Topic
This Topic Table has moved to the right hand side.

Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month Gallery:
Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines

(Seeing the Green Background Colour instead of White here indicates an empty Page)

Plant Type is:-

  • A for Aquatic
  • Ba for Bamboo
  • Bu for Bulb
  • Cl for Climber
  • Co for Conifer
  • F for Fern
  • G for Grass
  • H for Herb
  • P for Perrenial
  • Rh for Rhododendron, Azalea, Camellia
  • Ro for Rose
  • Sh for Shrub
  • So for Soft Fruit
  • To for Top Fruit
  • Tr for Tree
  • V for Vegetable
  • W for Wildflower

followed by:-

  • E for Evergreen or
  • D for Deciduous or
  • H for Herbaceous

 

---------

The process below provides a uniform method for comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index is in the column on the left
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

 

 

There is no Extra Index in this gallery. When the following Extra Index of Bee Pollinated Plants is created in the Bee-Pollinated Index Gallery, its bee-pollinated flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in the relevant gallery below.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

So, do you want to:-

Maintain your Garden?

 

Design your Garden?

 

Construct your Garden?

 

Then,
using the tools from the Tool Shed to maintain the Plants that are suited to your Soil. The books stated from the library amplify your knowledge to use the correct products/services from Usefull Data. Glossary and Offbeat Glossary explain the terms used in the gardening language. Companion Planting of one plant with another will deter a pest or aid growth of each other.

Then,
using your ideas with the data from the books stated from the library, the examples from the Case Studies and the products/services from Usefull Data, you can design the Hard Landscaping of your garden. I am adding further thoughts on garden design and plant selection using information gathered from the Mixed Borders at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden at Wisley in 2013.

Followed by

Then,
using the plans you have designed, you can construct your Hard Landscaping.
This is followed by the plants you have selected using the
Colour Wheel
guidelines
in your
Soft Landscaping
Plan
, being planted
then
install the lawn areas.

 

Plant Selection?
Flower Shape and Plant Use of Bedding, Bulb, Evergreen Perennial, Herbaceous Perennial, Rose, Evergreen Shrub, Deciduous Shrub, Evergreen Tree, Deciduous Tree, Annual, Fern and Wildflower
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually loosing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.

 


Plant selection 1 using lists as shown in Plants for:-

Each Soil type,

Garden use,

Plant use,

Plant type,

Foliage Colour,

Flower Colour,

Groundcover Plants


Plant selection 2 by comparing thumbnail photos of :-

 

 

 


Plant
selection 3. See next row:-

Flowers of all plant types with the same colour from 53 colours

Click Periwinkle to get to Periwinkle Colour Wheel Page

Click Botanical Plant Name to see Description Page in row 1 of Bulbs and this photo
crocuscflospeciosusainorvroger1
as number 1

 

Click Flowering months to compare flower with plants of same Plant Type per month in that same row

Click
Crocus speciosus 'Aino'
to transfer to its Description Page

and/or Click
 

September,

to transfer to Blue Flowers in September of Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber

October

from the Periwinkle Colour Page with this photo

crocuscflospeciosusainorvroger

Flowers of all plant types per month with the same colour from 12 colours

Click Flower Thumbnail to see Description Page. It was actioned with a Link to Action, but that does not work with mobile phones, so has been changed to a Map Action. These thumbnails on this table have not been changed except to remove the Link to action.
The thumbnails in the next table on the right use Map Actions.

ericacarneacflosportersreddeeproot

from the Red Flowers in May Page

ACIDIC SAND. Erica carnea 'Porter's Red'
SUN, LIGHT SHADE
Ever-green Shrub
Jan-May

Bee-pollinated Flowers of all plant types per month with the same colour from 12 colours. Instead of being wind-pollinated these plants are bee-pollinated which is better for Hay-Fever sufferers.

Click Flower Thumbnail to see Description Page

Same as in row above but from Bee-Pollinated Bloom in Month Gallery for Purple Flowers in July

Same as in row above but from Bee-Pollinated Bloom in Month Gallery

The Bee-pollinated Flowers of all plant types per month Index with the same colour from 12 colours has additional plants with no thumbnails in this gallery, to add to the Bee-Pollinated Plants Gallery which does have thumbnails - detailed in the previous row.

Click on links to external photos/data in the Flower Colour Column and click on links to mail order nurseries for the UK/Europe, America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and China in the other coloumns for that plant/seed

Click on Purple Flowers in July and you see the
Botanical Name,
Flower Colour,
Flowering Months,
Height,
Width,
Foliage Colour,
Plant Type and
whether Nectar and/or Pollen is collected by the Hive Bees for each plant

 

Mature Foliage of all plant types with the same colour from 212 colours

Click Leaf

or

Form Thumbnail to see Description Page.

Leaf

narcissuscfollittlebeautydeeproot1

from the Pakistan Green Foliage Page

Form

narcissuscforlittlebeautydeeproot1

ACIDIC SAND, CHALK.
Narcissus
'Little Beauty'
Sun, Part Shade
Bulb
Foliage Mar-Apr
White flower in Mar

Spring Foliage, Summer Foliage, Autumn Foliage and Winter Foliage of all plant types with the same colour from 212 colours

Click Spring, Summer,
Autumn or
Winter Foliage Thumbnail to see Description Page

Spring Leaf

liriodendronfoltstulipifera1

from the Green
Wasabi Spring Foliage
Page

and then see the Page in Summer Foliage Page by clicking

Deciduous Tree

in the Text Box.

Summer Leaf

liriodendronfoltstulipifera1a

Autumn Leaf

liriodendronfoltatulipifera1

Winter Leaf

No
Foliage

ACID, SAND. Liriodendron tulipifera
SUN AND PART SHADE
Deciduous Tree Foliage Apr-Nov
Yellow-Green flower Jul

 

Flowers from Rock Garden type plants with the same colour from 53 colours

Click Botanical Plant Name to see Plant Description Page.

Click Flowering months to compare flower with plants of same Plant Type per month

Acan-tholimon
glumaceum

 

July for

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord

from the Pink Colour Page

Rock Garden Plant Index Page

Rock
Plant: A

provides growing details for Acantholimon glumaceum and lists other plants suitable for a rock garden - starting with A.

 

Plant selection 3 by comparing thumbnail photos of flowers per month from

 

 

or
using flower colour, foliage colour, form, seed colour or in flower bed thumbnail photos from

 

then

 

 

Click Flower Thumbnail to see Description Page from Flower Colour Comparison Page

crocuscflochrysanthuscreambeautygeetee1

Sand, ch-alk. Croc-us chry-santhus 'Cream Beauty -winter SUN

on the Yellow Colchicum and Crocus Flower Page


or
Click Foliage Thumbnail to see Description Page from Foliage Comparison Page

crocuscfolchrysanthussaturnusfoord1

Sand, ch-alk. Croc-us chrys-anthus 'Satur-nus' -winter Sun, part shade

on the Green Colchicum and Crocus Foliage Page


or
Click Form Thumbnail to see Description Page from Form Comparison Page

crocuscforancyrensisgoldenbunchgeetee1

Sand, ch-alk. Croc-us ancy-rensis 'Golden Bunch' -winter Sun, part shade

on the Stemless Colchicum and Crocus Form Page


or
Click Seed Thumbnail to see Description Page from Seed Comparison Page

rosacaninadogrosefrut1

MODERN SHRUB 10 Rosa canina 'Dog Rose' Sun and Part Shade

on the Rose Hip Colour Page


or
Click Bed Photo to see Plant Description Page from Garden Pictures Comparison Page

Click on photo of Colchicum 'Lilac Wonder' in Colchicum and Crocus Garden Pictures Page

or
compare Plant Description Pages from

 

Bulb

Click Flower Thumbnail to see Description Page from Flower Colour per Month Comparison Page

or

Click Plant Name to see Description Page from Plant Index Page

or

Click Flowering months to compare flower with other plants of same Plant Type per month from Plant Index Page

crocuscflochrysanthuscreambeautygeetee

Sand, ch-alk. Croc-us chry-santhus 'Cream Beauty -winter SUN

 

from Yellow Bulb Flowers in February Page

Bulb has
Allium/Anemone
Autumn
Colchicum /Crocus
Dahlia
Gladiolus
Hippeastrum / Lily
Late Summer
Narcissus
Spring
Tulip and
Winter sub-galleries

Gladiolus Gallery has
European , American, Australia,
India and Lithuania Gladiolus sub galleries.

Click Gladiolus Name in Site Map list to see Gladiolus Description Page

 

Climber

Climber has Clematis and Climbers sub-galleries

 

 

Deciduous
Shrub

Deciduous Shrubs has Shrubs - Deciduous sub-gallery

 

 

Deciduous
Tree

Crocus chrysan-thus
'Cream Beauty'

from Winter-flowering Crocus in Bulb
Index C Page

Deciduous Tree has Trees - Deciduous sub gallery

 

 

Evergreen Perennial

Evergreen Perennial has Per-Evergreen A-L , Per-Evergreen M-Z and Flower Shape sub galleries

 

 

Evergreen
Shrub

January, February,
March

from Winter-flowering Crocus in Bulb
Index C Page

Evergreen Shrub has Shrubs - Evergreen and Heather Shrub sub galleries

 

 

Evergreen
Tree

Evergreen Tree has Trees - Evergreen sub gallery

 

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Herbaceous Perennial has Perennials - Herbaceous , RHS Wisley Mixed Border Bed , Other RHS Wisley Beds, and Flower Shape sub galleries

 

 

Before selecting your Herbaceous Perennial plants, you may wish to select them according to their

  • number of flower petals
  • flower shape or
  • natural arrangement of the flowers.

See Herbaceous Perennial Flower Shape Gallery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the above sub galleries are joined by

 

 

 

 

 

Aquatic

 

 

 

Bamboo

 

 

Before selecting your Bedding plants, you may wish to select them according to their

  • number of flower petals
  • flower shape or
  • Bedding plant use.

See Bedding Gallery.

Bedding

 

 

Each Text Description below each of the Thumbnails in these Comparison Pages gives you the:-

  • soil type it prefers,
  • plant name,
  • sun aspect,
  • soil moisture in the background colour and
  • height of the plant in the border colour of that plant.

Conifer

 

 

Fern

 

 

Grass

 

 

Hedging

 

 

 

 

 

Herb

 

 

Having selected your plants, you may find that adding plants from Companion Planting to the list may deter pests from eating your plants or aid your plants to grow.

Odds and Sods

 

 

Rhododendron

 

 

 

 

 

Rose

 

 

 

 

 

Soft Fruit

 

 

 

 

 

Top Fruit

Apple Top Fruit Gallery has Cherry and
Pear sub galleries.

 

 

 

 

Vegetable

 

 

Wild Flower Gallery also has 180 Family Pages inside
ad borage,
box crowberry,
cabbages,
cypress cud,
hawk dock,
duckw fern,
figwort fum,
g goosefoot,
grasses123,
g brome,
h lobelia,
l olive,
orchid parn,
peaflowers,
peony pink,
p rockrose,
rose12,
rush saxi,
sea sedge2,
sedge 3 crop,
sun thyme,
umb violet and
water yew
sub galleries, which describes the majority of Wildflower plants native to the UK.

Compare Wildflower Plant Description Pages

or

Get to website of Mail-order supplier of seed or plant

or

Compare photos of plant from external websites

or

view Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Click on Common Name to see Plant Description Page

Him-alayan Balsam

Click on Botanical Name

Imp-atiens gland-ulifera

Click on Flowering Months

July onwards

 

Click on Habitat

This species is most frequent on the banks of waterways, where it often forms continuous stands, but is also established in damp woodland, flushes and mires. The tallest annual in Britain, its rapid growth can shade out even Urtica dioica. Lowland.

from the Balsam Family Page in ad borage Gallery

Wild Flower

 

 

 

 

 

Butterfly - shows link of wildlife to its plants for the 68 butterflies through the

Insect Usage of
Plants Page
which details which plants are used by the Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Main Topics

Website Design History
When the site was started, it was one document with Garden Design, Garden Maintenance and Garden Construction sections. As the other sections on Case Studies, Companion Planting, Glossary, Library, Offbeat Glossary, Plants, Soil, Tool Shed and Useful Data were added, the document became too big, so each was split off the Home section to become separate documents. Every Page with the Main Topic Box on it can link to the Site Map Page of every other document stated in that menu.

Plant Photographic Galleries
The Plant Photographic Galleries were started in the summer of 2007 to support the groundcover plants described in the Plants section with a plant gallery. Having put 150 plants into the Plant Gallery, I soon ran out of space in memory. The Plant Gallery (renamed Odds and Sods Gallery) was then split up into the Plant Photographic Galleries - as shown in the table on the right.

Case Studies

case3drivepicture7a

Case 3 - The completed drive in June of the following year.

These follow the progress of part or all of a private garden from design to completion.

Design Cases
When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work - build new garage as shown in Case 2a - to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 and Case 2b - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.
In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!
The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.

Construction Cases
Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.
Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.

Maintenance Cases
If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.
Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system
Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.

Companion Planting

Companion Plant columns on each Companion Plant page below:-
Original Plant
Pest/Disease
Companion Plant
Antagonistic Plant or to Pest/-Disease

Companion Plant A
Companion Plant B
Companion Plant C
Companion Plant D
Companion Plant E
Companion Plant F
Companion Plant G
Companion Plant H
Companion Plant I
Companion Plant J
Companion Plant K
Companion Plant L
Companion Plant M
Companion Plant N
Companion Plant O
Companion Plant P
Companion Plant Q
Companion Plant R
Companion Plant S
Companion Plant T
Companion Plant UV
Companion Plant W
Companion Plant XYZ

Pest Control

Pest Control
 

Plant

Climate Zone

Repels

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Ant

Lavender (Lavand-ula)

5-10

Aphid

Mint (Mentha)

3-7

Cabbage White Butterfly

Allium

8-10

Carrot Fly

Common Rue (Ruta grave-olens)

5-9

Cat

Rosemary (Rose-marinus offin-alis)

6-11

Slug

The name given to the system of using one plant to help another is Companion Planting, i.e garlic planted with roses deter greenfly rather than using pesticides to kill them.

Garden Construction

Having got everything agreed on paper or the PC for the detailed design, the exciting part of construction begins.
Remember to do the Hard Landscaping followed by Soft Landscaping with soil conditioning, planting, irrigation, mulching and then finally the Lawn; not lay the Lawn first.

Work schedule for hard and soft landscaping

Garden Maintenance

"There are dozens of books on the market which tell you how to do your garden.....

This book - 2 Hour Garden by Alexander Dingwall Main and Ian Dougill, edited by Roger Grounds. Times Newspapers Limited 1976 published by Ward Lock Limited - is completely different. It's basic assumption is that gardening should be fun. And it faces the real problems of first-time gardeners. Like that they have other things to do besides gardening. So it is paced very carefully. For an average of about 2 hours work a week and a minimal financial expenditure, you should be able to transform your garden from a wilderness to a wonderland in about 12 months."

or

So you want to improve your garden:-
First, produce a Site Plan with the
Hard Landscape Plan drawing, followed by the
Soft Landscape Plan and Moveable Items drawings, Then,
Create a Plant Maintenance Plan before weeding / pruning / mulching.

Simplest maintenance:

  • Weed your flower bed, donate weeds to UK council.
  • Then prune your shrubs/ hedge/ perennials and lay thin prunings on lawn (shrub/tree prunings no thicker than little finger onto lawn, remainder donated to UK council) from that weeded flower bed.
  • Mow lawn with rotary mower and cover weeded flower bed with 0.5 inch depth of grass/shreddings mowings. Fallen leaves in Autumn can be included in this mow lawn by cutting at highest grass cutting height first, then cutting the lawn at the normal height.
  • Leave for 2 weeks, then repeat from "Weed your flower bed" onto next section of bed to be weeded.

Glossary

Glossary A
Glossary B
Glossary C
Glossary D
Glossary E
Glossary F
Glossary G
Glossary H
Glossary I
Glossary J
Glossary K
Glossary L
Glossary M
Glossary N
Glossary O
Glossary P
Glossary Q
Glossary R
Glossary S
Glossary T
Glossary U
Glossary V
Glossary W
Glossary XYZ

Glossary L

Laced
Lamina
Lateral
Layer planting
Layering
Leaching
Leader
Leaf
Leaf mould
Leaflet
Legume
Light
Lime
Line out
Lithophyte
Loam
Lopper
Lute

Layering A method of propagation by which a shoot is induced to root while attached to the parent plant. The basic form is self layering, which occurs naturally in some plants. Methods include: air layering (also known as Chinese layering or marcottage), French layering, mound layering, serpentine layering, simple layering, stooling, tip layering and trench layering.

Leaching The loss from the top soil of soluble nutrients by downward drainage.

Leader 1) The main, usually central, stem of a plant. 2) The terminal shoot of a main branch.

Leaf A plant organ, variable in shape and colour but often flattened and green, borne on the stem, that performs of the functions of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration.

Leaf mould Fibrous, flaky material derived from decomposed leaves, used as an ingredient in potting media and as a soil improver.

Underlined words in the main content may be defined in the Glossary and in the right hand column of that page.

Library

Each entry in this Library, where possible, has an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) to assist you in locating a copy. Please note that entries in the library pages in red text indicate books that Chris Garnons-Williams has found to be more useful than the others in that section from 1991 to 2012.

In order to assist the design process for a garden, the Library has been split into the following order of abstraction ---->

  • The Garden Style chosen at the beginning defines what a garden should look like.
  • Following this choice of Garden Style, then:-
  • Plant Association shows which plant combinations give pleasing flower or foliage colour combinations, then
  • Plant Types gives growing conditions of a family of plants - ie Primulas - with lists of primulas with the same flower colour, foliage colour or height and where is suitable for those plants, followed by
  • Plant Species gives data about a family of plants in a restricted format - ie without lists - as the lowest level of useful information (unless you are prepared to read the text in a whole book each time you want to use this particular species of plant).
  • Gardening gives general information on how to garden for the whole garden.
  • Garden Cultivation gives specific information on veg, fruit, lawn, pond, etc.
  • Garden Pests details garden pests/diseases and their control.
  • Practical Projects gives details on how to construct hard landscaping.

Library Category

Definition

Garden Style

The overall style of the garden — Cottage, Japanese, Feng-Shui, etc.

Garden Design

gives design methodologies to follow for the Garden Style chosen.

Garden Planting Design

gives planting design ideas for the beds of the overall garden design chosen above.

Location of Plants

shows which plants should be grouped together for its soil, shade, colour for the garden style chosen.

Plant Association

shows which plant combinations give a pleasing colour combination or foliage contrast.

Plant Types
 

gives growing conditions of a particular family of plants, i.e. Primulas, with lists of where suitable.

Plant Species

gives data about a particular family of plants in restricted format.

 

 

Gardening

gives general information on how to garden for the whole garden.

Garden Cultivation

gives specific data about growing vegetables in a kitchen garden, or fruit in an orchard, or lawns, ponds etc.

Propagation
 

gives details on how to propagate new plants from seed, division or grafting.

Garden Pests

includes information on garden pests and diseases with their control.

Garden Tips

gives tips on different parts of gardening

 

 

Practical Projects

gives details on how to construct hard landscaping.

Wildlife

gives details concerning wildlife that could be found in gardens, their lifestyle and how to encourage them to your garden.

 

 

Reference Library

contains some detailed reference material that may contain British Standards for construction.

Miscellaneous

contains books that don’t fit in any of the other categories.

 

 

Health

gives data on how to look after one’s own health.

Offbeat Glossary A
Accumulator plants
Allelochemics
Allium
Auxins

Offbeat Glossary B
Bay
Bromeliad

DuLally Bird - Do you know where his wife is?

Offbeat Glossary C
Catch Crop
Compost
Cover crop
Crop Rotation

Offbeat Glossary DE
Diatom-aceous Earth.
Plants least favoured by Deer.

Offbeat Glossary F
French Intensive Gardening

Offbeat Glossary G
Green Manure

Offbeat Glossary HILM
Herbal Lawn
Hiving a new swarm
Intercropping
Ladybirds
Microclimate
Monoculture

Offbeat Glossary NO
Nitrogen-fixing plants
Nitrogen-fixing trees

Offbeat Glossary P
Pinching back
Poisonous Plants

Offbeat Glossary QRST
Rabbits.
Raised bed
Shade.
Succession planting.
Two-level companion planting.
Two-season planting.

Offbeat Glossary U
U-Gardens

Offbeat Glossary V
Veganic.
Vertical gardening.

Offbeat Glossary WXYZ
Weeds

Soil

SOIL FORMATION - WHAT IS SOIL STRUCTURE

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’. Before microaggregates can form, microscopic clay minerals need to be grouped together in small stacks called ‘domains’. When clays are bonded together in this way, they are termed ‘flocculated’. For example, calcium (Ca2+) in lime or chalk, Magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminium (Al3+) are 3 very common ions in soils. Ions with multiple charges allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates.
The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.

soil15c9a

Above diagram shows importance of having all 3 items in the Soil Textural Triangle of Clay, Silt and Sand.
 

Soil Introduction -
Organic Matter in Soil

Physical Changes in Soil
Chemical Changes in Soil
How Soil is created
How Clay is created
How is Humus made
How is Soil Material Lost
What is Soil Texture

WHAT IS SOIL STRUCTURE

How does Water act in Soil
How Chemicals stored in Soil

WHAT ARE SOIL NUTRIENTS

WHAT SOIL ORGANISMS

How microbes use nutrients
The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle

ACTION PLAN FOR YOU

SOIL SUBSIDENCE
SUBSIDENCE DUE TO CLAY

Case 1 Clay on Sand

WHAT TO DO ABOUT SUBSIDENCE DUE TO CLAY

Subsidence is described as “ a movement involved in the site, normally downwards, so that damage occurs to the building standing upon it”.

Some 150,000 homes in the UK Southeast have suffered from subsidence between 1980 and 1995 - Removal of trees from a clay soil just prior to construction could cause heave (caused by the rehydration and swelling of a clay soil from rainfall) of the soil after building construction.

A minor point to remember: when you are sold a property; you are then responsible if it fails. Before you buy another building, please take account of the future possible causes of its subsidence, as well as any of the other causes of subsidence detailed in this page.
The Case 1 Clay on Sand page shows the damage created by a builder who had run out of topsoil and then used blue clay instead.

WHAT TYPES OF ORGANISM ARE FOUND IN THE SOIL

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked.

Tool Shed

In this section, I’ve outlined my favourites, give information on the basic tools every gardener should have, and I make some recommendations on my preferred manufacturers and suppliers*:-

*Mention of a particular manufacturer or supplier in the Tool Shed Section no way implies any connection between them and Ivydene Horticultural Services. I mention their names only by way of actually using their equipment or services and having direct experience of them.

I tend to have protective barrier skin cream PrimeShield 250ml Dry The 4-in-1 Skin Protector for Working Hands to prevent chaps on my hands inside these Yellow Criss Cross Gripper Gloves (applied once in the morning and again after lunch)

This describes the tools that I use.

barriercreamexported1a

Useful Data

Useful Data A
Useful Data B
Useful Data C
Useful Data D
Useful Data E
Useful Data F
Useful Data G
Useful Data H

Useful Data I
Useful Data J
Useful Data K
Useful Data L
Useful Data M
Useful Data N
Useful Data O
Useful Data P
Useful Data Q

Useful Data R
Useful Data S
Useful Data T
Useful Data U
Useful Data V
Useful Data W
Useful Data X
Useful Data Y
Useful Data Z

Answers given to where can you get the plants, irrigation system, paving, work clothes, work tools etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garden Design

Private Garden Design Introduction.

 

The most important design consideration is who and how long per week is maintenance on the garden going to be done. One hour-garden by Joanna Smith book helps in this part of the design process.

Using the Mixed Border, Jubilee Rose Garden and Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden in the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden at Wisley for examples, I am still creating The Mixed Borders Garden Design Topic, which may help you in planning your garden, especially if you decide to show your garden to the public - i.e Make plant labels visible in your garden to aid your own plant sales.

 

...RHS Mixed Borders

The 2 Mixed Borders either side of the long lawn leading past the RHS Plant Centre to Battleston Hill; with the East Border having an entrance to that Plant Centre and the West Border having lawn gaps which lead to the Jubilee Rose Garden and AGM Borders during 2013 are item 2 on the Visitor Map to the RHS Garden Wisley Summer 2012, part of which is shown below with North being on the right hand side:-

wisleygardenmap1aClick on the White or Black square within the Colour Wheel in 1 of the 7 colours in each month to compare the flowers of the permanent and bedding used in these mixed borders.

The 2 borders were split into 71 parts. Each
Part Number of East and West Mixed Borders has its own Page with photos of that part in the Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn.

Each part has:-

  • its own permanent planting (Other permanent plants)of bulbs, evergreen perennials, shrubs, climbers and trees
  • its own permanent herbaceous perennials
  • with bare areas in between for bedding.

Each plant then has its flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height x spread, foliage colour in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter with Foliage thumbnail

The plant name, flower thumbnail and foliage thumbnail link to the respective Plant Description Page in

......Bedding Plants ,

......Her Perennials or

......Other Plants .

These galleries are described in a row each below
 

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Blue, Orange, Pink, Red, Unusual, White and Yellow FLOWER COLOUR RANGE IN 71 PARTS OF MIXED BORDER DURING
May
June
July
August
September
October
November

for every plant in the Mixed Borders in each month it flowers. If a part has that flower colour during 2013, then is shown in the table below.

Garden Design Comments on RHS Garden at Wisley in the 71 pages of the EAST and WEST Borders in the MIXED BORDERS

Flower Colours in each of the 71 Parts of the Mixed Borders - with area indicating that the respective colour has not been used in this part .
 

More (See un-labelled bedding) than 102 plants (This is 29%, which is almost a third) were missing their identity when in flower in 2013 out of 348 in 768 square metres of Mixed Borders garden beds - These herbaceous borders are 6 metres (20 feet) deep and 128 metres (427 feet) long.

Part Number of East and West Mixed Borders

 

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Number of either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

49 mis-sing out of 176

19 mis-sing out of 73

34 mis-sing out of 99

East 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal style required in moving people from Entrance to outlying areas

East 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Position plants with tiny flowers close to the lawn or path

Provide plant support structures

East 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Make plant labels visible to aid plant sales and

No plant labels on Pansy / Viola Display

East 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Create History of each garden bed, so that planting errors can be corrected

East 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

1

Use a system to select your plants from their flower colour

East 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

Use the colours of the buds, flowers and seedheads with different foliage colours in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn of each heather for your groundcover and background

East 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

1

 

Use

to choose from

East 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

Use turf protected paths instead of slabbed paths for small gardens

East 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Make your flowers all the same colour like White to harmonise as your flower colour in the simplest flower colour scheme

East 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Bulbs can provide flowers from January through to May in the bare ground round the permanent shrubs and perennials

East 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Replace bedding and perennials with wildflower lawn edged with normal lawn to reduce gardening time to 1 hour a week

East 12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

With limited garden space, put a wildflower lawn on the roof of your shed / garage / leanto or concreted area on ground to provide flowers

East 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Create fun version of Snakes and Ladders game using clock flowers

East 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

Further reasons to create garden bed Histories

East 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

Create track and use the Square Foot Gardening system for:-

  • wheelchair-bound disabled to use for radio-controlled models on the ground-level of the garden
  • wheelchair-bound children/adults to maintain and replant the raised beds, whilst sitting with their knees under each raised bed
  • school pupils to learn to grow plants
  • wheelchair supported children/adults recovering in hospital, rest or care home to go outside, view them and/or maintain those beds themselves
  • transport the raised bed into the patient's room, so that the patient can admire close-up what they normally see outside from their bed; and then for them to maintain or simply view for a while before that raised bed is returned outside that same day
  • infirm children, adults or pensioners to maintain and replant the raised beds, when they do not need to kneel down, bend their knees or reach above their shoulders

East 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

East 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

Create game using Slider Signs that alternate turning left or turning right at each Path Row Junction for you to pick your fruit, flowers, grasses or vegetables.

East 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Turf protection from wear by people walking or standing on it

East 19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Balance Income with Expenditure in Garden

East 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Safety - If a visitor reports a safety concern, then do not ignore it

East 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

 

East 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

 

East 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

East 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

Hide unwanted views of buildings or other areas of garden

East 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

East 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

East 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

East 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

East 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

Select tender plants and then provide Plant Protection from Frost

East 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Control human movement through areas

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Unlabelled Bedding plants

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

Further Plant Label and Path Foundation Comments

WISLEY WISLEY Rose Classification System

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

West 35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

West 36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

West 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

 

West 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

West 42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Build soil fertility and structure with legumes and mulches

West 47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

West 49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Split garden area into separate shapes

even when a public path goes through the garden

West 53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use Companion planting with Green Manure to deter Pests / Diseases and

Another Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

West 54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use long-flowering Speciman Roses as a backdrop

West 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

 

West 60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

West 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Reduce time for garden maintenance by avoiding mixing plants together

West 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 66

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

West 67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

West 71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Provide irrigation facilities to water plants and clean paths

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Confidential email replies from the Royal Horticultural Society to emails from Chris Garnons-Williams with their following instructions for everybody else:-
The contents of this email and any files transmitted with it are confidential, proprietary and may be legally privileged. They are intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender. If you are not the intended recipient you may not use, disclose, distribute, copy, print or rely on this email. The sender is not responsible for any changes made to any part of this email after transmission. Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Society.

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

......Bedding Plants

has 74 plants used in the RHS Mixed Border Beds at Wisley with the
Mixed Border Beds Bedding Plant INDEX page and
Mixed Border Beds Un-Labelled Bedding Plant Index page.

......Her Perennials

has 176 plants used in the RHS Mixed Border Beds at Wisley with the
Mixed Borders Beds Permanent Herbaceous Perennial Plant Index page,
Mixed Border Beds Lost Flowers Page and
Mixed Border Beds 'Walkabout' Plants and 'Stateless' Plants page.

......Other Plants

has 73 plants used in the RHS Mixed Border Beds at Wisley. It also has its problems of plant labelling, pruning and safety maintenance in its Introduction page.

 

following above garden design in RHS at Wisley with

the table containing the number of parts of the 71 parts of the Mixed Borders with 1 - or combinations of 2 to 4 - colours of flowers in months May-Nov. These are split into Bedding, Permanent Herbaceous Perennial, Other Permanent plant and their combination towards the bottom of that introduction page;

there is a requirement for plant selection procedures -
1 of which is in the following Plants Main Topic -
and then use the Photo Galleries in the table on the right:-

 

Plants

The following Plant Selection Levels may be used at only 1 level or part of it.
Usually one would start at

  • Plant Selection 1,
  • refine that selection in Plant Selection 2
  • and then refine even further with Plant Selections 3-6:-

Level 1 - Plant Use. e.g. Bee pollinated plants for Hay Fever Sufferers

Level 2 - Plants for Soil. You need to know what your topsoil is based on and

  • either
    select only plants from each list in Level 1 that you require to grow in your topsoil
    or
    select only plants that you require from those that can either grow in your topsoil or can grow in any topsoil
  • Levels 2a, 2b, 2c, 2cc, 2d

Level 3 - Refining Selection by

Level 4 - Pruning - Pruning Plants

Level 5 - Groundcover Plant Detail - e.g. Plant Name - A

Level 6 - Then, finally use COMPANION PLANTING to aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests

About 1300 plants are detailed in lists with their:-

sun aspect,
soil type,
moisture level,
shape,
garden use,
foliage,
flower colour and
pruning requirements.
 
Plants for:-
Any Soil,
Chalky Soils,
Others for Chalky Soils,
Clay Soil,
Others for Clay Soil,
Lime-Free Soil,
Light Sandy Soil,
Peaty Soil.

 

and finally,
with my coloured friend called Frankie the Green - Color 33C C33; I can tell you about
fedging
or if you prefer hedging:-

 

 

Hedging

has 13 hedge plants. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

REASONS FOR USE OF THIS TYPE OF HEDGE
Anti-Graffiti
Formal Edge of Garden Area
Garden Security Screen
Green Screen Wall for Factory Building
Green Screen Wall for Monaco Buildings
Informal Boundary
Parterre Edge
Screen
Security Barrier
Stock Boundary
Thorny Barrier
Windbreak

GROUND-COVER
Ground-cover Mat for embankments

FLOWER COLOUR
Other Colours
Red
White
Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
Green
Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

FRUIT COLOUR
Fruit

 

Click on a Page Number in a cell below containing your required Flower Petal Colour of a Month to
compare thumbnails of different flowers with that same flower colour in that month.

Click on capital letter of the Alphabet in a cell below to compare extra plants of that colour in that month.

 

Unusual Flower Petals are either
Multi-coloured, Bicolours,
Variegated,
Blends or a different colour to the others.

 

Month

Blue Flower Petals

Brown Flower Petals

Cream Flower Petals

Green Flower Petals

Mauve Flower Petals

Orange Flower Petals

Pink Flower Petals

Purple Flower Petals

Red Flower Petals

Unu-sual Flower Petals

White Flower Petals

Yellow Flower Petals

January

1

1 empty

1 empty
A

1 empty

1
A

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1
A

1
A

February

1

1 empty

1
A

1

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

1
A

March

1

1 empty

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

April

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

1

1

1

1 2
A

1
A

May

1
A

1
A

1

1

1

1

1
A

1

1

1

1 2
A

1
A

June

1

1
A

1

1

1

1

1 2 3

1

1 2

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2 A

July

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3 4

1

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2 3 A

August

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3 4

1

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2

Sep-tember

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3

1

1

1 A

1

1

October

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

1

Nov-ember

1

1

1

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

Dec-ember

1

1 empty

1
A

1 empty

1

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90-180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Shrub Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90-150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150-300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Tree Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-240 inches (0-600 cms)

Blue = 240 - 480 inches (600- 1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200+ cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Climber Height from Text Border

 

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

 

Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

 

Dry Soil

COLOUR WHEEL - BLOOM IN MONTH GALLERY PAGE MENU
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

The above Page Menu and User Instructions will normally remain fixed in this position, so that this menu is always available while you scroll the central section of Data for the page.

(o)Page Name
(o) indicates this Gallery Page has comparison photos on it.
Only the Page Name shows that Gallery Comparison page is empty. When you change your page to an empty page then instead of a white background to the title box of that page
(see
Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month Gallery:
Blue Blooms in January
at the top of the Data Table on the left), it will be a green background.

 

Normally the main Photo Gallery of each plant type:-

  • compares
    • flower colour in each month it flowers thumbnails on separate comparison pages with
    • their plant name, height and width, soil type, soil moisture and sun aspect in their own description box below each thumbnail.

then, each Sub Photo Gallery:-

  • provides the Plant Description Pages of the plants in that plant type and
  • compares the
    • flower colour, flower shape, foliage colour, and form thumbnails on separate comparison pages with
    • their plant name, height and width, soil type, soil moisture and sun aspect in their own description box below each thumbnail.

Gallery Name

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a46a1

Above background white colour indicates a Main Photo Gallery of the respective Plant Type and/or that it only has 1 Gallery

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a46b1

Above background tip colour indicates a Sub Photo Gallery of the respective plant type after its Main Photo Gallery

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a46b1

Above background yellow colour indicates a Sub-Sub Photo Gallery of the respective plant type after its Sub Photo Gallery

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right. From October 2013 all links from new thumbnails to another page (and thumbnails created between 2006 to September 2013 will gradually be changed to this Map Link system) will be done using Map Links which change the page displayed to the Plant Description Page requested rather than the Link to Link which adds the Plant Description Page to the existing comparison page:-

Mapp-ingThis background Vit C Oranges colour indicates that the process of changing links to using the Map Link system is started on this gallery.
 

Mapp-edThis background Green Just Fun colour indicates that the process of changing links to using Map Link system is completed for this gallery.

 

 


The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page details where that Plant is available for mailorder direct to you from a nursery / retailer.

 

with link to the comparison page in the text below the thumbnail

 UpdatingThis background Magenta Shifts indicates that this gallery is being updated.

Update CompletedThis background Green Just Fun indicates that updating this gallery is completed.

Mapp-edAquatic
has 1 plant
 

lyschitonflotamericanussheffieldpark20468

Yellow Flower

 

 

 

 

 

Mapp-edBamboo
has 9 plants with different cane colours. Bamboo Index with cane colour and foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

pleioblastuscanetvariegatus2a

Black Cane

fargesiacanetmurieliaesimba1a

Green Cane

phyllostachyscanetaurea1a

Yellow Cane

 

 

 

Mapp-edBedding
has 25 plants with Bedding Index of flower colour, flower thumbnail, flowering months, height and spread, foliage colour on each page.
74 plants used in the RHS Mixed Border Beds at Wisley with
Mixed Border Beds bedding Plant INDEX page.

salviacflo1patenskavanagh

1 of 11 Flower Colours - Blue

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a

1 of 11 Flower Shapes - Spur

antirrhinumcflolavenderribbonkavanagh

1 of 9 Use of Bedding - Bedding Out Use

lathyrusflotvernus1a

2 of 9 Use of Bedding - Pots and Troughs

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a

3 of 9 Use of Bedding - Window Boxes

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1

4 of 9 Use of Bedding - Hanging Basket

Mapp-edBulb
has 720 bulbs, corms or tubers in 1 of 5 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers

crocuscfloschrysanthussaturnusfoord

January - Unusual

crocuscflochrysanthuszwanenburgbronzegeetee

February - Yellow

anemonecfloblandavioletstarrvroger

March - Red, Pink or Purple

anemonecflonemerosaalleniirvroger

April -
Blue

anemonecfloblandawhitesplendourrvroger

May -
White

alliumcfloazureumgeetee1

June -
Blue

24 Bulb Index pages from
Index A to Index XYZ with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width and comments.

gladioluscfloamsterdamrvroger

July - White

gladioluscflohuronjewelncoe

August - Red, Pink or Purple

crocuscflocancellatuscancellatusrvroger

Septem-ber - Blue

gladioluscflogoldfieldrvroger

October - Yellow

crocuspflo1cambessedanusgarnonswilliams

November - Unusual

crocuscflocancellatuscancellatusrvroger1a

December - Blue

Mapp-ed...Allium/ Anemone
has 75 alium and 26 anemone plants with 10 flower colours. Allium / Anemone Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, comments on each page in the gallery

anemonecflonemerosabracteatarvroger1a

Bicolour Flowers

alliumcfloobliquumrvroger

Green Flowers

anemonecfloblandacharmerrvroger1

Pink Flowers

alliumcflohirtifoliumalbumrvroger

White Flowers

anemonecfolblandacharmerrvroger

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

alliumpforgiganteumgeetee1

1 of 7 Forms - Clump-forming

Mapp-ed...Autumn
has 43 plants from R.V. Roger Ltd Autumn Bulbs Catalogue with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

mimulusprimuloidesflot

Yellow Flowers

centaurea montana flower

Blue Flowers

helleborusfoetidusflot9garnonswilliams

Unusual Colour Flowers

fritillariacfloimperiallis

Orange Flowers

mitellabrewerifolt

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

campanulataglomeratafort9a

1 of 7 Forms - Clump-forming

Mapp-ed...Colchicum/ Crocus
has 50 colchicum and 72 crocus plants with 8 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, flowering months, height and width, comments on each page in the gallery.

crocuscflovernuspickwickgeetee1

Bicolour Flowers

crocuscflovernusflowerrecordgeetee

Purple Flowers

crocuscflohadriaticusindiansummerrvroger

White Flowers

crocuscflovernusyellowmammothgeetee

Yellow Flowers

crocuspfolcambessedanusgarnonswilliams

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

colchicumcforlilacbedderrvroger1

Stemless Form

Mapp-ed...Dahlia

has 46 dahlia tubers and others from the RHS Mixed Border Beds at Wisley in the MIXED BORDERS BEDDING gallery with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

dahliacfloextaservroger

Unusual Colour Flowers

dahliacflohayleyjanervroger

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

dahliapflogardenprincessrvroger

1 of 3 Dahlia Uses - Bedding

dahliacfloplayablancarvroger

Clump-forming Form

dahliacflototorvroger

1 of 13 NDS Class-ification Groups - Anemone-flowered

dahliacfloedinburghrvroger1

1 of 19 ADS Class-
ification Groups -
Formal Decorative

Mapp-ed...Gladiolus
has 209 gladiolii corms with its own 40 flower colours. Index with flower colour, classification code, flowering months, flower thumbnail in 1 of 6 floret diameter columns on each page in the gallery.

gladioluscflopeppinagc1

Salmon (medium) - 34 Flowers

gladioluscflovelvetmistressnagc

Black (red) - 58 Flowers

gladioluscfolharvestsunsetnagc

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

gladioluscflogolubojvodopadnagc

1 of 5 Floret Diameters - Giant

gladioluscflosmallstarnagc

1 of 7 Flowering Seasons - Very-Early Season

gladioluscfloprinsclausrvroger1

1 of 5 Cultivar Groups -
Nanus

Mapp-edThe 228 gladiolii corms are described in these sub-sub galleries. Index with flower colour, classification code, flowering months, flower thumbnail in 1 of 6 floret diameter column on each page in each sub-sub gallery.

Mapp-ed...Bulb Flower Shape with the

Number of Petals per flower,
Simple Flower Shapes,
Elaborated Shapes and
Natural Arrangements.

Also:-
Bulb Form,
Bulb Use and
Bulb in Soil

11 in Gladiolus European A-E Gallery
19 in Gladiolus European F-M Gallery
17 in Gladiolus European N-Z Gallery and
9 in Gladiolus European Non-Classified Gallery for the non-classified gladioli and the Gladioli species
0 in Gladiolus Australian Gallery
2 in Gladiolus Indian Gallery
16 in Gladiolus Lithuanian Gallery

Mapp-ed...Hippeastrum/ Lily

has 0 Hippeastrum and 65 Lilium bulbs with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

lilliumcfloreddutchrvroger

Bicolour Flowers

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

Purple Flowers

lilliumcflolennoxrvroger

White Flowers

lilliumcflofatamorganarvroger

Yellow Flowers

lilliumcflonepalenservroger

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

lilliumcflorosellasdreamgeetee1

1 of 10 Lily Divisions - Asiatic Hybrids

Mapp-ed...Late Summer has 92 plants from R.V. Roger Ltd Late Summer Bulbs Catalogue with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

ixiacflohollandsgloirervroger

Yellow Flowers

lachenaliacflozeyherirvroger

White Flowers

sparaxiscflometelerkampiaervroger

Purple Flowers

lachenaliacflonovarvroger

Green Flowers

ferrariacfolcrisparvroger

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

freesiacforalbarvroger1

1 of 7 Forms - Erect or Upright

Mapp-ed...Narcissus

has 67 bulbs with 6 perianth colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

narcissuscflopapyraceusdeeproot

January - All Flowers

narcissuscflopeepingtomdeeproot

February - All Flowers

narcissuscflosurfsidedeeproot

March -
All Flowers

narcissuscflogoldenbellsbulbocodiumkevock

April -
All Flowers

narcissuscflobulbocodiumdeeproot

May -
All Flowers

narcissuscflobellsongdeeproot1

June -
All Flowers

 

Each of the ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages.

Mapp-ed...Flower Shape Gallery provides thumbails of the different flower shapes of bulbs from those ...Bulb Galleries.

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot

Decemb-er
All Flowers

narcissuscflobroadwaystarrvroger

White Perianth

narcissuscflobrabazondeeproot

Yellow Perianth

narcissuscflobravouredeeproot

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

narcissuscflowhiteliondeeproot

1 of 14 Class-ification Divisions -
4 Double

narcissuscflosunnysideupdeeproot1

1 of 14
Class-
ification Divisions -
11b Split-Corona

Mapp-ed...Spring

has 5 plants from R.V. Roger Ltd Spring Bulbs Catalogue with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

crocosmiacflocrocosmiiflora

Orange Flowers

oxalisflotadenophylla

Pink Flowers

oxalisenneaphyllaflot

White Flowers

oxalischrysanthaflot

Yellow Flowers

zantedeschiafoltblackeyedbeauty

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Other Colour

oxalischrysanthafort1

1 of 7 Forms - Mat-forming

Mapp-ed...Tulip

has 22 bulbs with 12 flower colours. Index with tulips split into 19 classification divisions, flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

tulipaflotturkestanica

White Flowers

tulipaflotviolacea

1 of 3 Flowering Seasons -
Early - March

tulipafloturimiensis

1 of 3 Flowering Seasons
-
Mid -
April

tulipaflotapeldoorn

1 of 3 Flowering Seasons
-
Late -
May

tulipafoltapeldoorn

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

tulipaflotbatalinii1

1 of 19 Class-ification Divisions -
15 - Species

Mapp-ed...Winter

has 3 bulbs from R.V. Roger Ltd Winter Bulbs Catalogue with 10 flower colours. Index with flower colour, flowering months on each page in the gallery.

convallariamajalisalbostriatacflo1

White Flowers

 

 

 

convallariamajalisalbostriatafolt9

1 of 2 Foliage Colours - Green

sanguinariafortcanadensisplena1

1 of 7 Forms -
Clump-forming

Mapp-edClimber
has 71 clematis and 58 other climbers in 1 of 7 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers.

clematisbalearicacfloroseland

January - Other

ercillacflovolubilisroseland

February - Pink

clematisarmandiicfloroseland

March - White

clematismacropetalacflot1

April -
Blue

clematisbarbaradibleycfloroseland

May -
Red

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory1

June -
Yellow

Index with flower colour, months of flowering, Climber Type on each page in the gallery.

clematisarabellacfflo1

July
-
Blue

clematiscflotanguticafoord1

August
-
Yellow

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland1

Sept-ember -
Other

campsiscfloradicansroseland

October
-
Red

clematisbalearicacfloroseland1

November
-
Other

clematisbalearicacfloroseland2a

December
-
Other

Mapp-ed...Clematis
has 71 clematis in 1 of 7 Flower Colours. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, Climber Type on each page in the gallery.

There are 3 sectors on a house wall or high wall:-

  • 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) in height - The Base.
  • 36-120 inches (90-300 cms) in height - The Prime Site.
  • Above 120 inches (300+ cms) in height - The Higher Reaches.

These 3 Galleries split the climbers into their following Climber Type:-

  • Ramblers / Scramblers - These climbers lean on other plants or need artificial supports to climb - Roses, Jasmine, Espalier-trained Fruit Tree/Fruit Ramblers. These are suitable for house or building walls where vine-eye and wire or 1 inch square timber trellis support structures can be erected.
  • Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots - A series of roots are produced along the length of its stems. These attach themselves very strongly to the surfaces they find - Ivy (Hedera).
    Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads - Tendrils are produced along the young growing stems, opposite the leaves. The main tendril stem divides into a number of slender filaments, each of which has a scarcely perceivable pad at its tip. Once the tips have established contact, the tiny pad is much expanded and becomes a significant sucker, which fits so strongly to the surface that if the stem is pulled away the suckers are left behind - Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia).
  • Self-Clingers: Twining - Many climbers find support simply by twining their stems around any object they find - Wisteria and Honeysuckle.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem - Some climbers make do with sensitive leaf stalks which wrap themselves around objects for support - Clematis. Others establish themselves with thorns, hooks, spines and prickles.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils - A group of climbers climb by producing a series of tendrils. These Self-Clingers are suitable for garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges.

Mapp-ed...Climbers
has 58 other climbers in 1 of 7 Flower Colours. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, Climber Type on each page in the gallery.

Expanded information about Climber Type in the next column is below the Index on each page in each of the 3 climber galleries.

Mapp-edColour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

has 2147 plants in 1 of 48 Flower Colours with the
Black, Silver, Gray, White 1, White 2 for Cultivated Flowers or White Wildflower for White UK Wildflowers. Index with common name, flower thumbnail and months of flowering.

The Flower Colour Wheel in this Gallery has collections of different types of plant with the same colour from 1 of the 53 colours of flower petal on the same page. You can change the page to its Description Page by clicking:-

  • Botanical Plant Name,
  • or clicking Flowering Months to compare the same flower colour in each month of all in that same type of plant, then clicking the thumbnail to add its Description Page. Each Text Description below each of the Thumbnails in those Comparison Pages gives you the:-
    • soil type it prefers,
    • plant name,
    • sun aspect,
    • soil moisture in the background colour and
    • height of the plant in the border colour of that plant.

Mapp-edColour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers per Month 12

has 1859 plants, which are:-

  • 1 Aquatic
  • 9 Azaleas, Rhododendrons, Camellias
  • 42 Bedding
  • 729 Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers
  • 111 Climbers
  • 31 Deciduous Shrubs
  • 3 Deciduous Trees
  • 118 Evergreen Perennials
  • 1 Semi-Evergreen Perennial
  • 104 Evergreen Shrubs
  • 1 Evergreen Tree
  • 3 Grasses
  • 3 Herbs
  • 128 Herbaceous Perennials
  • 16 Odds and Sods
  • 324 Roses
  • 235 Wildflowers

in 1 of 12 flower colours in each month that it flowers.

The All Flowers per Month in this Gallery complements the Flower Colour Wheel gallery by having the flower photo in each month of one of the following petal colours that that plant flowers; then you can change the page to its Description Page by clicking on that Thumbnail:-

"Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening first appeared in serial form in Amateur Gardening. It was then produced as a book in 1895. For the first time the gardener was provided with a comprehensive encyclopedia, which not only gave brief descriptions of all the plants he was ever likely to meet but also complete information regarding their cultivation.
In this later edition the individual mixtures have been retained, for it was considered that many gardeners might still wish to use them in certain circumstances rather than the standardised John Innes recommendations." from the foreword of The Gardeners' Golden Treasury.
Using the information in the above book, I am creating:-

  • 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Colour Wheel Gallery to compare all its plants with that flower colour in the same page(s) and link those plant names to
  • All Plants Index Colour Wheel Gallery which gives that same individual mixture and its other description for each plant, together with links to photos from external sites and mail-order nurseries in UK (Europe), America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Mapp-edColour Wheels with number of colours
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12

has more than 264 plants in 1 of 12 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers. The Bee-pollinated Index Gallery has the corresponding index page to the comparison page in the Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery.

 

For Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in this gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses etc.

Besides the plants in the
British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees
and
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
the following 3 sets of Bee-pollinated plants are suitable for Hay-fever Sufferers; except for the 2 grasses :-

  • This Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery compares 13 flower colour photos per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 2 ANNUAL - VEGETABLE
    • 4 AQUATIC PLANTS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 21 BULBS, CORMS, OR RHIZOMES
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 31 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS
    • 26 DECIDUOUS TREES
    • 9 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
    • 22 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 2 EVERGREEN TREES
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
    • 4 SEMI-EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 66 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
    • 9 PERENNIAL HERBS
      followed by
  • extra bee-pollinated plants in Index in each page of Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery.

Mapp-edColour Wheels with number of colours
All Foliage 212
 

The All Foliage Gallery (Leaf and Form Foliage Gallery) has collections of different types of plant with the same colour from the 212 colours of mature foliage on the same page to produce the same, complementary or contrasting mature foliage colour lists. The Form image is followed by Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter Thumbnails. Each Text Description below the 4 Thumbnails in those Comparison Pages gives you the:-

  • Plant Type with
    Height range of the plant in the border colour of that plants description
    Evergreen, Deciduous or Herbaceous and
    Soil Moisture in the background colour.
    The Soil it prefers,
    Plant Name,
    Sun Aspect,
    Foliage Months,
    Flower Colour and
    Months of Flowering in the UK with
    Height x Width in inches (cms) and
    Uses of Plant

Mapp-edColour Wheels with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

has 82 rock garden plants in 1 of 52 Flower Colours.

FLOWERING IN MONTH
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Small size plant in Flower Colours

Miniature size plant in Flower Colours

Small Size plant flower in Month

Miniature Size plant flower in Month

There are 82 rock garden plants (with photos) suitable for small garden areas; split into:-

  • 2 ALLIUM and ANEMONE Bulbs
  • 3 BULBS - Spring Catalogue. For planting in February/ May
  • 2 BULBS - Late Summer Catalogue. For planting in July/ September
  • 7 BULBS - Autumn Catalogue. For planting in September/ November
  • 2 Bulbs - Winter Catalogue. For planting in November/ March
  • 35 COLCHICUM AND CROCUS BULBS.
  • 0 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS
  • 30 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
  • 1 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 0 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
  • 0 ROSES

in this Gallery.
All the remaining rock garden plants detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index pages A, B , C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, NO, PQ, R, S, T, UVWXYZ in this gallery are waiting to receive photos, before they can be added to the 1 of the 52 Rockgarden Colour Wheel - Flowers Pages and then the above list.

Mapp-ed...Rock Plant Photos

has 35 plants - Rock Garden Plants that do not have Plant Description Pages in this website - in this Gallery:-

  • 15 BULBS, CORMS and TUBERS
  • 4 EVERGREEN SUBSHRUBS
  • 7 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
  • 2 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 7 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS

I am taking photos of rock garden plants suitable for small gardens and if they do not have their own Plant Description Page in this website, then each photo of each plant will be located at the bottom of the relevant 1 of 52 Rockgarden Flower Colour Wheel pages of the Rock Plant Flowers 53 gallery. Usually a link in *** to that page will be included in the Name field of the respective Index Page.

If there is more than 1 photo for that plant that I wish to display then, this Gallery will have photos of that plant in its page.
This will be linked to from the respective Rock Garden Flower Colour Wheel Page and you can return to that Page by clicking on "Return to Rock Garden Colour Wheel Page" next to its text description for each photo
or
use the Rock Garden Colour Wheel on the right to link to that Colour or 1 of the others.
You could also get to its text row in the relevant Rock Plant Index page using the first letter of its name as the Index Page name to click.

Mapp-edConifer

has 7 conifers in 1 of 7 Flower Colours. Index with height x spread, foliage colour and use on each page in the gallery.
 

 

 

juniperusfortvirginia

1 of 13 Shapes - Columnar Tree / Shrub Shape

abieskoreanafrut9

Cone Colour

juniperusfoltrecurvadensa1

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Green

 

Mapp-edDeciduous Shrub

has 43 deciduous shrubs in 1 of 7 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery

jasminumflotnudiflorum

January - Yellow

hamamelismollisflot9

February - Yellow

jasminumflotnudiflorum1

March - Yellow

chaenomelesjaponicacflot1

April -
Red, Pink or Purple

cytisusscopariusandreanusflot9

May - Unusual

paeoniadelavayiflot1

June -
Red, Pink or Purple

 

leycesteriaflotformosa

July - Unusual

cytisusbattandieriflot9

August - Yellow

fuchsialadythumbflot9

September - Red, Pink or Purple

buddlejadavidiiflot9

October - Red, Pink or Purple

 

 

Mapp-ed...Shrubs - Deciduous

hydrangeaflotvillosa

Other Colours Flowers

 

paeoniasuffruticosaredtreefort1

1 of 8 Forms - Erect or Upright

chaenomelesxsuperbashape9

1 of 13 Shapes - Rounded or Spherical

berberisthunbergiiatropurpureafolt

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Purple

cotoneasterfruithorizontalis1a

Fruit Colour

Mapp-edDeciduous Tree

has 4 deciduous trees in 1 of 7 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers. Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

betulacflopendula

April - Unusual

amelanchiercanadensiscflot1

May - White

fraxinussieboldianaflot9

June - White

 

 

 

Mapp-ed...Trees - Deciduous

amelanchiercanadensiscflot1a

White Flowers

robiniafriesiabluecedar

Garden Pictures -
Robinia friesia 'Blue Cedar'

liriodendronfoltstulipifera

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Autumn Foliage Colour Change

liriodendronforttulipifera1

1 of 15 Shapes -
Columnar Shape

Mapp-edEvergreen Perennial

has 104 evergreen perennials in 1 of 7 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers.

 

 

anemonecflo1blandafoord

March - Blue

bergeniamorningredCflocoblands

April -
Red, Pink or Purple

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling

May - Unusual

alyssumflo1montanumfoord1

June -
Yellow

Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour, comments on each page in the gallery.

Alpine Evergreen Perennial if Text Background is Blue in Evergreen Perennial Name Column.

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord

July - White

agapanthuscfloafricanusbluefoord

August - Blue

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock

September - Unusual

stachysflotmacrantha

October Unusual

lavateracflomaritima

November - Red, Pink or Purple

 

Mapp-ed...P-Evergreen A-L

has 68 evergreen perennial plants with initial letter of cultivar between A and L.
 

achilleacflochrysocomafoord1

Yellow Flowers

 

geraniumcineureumballerinafort9

1 of 9 Forms - Mat-Forming

 

ajugacfolpyramidalisarcticfoxkevock

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Variegated White with Green

alyssumfrutmontanumflowermay84a

Fruit Colour

Mapp-ed...P-Evergreen M-Z

has 36 evergreen perennial plants with initial letter of cultivar between M and Z.
 

phloxgarsubulatatemiskaming

Garden Pictures -
Rock Garden Bed. Magenta Cushion form in a rock garden. Phlox subulata 'Temiskaming'

saxifragagarcochlearis1

Garden Pictures -
Saxifraga cochlearis. Alpine Garden Society has more details on Saxifrages.

Mapp-ed...Flower Shape

has 98 evergreen perennial plants

The Daily Telegraph Best Flowers to Grow and Cut by David Joyce (ISBN 0 7112 2366 1) groups plants according to defined characteristics of flower simple shape, elaborated shape, flower details and flower textures. Using that system, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures in:-

  • Number of Flower Petals
  • Flower Simple Shape, Flower Elaborated Shape and
  • Flower Natural Arrangement Pages

A thumbnail of a plant can be in each of the above 3.

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

1 of 7 Number of Petals -
4

agapanthuscfloalbuskevock

1 of 12 Flower Simple Shapes and Flower Elaborated Shapes - Simple Shape of Trumpets or Funnels

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

1 of 7 Flower Natural Arrange-ments - Column, Spikes or Spires

Mapp-edEvergreen Shrub

has 46 evergreen shrubs and 74 heathers in 1 of 7 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers.

ericadarleyensiscfloskramersrotedeeproot

January - Red, Pink or Purple

mahoniaflotjaponica

February - Yellow

ericacarneacfloiceprincessdeeproot

March - White

euphorbiacharaciasflot9

April - Unusual

rosmarinusflotofficinalis

May -
Blue

cistuspurpureusflot9a

June -
Red, Pink or Purple

Index for the 46 evergreen shrubs with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

Index for the Heathers in the ...Heather Shrub gallery and a different one in the ...Heather Index gallery.

halimiocistuswintonensismerristwoodcreamflot9

July - Yellow

hibiscussinensisflot9

August - Red, Pink or Purple

yuccaflotgloriosa

September - White

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor

October - Yellow

daboeciaflotcantabricabicolor

November - Unusual

abutilonmegapotamicumflot9a

December - Unusual

Mapp-ed...Shrubs - Evgr

has 46 evergreen shrubs in 1 of 7 Flower Colours. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery

helianthemhenfieldbrilliantflot9

Orange Flowers

hypericumfortmoserianumtricolor

1 of 8 Forms - Arching

lavaterafortrosea

1 of 15 Shapes - Rounded or Spherical

 

helichrysumsplendidumfolt9

1 of 13 Foliage Colours -
Grey

dryasfrutoctopetala1

Fruit Colour

Mapp-ed...Heather Shrub has 74 heathers in 1 of 18 Flower Colours. Index with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour in spring, summer, autumn and winter.

Ericacarneaannsparkesflo2garnonswilliams

H7 Rose Pink Flowers

Ericacarneajanuarysunflo2garnonswilliams

Flowering Season Month - December

Ericaerigenagoldenladyfolsprgarnonswilliams1

1 of 4 Seasons with 1 of 7 Foliage Colours -
Spring - Yellow

...Heather Index

each comparison page in the ...Heather Shrub gallery has its corresponding Index page or pages in this gallery. The detailing includes photos for each of the heathers compared in that comparison page.

1 cultivar detailed from 1 of 37 Species - Daboecia

Daboecia cantabrica
'Alberta White' flowering in
June,
July,
August,
September
with width x spread
12 x 20 (30 x 50)

White flowers, June-September, with bright green foliage. Erect habit and one of the better whites.

Daboeciacantabricaalbertawhiteflostalkkavanagh

Photo of buds and flowers from
October 2014

Daboeciacantabricaalbertawhitefolsumkavanagh1

Bright Green

Photo from June 2013

......Andromeda
......
Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
 

Heather Description Pages in the following Species:-

  • 0 Andromeda
  • Bruckenthalia changed to Erica spiculifolia
  • 14 Calluna
  • 2 Daboecia
  • 32 Erica: Carnea
  • 7 Erica: Cinerea
  • 59 Erica: Hardy Heaths

Mapp-edEvergreen Tree

has 1 evergreen tree in 1 of 5 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers.

 

 

leptospermumflotscoparium

June - White

leptospermumflotscoparium1

July -
White

Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (the yew involved is on the right of the home page of St. Margarets Church).

Mapp-ed...Trees - Evergreen

has 1 evergreen tree in 1 of 7 Flower Colours.

leptospermumflotscoparium2

White Flowers

 

1 of 15 Shapes

 

leptospermumfoltscoparium

1 of 14 Foliage Colours - Green

 

Mapp-edFern

has 16 ferns. Index with foliage colour and Shape/Division, height and spread, on each page in the gallery.

athyriumcfrofilixfemina

1 of 20 Types of Fern to Grow - Lady Ferns

Ferns for a purpose in the following uses:-

Grass

has 4 grasses in 1 of 7 inflorescence colours. Index with inflorescence colour, months of inflorescence, height x spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

festucaglaucaflot9

Blue Inflor-escence

 

hakonechloamacraalbovariegatafort9

1 of 7 Forms - Clump-forming

 

carexpendulafolt9

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Green

 

Mapp-edHerbaceous Perennial

has 91 herbaceous perennials in 1 of 5 Flower Colours in each month that it flowers.
 

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock1

January - Blue

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock1a

February - Blue

 

calthapalustrisalbacflorvroger

April -
White

papaverorientaleflot

May -
Red, Pink or Purple

buphthalmumsalicifoliumflot9a

June -
Yellow

Index with flower colour, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

Alpine Herbaceous Perennial if Text Background is Blue in Herbaceous Perennial Name Column.

astrantiamajorflot9

July -
White

asternovibelgiidandycflorvroger

August - Red, Pink or Purple

kniphofiaflotlittlemaid

September - Yellow

kniphofiaflottriangularis

October - Unusual

heleniumautumnaleflot9

November - Yellow

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock1b1

December - Blue

...P -Herbaceous

has 91 herbaceous perennials in 1 of 7 Flower Colours.

The diascia from Christine Boulby are listed in the Index on each page in the gallery.

alcearoseachatersdoublesalmoncflorvroger

Pink Flowers

campanulafortgarganica

1 of 9 Forms - Spread-ing or Creeping

Diascia Photo Album

"I hope these pictures will help you identify the diascia you have.   They are sometimes close-ups, sometimes long shots and most are scanned from photos or slides.   I aim to give a botanical description based on the writings of Hilliard & Burtt and Dr Kim Steiner in time." from Christine Boulby.

hostacrispulafolt9

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Variegated White with Green

papaverorientalefrut1

Fruit Colour

...RHS Wisley

has 23 herbaceous perennials

These 23 Herbaceous Perennials were in the Other Borders in the garden at Wisley besides the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society in 2013. Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

Mapp-ed...Flower Shape

has 136 herbaceous perennial plants

The Daily Telegraph Best Flowers to Grow and Cut by David Joyce (ISBN 0 7112 2366 1) groups plants according to defined characteristics of flower simple shape, elaborated shape, flower details and flower textures. Using that system, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures in:-

  • Number of Flower Petals
  • Flower Simple Shape, Flower Elaborated Shape and
  • Flower Natural Arrangement Pages

A thumbnail of a plant can be in each of the above 3.

astrantiacflo1romagarnonswilliams

1 of 7 Number of Petals -
6

amiciacfloszygomerisgarnonswilliams

1 of 12 Flower Simple Shapes and Flower Elaborated Shapes - Elaborated Shape of Hats, Hoods or Helmets

kniphofiaflotroyalstandard1

 

1 of 7 Flower Natural Arrange-ments - Column, Spikes or Spires

Mapp-ed...Peony
has 1 Peony plant. Index with flower thumbnail, height and spread, flower form, flowering season, peony type, peony use, foliage colour of all peonies as detailed by The Peony Society based in the UK on each comparison page in the gallery.

The Index Page details all the Peonies as detailed by The Peony Society based in the UK. There are comparison pages for the:-

  • 9 Different types of Peony,
  • 9 Flower Colours,
  • 6 Flower Forms,
  • 4 Flowering Periods in the UK,
  • 2 Foliage Colours and
  • 8 Uses of Peony ---->

The 8 Uses of Peony:-

Herb

has 3 herbs

Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

Hyssopus officinalis / Hyssop

hyssopusflotofficinalis1a1

hyssopusfoltofficinalis1a1a

Odds and Sods

has 20 alpine, cut flowers and succulent plants.
 

Index with flower colour, flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and spread, foliage colour, foliage thumbnail, plant type on each page in the gallery.

chrysanthemumpenninediggerflot1a

Sprays from Chry-santhemum 'Pennine Digger' and others are long-lasting as cut-flowers.

General Growing Instruc-tions and other varieties available from Chrysanth-emums Direct.

Mapp-edRhododendron
has 10 plants -
2 azalea, 1 camellia and 7 rhododendrons in 1 of 7 Flower Colours.
Index with flower colour, months of flowering on each page in the gallery.

rhododendronflotmacabeanum

Yellow Flowers

cazaleafortmacranthapink

1 of 8 Forms - Mat-forming

rhododendronflotsappho

1 of 13 Shapes - Rounded or Spherical

 

crhododendronfoltbluepeter

1 of 15 Foliage Colours - Green

 

Mapp-edRose
has 720 roses in 1 of 7 Flower Colours.
 

There are 3 groups of roses, whose 25 Rose Use Flower Images are compared in Rose Use Gallery and whose 7 Flower Colours and 39 Rose Type Shapes (Classes as adopted by the British National Rose Society) are compared in this gallery:-

  • 343 Rose Description Pages of roses from R.V. Roger Ltd Nursery were inserted into the
    Rose Gallery and the
    Rose Use Gallery in November 2009. It has its Rose Index with links to its Description Page, Flower Colour comparison page and its Rose Use pages in the right hand table of each Description Page in both Galleries with another
    Rose Index with Bloom Photo, Rose Use, link to Description Page, and Height and Width,
  • 82, 37, and 12 Rose Description Pages of roses from Wisley were inserted into the
    RHS Wisley A-F Gallery,
    RHS Wisley G-R Gallery and
    RHS Roses S-Z respective Galleries in May 2013. It has its Rose Index in the Description Page in each of the 3 RHS Wisley Galleries and in the right hand table of each Rose Use page in the Rose Use Gallery with Bloom Photo, Rose Use, links to its Description Page, Height and Width, and
  • 1, 0 and 12 Rose Description Pages of the extra roses currently grown by R.V. Roger Ltd in 2014 in September 2014. It has its Rose Index in the right hand table of each of its Description Pages in
    Other Roses A-F Gallery,
    Other Roses G-R Gallery and
    Other Roses S-Z Gallery with Bloom Photo, Rose Use, links to its Description Page, Height and Width.

rosalittleamycflorogerltd

rosafryessexwildfireflomidcgarnonswilliams

rosajanguestcflorogerltd

rosaenglishgardencflomidgarnonswilliams

rosalordpenzancecflorogerltd

rosamasqueradefolt

rosababybiocflo1a

Mapp-ed1 of 25 Rose Uses -
Not Fragrant

Orange Flowers

1 of 39 Rose Shapes- 4 Large-Flowered Hybrid Tea

1 of 6 Rose Bloom Shapes - Pompon

1 of 5 Rose Petal Counts - Single
1-7 Petals

Green Foliage

Rose Hip Colour


 

rosaalbertinegarhedge1

 

rosacaninadogrosegarhedge1a


 

Garden Pictures

 

Rose Hedge. Rambler rose used to create a hedge. See Peter Beales Roses An illustrated encyclopaedia and grower's handbook of species roses, old roses and modern roses, shrub roses and climbers by Peter Beales ISBN 0-00-272178-3.

 

Native UK Rose Hedge of Rosa canina 'Dog Rose', which is usefull for the wildlife in a woodland or wild garden setting for its hips, and as nesting sites in mixed hedging of hawthorn, blackthorn, fieldmaple and beech.

Soft Fruit

has 5 soft fruit plants. Index has flower colour, flower period, fruit colour, month of picking fruit, height x spread, foliage colour on each page in the gallery.

"Grow Your Own Fruit" by Ken Muir, Honeypot Farm, Weeley Heath, Clacton-On-Sea, Essex. CO16 9BJ Tel: 01255 830181 provides the information on cultural practices in a clear and concise manner. It is strongly recommended that this booklet is read before growing Soft Fruit or Top Fruit, so that correct plants for your soil can be purchased by you and to give you a good fruit yield.
Choosing a soft fruit bush (Blueberry, Gooseberry, Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Whitecurrant or Jostaberry) instead of a shrub from the shrub lists provides you with the size of shrub suitable for most current gardens. The Raspberry may be used as a mini-hedge in the garden to separate areas or against your boundary fences/walls. The Blackberry, Boysenberry and Tayberry cane climbers can also be used as mini-hedges or to clothe walls/fences/pergolas.
They all provide you with edible fruit.

Mapp-edTop Fruit
has 8 apple trees. Index has fruit thumbnail, acid/sweet, flowering group, month of picking in the UK, apple type on each page in the gallery.

From Chris Murphy writing in the Sunday East Kent Digital Edition of 24/10/2010:-
The Campaign for the Protection of Rural England reports that in the last decade the UK has lost 31% of its apple orchard land; in the last 25 years more than 1/2 our apple orchards have disappeared. Between 1946 and 2003, 92% of orchard land disappeared in Kent county, and from 1999 to 2003, the net loss per year was 1.8%.
Every year Britons consume 680,000 tonnes of apples, but just 1 in 3 apples are British, despite the fact the climate in the UK can support 2,300 varieties.
Common Ground said "Since the 60's, Kent lost 80% of its orchard land. The reason so many have been lost is because the economics haven't been working because so many superstores have been buying the cheapest, and importing them from Chile, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand at the height of our UK season from July to March. Many varieties are suitable for short-term storage, making UK produced apples available for much of the year."
Sally Roger, of the Brogdale Collections in Faversham, said: "Thousands of acres of orchards and many heritage varieties of apples, pears, plums and cherries have disappeared from Kent over the last few decades as shoppers have demanded more perfect looking fruit all year round from supermarkets."

...Cherry

has 1 cherry tree. Index has acid/sweet, flowering group, month of picking in the UK, cherry type on each page in the gallery.
 

...Pear

has 3 pear trees. Index has acid/sweet, flowering group, month of picking in the UK, pear type on each page in the gallery.

Mapp-edWild Flower
has 1115 Wild Flower Plants in the Family Pages using the family pages menus on the right - of which 297 have their own Description Pages linked from those Family pages:-

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


Mapp-edFLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in Acid Soil
Flowers in Chalk Soil
Flowers in Marine Soil
Flowers in Neutral Soil
Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

Update Completed...Flower Colour Page in gallery,
space, then
Wildflower Habitat List page.
See this list in Wildflower row of the Main Topic table on the right

...Blue Site Map
...Brown
...Cream
...Green
...Mauve
...Multi-Cols
...Orange
...Pink A-G
...Pink H-Z
...Purple
...Red
...White A-D
...White E-P
...White Q-Z
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
...Shrub/Tree
INDEX of all Wildflowers with that Flower Colour in that Flower Colour Page

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

 

Current Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden - After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map -,
and
Current Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names;

are being replaced by

Update CompletedCommon Names and Botanical Names galleries. Each data row in these 2 galleries describes a Wildflower, using its information from its Family Page and other data including which countries in Europe including Russia, states in North America , Canada and China, with photos.

Vegetable

has 8 vegetable plants. Index has
vegetable type,
4-year rotation,
foliage colour thumbnail, food colour thumbnail, good companions,
bad companions
on each page in the gallery.

Incredible Vegetables from Self-Watering Containers by Edward C. Smith (ISBN -13: 978-1-58017-556-2 or ISBN-10: 1-58017-556-2). Ed Smith has chosen, planted, tested and tasted dozens of vegetables in every type of self-watering container and shows you how to grow the best vegetables ever in your own garden.
or
There are 91,500 people in the UK who are waiting for an allottment in June 2010. That is up from 76,330 in June 2009. And the popular grow-your-own trend, accelerated by the recession and rising price of food, shows no sign of calming down.
or
Use Gertrud Franck's Vegetable Garden Layout with Companion Planting in your own garden or allotment (Companion Planting: Successful Gardening the Organic Way by Gertrud Franck)

Mapp-edButterfly
This gallery contains most of the 68 Butterflies (started in June 2008) of the United Kingdom. The relationship between the Wildlife and the Plants they eat or use in their lifespan, the Habitats they live in and who eats them is shown. There are these Comparison Pages for identification purposes:-

Caterpillar Colour
With Long Hairs
Curiously Shaped
(o)Green
Grey / Brown
(o)Orange
(o)Spiny
(o)White
(o)Yellow

Butterfly Identity
(o)Aristocrats
(o)Blue, Hairstreaks and Copper
Browns
(o)Fritillaries
Monarch
(o)Skippers
(o)Swallowtail
(o)Whites/Yellows

Part 1 of Index on every page in the gallery:-

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis

Plant Name

Alder Buckthorn

Butterfly Name

Brim-stone

brimstonetcaterpillar

Egg/ Caterpillar
/
Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Plant Usage

 


1 egg
under leaf.

Eats leaves.


---

Plant Usage Months

 


10 days in May-June

28 days.


12 days.

 

Part 2 of Index on every page in the gallery:-

Butterfly with its Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis use these plants.

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Cater-pillar/ Chrysalis
/ Butterfly

Plant Name

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

 

Adonis Blue

adonisbluemaletfly
male
 

Egg

Horseshoe vetch

1 egg under leaf.

1

 

Why does a website on plants have a gallery about butterflies? Man is not the only animal on earth - we need food like fruit and vegetables - if some of which are pollinated by bees were not; man would starve. Butterflies are also part of wildlife and they depend on plants throughout the entire year. Most of these plants that egg, caterpillar, chrysalis and butterfly use are within the undergrowth. Undergrowth is under trees and shrubs and performs similiar functions for the wildlife as roads, railways, shops, houses, pubs and restaurants do for skyscrapers. Please leave an area in your garden, which is undisturbed and where wildlife can set up and be able to get to the next garden with a small indentation in the ground below your boundary fence/wall.

 


Site design and content copyright ©February 2011 Chris Garnons-Williams. Page structure amended September 2012. Tabular plant data added December 2012. Menus amended July 2015 and November 2015.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Camera Photo Galleries
show all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo
on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop has this

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

FREEWAY PRO 5.5 is the version of FREEWAY that will be used from October 2013, without updating to version 6 of FREEWAY or later versions. When I republished my folders using FREEWAY 6 some of the folders did not publish at all and others it changed the layout structure of my 3 tables from a horizontal plane to placing them in a vertical plane down the page.

I spent between September 2012 and March 2013 rewriting the complete site to change it from 800 pixels wide to 1200 pixels wide with 3 tables in a horizontal plane and usually an index of a topic in the right hand table on every page of each respective gallery or topic to make it more user-friendly.

I have advised FREEWAY of the problem at the beginning of October 2013.

I find that Tables are very strong and allow users with different display sizes to display the same information without data within a cell being able to break out of that cell. Also it means that if an individual for their own use wishes to re-sort the data within the middle table for their own private use, it can be downloaded to WORD, PAGES etc and that can be done. This process can be done by anyone with any computer for their own educational use with tabular data, but they might find it more difficult to do if my pages were entirely CSS generated or generated from a database.

Remember that this miniscule site is for educating not for commercial purposes!!

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

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