.

3. Provide gaseous exchange and nutrients for these trees in pavements.
Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then, collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

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Opening Bud

poacherrose3garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower

poacherrose4garnonswilliams

Older Juvenile Flower

poacherrose5garnonswilliams

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

poacherrose6garnonswilliams

Mature Flower

poacherrose7garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

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Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

My current ambition at my retired age of 73 in 2022 (having started this website in 2005) is to complete the following:-

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery has an empty framework that I created on 20 February 2022. When all the remainder of the UK wildflowers have been checked:-

  • to see if they are also native in the USA and/or Canada - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one in the Flora of America and Canada, then the info from Flora of America and Canada is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries, but the UK Wildflower Family Pages will not be amended by this or other data from the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in April 2022) - and
  • to see if they are also native in China - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one like Achillea millefolium 蓍 shi, then the info from Flora of China is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed only from AC to CE in June 2022) and
  • insert snippets from Flower Arrangements from Wild Flowers into the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - (completed in June 2022) and
  • have been copied from the Wildflower Family pages to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries (completed in April 2022) - and.
  • Then, I will insert the information from the books associated with the Evergreen Perennial Shape gallery - Flower Shape - to that gallery and to the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery for the evergreen perennials:-
    • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials (starting in June 2022, completed entering 17 cultivated species and 3 wildflower species by 26 June 2022).
    • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
    • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windowsills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
    • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
    • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Then, the wildflower entries in the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery will be filled in after each Wildflower has its cultivation details added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.

Starting the above from 20 February 2022, I think it might take me a few years, but it does mean that as I progress then you will be able to associate more wildflowers with more of all the plant types of the cultivated plants who have similar growing requirements.

 

I am also updating these galleries from July 2022 and going back to Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery when this is completed.
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

 

Then, more of the natural world with its wildlife could also inhabit your garden.

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link.
If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them.
If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for it's postage.

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