Use these
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-


Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

 

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1

 

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1
 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following table lists these shapes for the trees in the Plant Name A to Z pages.

 

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

 

 

Sun Aspect,
Soil Type,
Soil Moisture,
Plant Type and
Height of Plant
are used in the
Plant Photo Galleries
in the comparison of thumbnail photos

 

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

Plants required for different garden sites:-

  • Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
  • Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
  • Back of Shady Border
  • Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
  • Bee Pollinated Plant instead of wind-pollinated plant. This prevents the pollen from being blown into faces of hay fever sufferers.
    Bloom per Month
    Blooms Nov-Feb
    Blooms Mar-May
    Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
    Blooms Sep-Oct

    0-24 inches
    (0-60 cms)
    24-72 inches
    (60-180 cms)
    Above 72 inches
    (180 cms)
  • Bog Garden requires plants that prefer water in the soil round their roots.
  • Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.
  • Crevice Garden
  • Containers in Garden
  • Dust and Pollution Barrier 1, 2 - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
  • Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.
  • Edibles in Containers
  • Hanging Basket
  • Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
  • Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
  • Trees for Lawns
  • Trees for Small Garden
  • Windbreak - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
  • Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.
    The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-
    • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
    • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
    • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
    • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

      Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements - this groundcover index is in the PLANTS Page Menu in Plant Selection Level 5.

      Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

      The groundcover list is sorted in the following pages under the following height of plant range:-
      Below 2 feet (
      0-24 inches (0-60 cms)) in height in
      Ground-cover List 1 Page
      1, 2, 3

      Between 2 and 6 feet (
      24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 2 Page
      4, 5, 6

      Above 6 feet (
      72 inches
      (180 cms)
      ) in height in
      Ground-cover List 3 Page
      7

In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

 

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

Soil Moisture:-

Sun Aspect:-

Plant Location:-

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower-ing Months

Flower-ing Colour

Height x Spread in
inches (cms).
 

25.4mm = 1 inch


304.8mm = 12 inches


12 inches = 1 foot


3 feet = 1 yard


914.4mm = 1 yard

 

I normally round this to
30 cm = 1 foot,
90 cm = 3 feet and
100 cm = 40 inches

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Plants to help this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
and/or
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Comment

AC = Acid Soil

AL = Alkaline Soil
 

AN = Any for Acid, Neutral or Alkaline Soil

FA = Grow for Flower Arrangers

FB = Front of Border
/ Path Edges

RB = Rest of Border

SP = Speciman

RG = Rock Garden

WP = Within Path

CL = Climber or Shrub grown against a wall or fence

BE = Bedding

GP = Grow in Pot / Container

HB = Grow in Hanging Basket

HE = Hedge
GC = Ground Cover
SC = Screening

TH =
Thorny Hedge

BG = Grow in Bog Area

BA = Grow on Bank / Slope

Soil:-

AN = Any Soil

SE = Seaside / Coastal Plants

CH = Chalk

EX = Cold Exposed Inland Site

CL = Clay

DP = Dust and Pollution Barrier

LF = Lime-Free (Acid Soil)

D = Dry

S = Full Sun

SO = Sound Barrier

PD = Poorly Drained
PE = Peaty

M = Moist

PS = Part Shade
DS = Dappled Sun

WI = Wind Barrier

LS = Light Sand

W = Wet

FS = Full Shade

WO = Woodland

AN

CH

CL

LF

PD

LS

D

M

W

S

PS

FS

AC

AL

AN

FA

FB
RB

BE

GP

HB

HE

SC

BG

BA

SE

EX

DP

SO

WI

WO

SP
RG

PE

DS

WP
CL

TH
GC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped Tree or Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Created New Page structure and Pages before information added to those new pages. May 2015. Data added to existing pages and page structure changed December 2017. Tidied up the text format and added comparison tables January 2024. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Perryhill Nurseries sells Plants for a Purpose in these lists:-

  • Clay Soils
  • Chalk Soils
  • Trees and Shrubs suitable for damp sites
  • Plants suitable for shady places
  • Plants suitable for industrial areas.

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

This table has been copied from
Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Plant Pruning

Pruning of
Woody Plants in Groups 1 - 13 and Herbaceous Perennials in Group 14 with Ferns in Group 15 and Evergreen Perennials in Group 16.


The aim of formative pruning of a new plant is to produce a balanced framework of sturdy, well-spaced branches that permit maximum light and air to reach the entire plant. Most evergreen trees and shrubs require little formative pruning, but may need light shaping after planting (plant in Autumn) in Spring, to ensure balanced growth. Formative pruning of deciduous trees/shrubs should be carried out in the dormant season (most deciduous trees/shrubs have lost their leaves by January and do not grow new ones before March), either at or soon after planting in the Autumn. If a young shrub does not have a balanced framework, cut off the sideshoots of the main stems, then select 4 or 5 of the strongest, most evenly spaced main stems from the resulting growth to form the new framework, and cut out the rest. Some plants from pruning group 1 need only minimal pruning; these include slow-growing shrubs with an intricate, ornamental branch structure whose appearance is easily spoiled by cutting back.

Some old or overgrown shrubs - such as those that produce new shoots from the base or from old wood - may be rejuvenated by hard pruning. Renovate deciduous shrubs after flowering or when dormant in January, and evergreen shrubs in mid-Spring. Cut back up to one-third of the oldest stems close to the base. Of those that remain, cut out the weak or dead wood, then rubbing, crossing or congested stems and finally shorten the oldest by half to strong buds. Repeat the following year, cutting back the remaining old main stems.

For pruning of plants after their first year from planting in your garden; begin by removing dead, damaged or diseased wood, and then crossing shoots. If the 'normal' branch is horizontal, then cut out the vertical crossing branch. If the 'normal branch is vertical, then cut out the horizontal crossing branch. Remember to see whether the crossing branch you take out will affect the overall shape of the plant less than the other one - to make sure that you do not destroy the 'normal' shape of the plant. Then follow the respective pruning action for the Pruning Group for that plant in the following table:-

Pruning Group Number

Type of Plant

Pruning Action

When

1. e.g. Acer palmatum

Evergreen and deciduous trees/shrubs that flower on previous or current year's growth and need minimal pruning

Remove crossing shoots to maintain framework.

In late winter or early Spring, when dormant; some in late summer or early autumn to prevent sap bleeding.

2. e.g. Forsythia

Deciduous Shrubs that flower in Spring or early Summer on previous year's growth

Cut back flowered shoots to strong buds or young lower or basal growth. On established plants, cut back about 1/4 of old shoots to the base, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, after flowering.

3. e.g. Kerria

Deciduous shrubs that flower in Spring or early Summer on previous year's growth, and produce new growth at or near ground level.

Cut back flowered shoots to young sideshoots or to strong buds low down on branch framework, to encourage new growth.

Annually, after flowering

4. e.g. Hydrangea macrophylla

Deciduous shrubs that flower in mid to late Summer or Autumn on previous year's growth.

Trim off last season's flowerheads to the first bud beneath each flowerhead. With established plants, cut back about 1/4 of old shoots to the base, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, from early to mid-Spring.

5. e.g. Prunus triloba

Deciduous shrubs that flower between late Winter and early Spring on previous year's growth.

Cut back all stems to strong buds or to developing shoots close to the base of the plant, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, after flowering

6. e.g. Buddleja davidii

Deciduous shrubs that flower in mid to late Summer or Autumn on current year's growth.

Cut back to low permanent framework. For Sub-Shrubs, and for drastic renovation, cut back all flowered stems close to the base.

Annually, as buds begin to swell in early spring.

7. e.g. Cornus alba

Deciduous trees and shrubs that, when pruned hard, produce colourful winter stems, or large or brightly hued foliage, as ornamental features. Plants that flower on previous year's wood do not bloom if pruned this way.

Cut back all stems to within 2 or 3 buds of the base, or to the permanent framework. Feed or apply well-rotted farmyard manure, and mulch to compensate for loss of wood.

Annually, in early Spring.

8. e.g. Camellia, Rhododendron

Evergreen shrubs that flower between Winter and early Summer on previous or current year's growth, and need minimal pruning.

Trim or lightly cut back shoots that spoil symmetry. Dead-head regularly if practical (unless fruit is required).

Annually, after flowering. Remove dead and damaged growth in mid-Spring.

9. e.g. Eucryphia

Evergreen shrubs that flower between mid-Summer and late Autumn on previous or current year's growth, or that bear insignificant flowers, and that need minimal pruning.

Trim or lightly cut back shoots that spoil symmetry. Shrubs grown for foliage often tolerate harder pruning. Dead-head regularly if practical (unless fruit is required).

Annually, or as necessary, from mid to late Spring.

10. e.g. Calluna, Erica, Lavandula

Evergreen shrubs that flower on previous year's growth in Spring or early Summer, or on current year's growth in late Summer or Autumn. (Tree heathers require only minimal pruning).

Cut back flowered shoots to within 1" (2.5cm) of previous year's growth.

Annually:

  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in early or mid-Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

11. e.g. Akebia, Clematis montana

Vigorous, deciduous and evergreen climbers that flower on previous or current year's growth, and need no regular pruning.

Trim to fit available space; carry out renovation pruning as needed

Annually, or as needed:

  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

12. e.g. Solanum crispum

Less vigourous, deciduous and evergreen climbers that flower on previous or current year's growth.

"Spur prune" by cutting back side-shoots to within 4 buds of it's main stem. Thin out overcrowded shoots by unravelling every branch onto the ground. Then, retie the main branches to its support - this could be chainlink fencing from 24 to 60 inches (60-150 cms) with twine not with plastic, metal or rubber. Then starting at the base, inspect each sub-branch and tie it to the climber support. Then tie the next one if there is room; if not cut it back to within 4 buds of its connection to its parent branch. And carry on up that sub-branch, until all its sub-branches have been dealt with. Then repeat the process on the next main branch system, until all the branch structure has been retied. You will end up with a lot more flowers and a better looking climber. This complete process may well need to be done every 2 or 3 years, so that you do not end up with a thick mass of twigs and a leafy climber on the outside after 4 to 5 years.

Annually:

  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

13. e.g. Ceanothus

Wall trained, deciduous and evergreen shrubs that flower on previous or current year's growth.

Cut back flowered shoots to within 4 buds of permanent framework. Trim outward-facing shoots and those growing towards the wall.

Annually:

  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

14. e.g.

Herbaceous perennials.

Apply top dressing of bone meal.

The plants produce vigorous shoots. When the plant is one-third of its final height, pinch out the weak shoots.

Cut shoots down to the base, and remove dead and faded growth and weeds. Divide perennials every 4 years to maintain vigour and replant the divided portions elsewhere in the garden. To appreciate grasses and other plants during the Winter, delay cutting and mulching until early Spring. Apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Apply bone meal in early Spring after rain.

Each Spring

 

 

Every Autumn

15. e.g.

Ferns

Remove old fronds. Divide every 4 years to maintain vigour. Apply top dressing of bone meal and apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Each Spring

16. e.g.

Evergreen perennials

Apply top dressing of bone meal.

Remove dead and faded growth and weeds. Divide perennials every 4 years to maintain vigour and replant the divided portions elsewhere in the garden. To appreciate grasses and other plants during the Winter, delay cutting and mulching until early Spring. Apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Apply bone meal in early Spring after rain.
Every Autumn

17. e.g. Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

A section from

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Coastal Conditions Garden Use List

 

PLANTING IN COASTAL AND WINDSWEPT LOCATIONS

The purpose of this article from Caerhays Estate is to try to help solve the problem of exposure and avoid wasting time and energy planting things which are frankly unsuitable and therefore an expensive mistake.  There is no one right answer to what is suitable in any particular garden but there are often a great many more wrong answers.  There is also the need for patience while your planting gets established and good luck in avoiding the worst of the weather in the early years after planting.

 

Coastal and Windswept Locations - Coastal Plants from Burncoose Nurseries in the UK

California's Coastal Plant Communities in America.

 

Hedges, Screens and Windbreaks from Notcutts information is below the
Hedge Garden Use Table.

Thorny Hedges are described in the
Thorny Hedge Garden Use Page.

Trees to provide a Windbreak are described in the
Windbreak Garden Use Page.

Trees to put in Lawns are described in the
Trees for Lawns Garden Use Page.

Trees for Smaller Gardens are described in
Trees for Small Garden list.

Trees to provide fruit, screens and thin deciduous hedges are described in
Top Fruit and Remaining Top Fruit pages.

Shrubs to provide fruit, low screens and deciduous hedges are described in
Soft Fruit List.

Edging plants to provide fruit are described in
Fruit Plant List.

Plants to put with trees in Woodland are described in the
Woodland Garden Use Page.

Plants to filter dust from the environment and offset the pollution from traffic can be found in the
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 Garden Use Pages.

 

Gardening by the sea has the problems posed by salt-carrying gales and blown sand. Copious amounts of compost and mulch to conserve soil moisture, and the following defensive planting will protect the more tender plants from strong winds in your garden:-

 

Trees for the first line of wind reduction:-
Acer pseudoplatanus
Crataegus
Populus alba
Quercus Ilex
Salix
Sorbus aria

 

Conifers for the first line of wind reduction:-
Cupressus macrocarpa
Pinus radiata
Pinus nigra
Pinus maritima

 

Shrubs for the first line of wind reduction:-
Arundinaria
Berberis
Eleagnus commutata, Eleagnus ebbingei
Escallonia
Euonymus ovatus
Hebe brachysiphon, Hebe salicigolia, Hebe speciosa
Hippophae
Olearia haastii
Pyracantha
Rosa piminellifolia, Rosa rugosa
Sambucus
Senecio
Symphoricarpos
Tamarix
Ulex

 

 

Trees for the second line of wind reduction:-
Acer platanoides
Alnus
Betula
Castanea
Fraxinus
Ilex

 

Conifers for the second line of wind reduction:-
Juniperus
Pinus sylvestris
Picea omorika

 

Shrubs for the second line of wind reduction:-
Aucuba
Arbutus
Buddleja davidii, Buddleja globosa
Choisya
Cistus
Colutea
Cotoneaster
Eucalyptus
Fuchsia
Garrya
Genista
Griselinia
Hypericum
Olearia macrodonta
Pittosporum
Ribes
Rosmarinus
Salix
Spartium
Viburnum tinus

 

 

Shrubs for the third line of wind reduction:-
Any from the Hedge Garden Use or Thorny Hedge Garden Use pages.

 

 

"Plants offered on this site are propagated and grown on our small family nursery.
Coastal areas have requirements of their own, they can suffer from salt laden air, howling gales, very high light levels and in some cases shallow dry soils over shale or rocks.

Creating a shelter belt - Although coastal conditions can often seem harsh and unforgiving, by planting a tough outer belt of salt and wind tolerant shrubs and trees it is possible to provide protection for many other plants including quite exotic and tender species.

Coastal conditions are warmer due to the influence of the sea, which keeps the temperature up; as the sea temperatures tend to be warmer than the land." from Seaside Plants in Devon, England who sell mail-order throughout the EU (European Union).

 

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

 

 

Sun Aspect,
Soil Type,
Soil Moisture,
Plant Type and
Height of Plant
are used in the
Plant Photo Galleries
in the comparison of thumbnail photos

 

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

Plants required for different garden sites:-

  • Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
  • Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
  • Back of Shady Border
  • Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
  • Bee Pollinated Plant instead of wind-pollinated plant. This prevents the pollen from being blown into faces of hay fever sufferers.
    Bloom per Month
    Blooms Nov-Feb
    Blooms Mar-May
    Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
    Blooms Sep-Oct

    0-24 inches
    (0-60 cms)
    24-72 inches
    (60-180 cms)
    Above 72 inches
    (180 cms)
  • Bog Garden requires plants that prefer water in the soil round their roots.
  • Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.
  • Crevice Garden
  • Containers in Garden
  • Dust and Pollution Barrier 1, 2 - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
  • Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.
  • Edibles in Containers
  • Hanging Basket
  • Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
  • Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
  • Trees for Lawns
  • Trees for Small Garden
  • Windbreak - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
  • Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.
    The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-
    • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
    • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
    • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
    • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

      Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements - this groundcover index is in the PLANTS Page Menu in Plant Selection Level 5.

      Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

      The groundcover list is sorted in the following pages under the following height of plant range:-
      Below 2 feet (
      0-24 inches (0-60 cms)) in height in
      Ground-cover List 1 Page
      1, 2, 3

      Between 2 and 6 feet (
      24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 2 Page
      4, 5, 6

      Above 6 feet (
      72 inches
      (180 cms)
      ) in height in
      Ground-cover List 3 Page
      7

In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

 

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

Plant Name

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial) with link to
Plant Description Page,

Companion Plants to help this plant Page,

Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page

and/or

Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Comment

Anthemis punctata cupaniana

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Aster alpinus

 

Herbaceous Alpine

 

Bergenia 'Abendglut'

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Bergenia ciliata

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Bergenia cordifolia 'Purpurea'

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Bergenia 'Silberlicht'

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold'

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine'

 

Evergreen Perennial

 

Achillea ptmarmica 'The Pearl'

 

Deciduous Rhizome

 

Anchusa azurea

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Antirrhinum majus

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Artemesia abrotanum

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Artemesia 'Powis Castle'

 

Evergreen Sub-Shrub

 

Aster novae-angliae

 

Deciduous Rhizome

 

Aster novi-belgii

 

Deciduous Rhizome

 

Aster novi-belgii 'Ada Ballard'

 

Deciduous Rhizome

 

Aster novi-belgii 'Royal Velvet'

 

Deciduous Rhizome

 

Aster x frikartii 'Monch'

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Amelanchier lamarcki

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Arbutus unedo

 

Evergreen Tree

 

Aster amellus 'King George'

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Anchusa azurea

 

Herbaceous Perennial

 

Aucuba japonica

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Bupleureum fruticosum

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Acer campestre

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Buddleia davidii 'Black Knight'

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Buddleia davidii 'Royal Red'

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Buddleia davidii 'White Profusion'

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Buddleia globosa

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

Central reservation planting - Plants which will tolerate salt spray in winter as determined by the Department of the Environment (in order of success rate) and stated in the Notcutts Book for 1995.
You can use these as your hedge next to a road that is normally salted during the winter.

Hippophae rhamnoides

Sea Buckthorn

 

 

Viburnum lantana

Wayfaring tree

 

 

Viburnum opulus

Guelder Rose

 

 

Cornus sanguinea

 

 

 

Rosa rubiginosa

Sweet Briar

 

 

Salix viminalis

 

 

 

Acer campestre

Field Maple

 

 

Crataegus

Quickthorn

 

 

Prunus spinosa

Blackthorn

 

 

 

 

 

Seaside planting as stated in the Notcutts Book for 1995.
You can use these as your plants for the special problems posed by salt-carrying gales and blown sand and detailed above.

Acer pseudoplatanus

 

Deciduous Tree

Trees for the first line of defence.

Crataegus

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Populus alba and forms

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Populus 'Italica'

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Quercus ilex

 

Evergreen Tree

 

Salix

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Sorbus aria forms

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Sorbus intermedia

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Cupressus macrocarpa form

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

Conifers for the first line of defense

Pinus nigra austrica

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Pinus maritima

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Cupressus

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Pinus radiata

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Arundinaria

 

Deciduous Shrub

Shrubs for the first line of defence

Atriplex

 

Semi-evergreen Shrub

 

Berberis some

 

Semi-evergreen Shrub

 

Elaeagnus commutata

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Elaeagnus ebbingei

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Escallonia

 

Semi-evergreen Shrub or Evergreen Shrub

 

Euonymus ovatus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Hebe brachysiphon

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Hebe salicifolia

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Hebe speciosa forms

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Hippophae

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Olearia haastii

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Pyracantha

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Rosa pimpinellifolia

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Rosa rugosa

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Sambucus

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Senecio

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Symphoricarpos

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Tamarix

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Ulex

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Acer platanoides

 

Deciduous Tree

Trees for the second line of defense

Alnus

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Betulus

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Castanea

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Fraxinus

 

Deciduous Tree

 

Ilex

 

Evergreen Tree

 

Cupressocyparis

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

Conifers for the second line of defense

Cupressocyparis leylandii

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Cupressus arizonica

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Juniperus

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Picea omorika

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Pinus sylvestris

 

Evergreen Tree Conifer

 

Aucuba

 

Evergreen Shrub

Shrubs for the second line of defense

Arbutus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Buddleia davidii forms

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Buddleia globosa

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Choisya

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Cistus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Colutea

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Cotoneaster

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Eucalyptus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Fuchsia

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Garrya

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Genista

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Griselinia

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Hypericum

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Olearia macrodonta

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Pittosporum

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Ribes

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Rosmarinus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

Salix

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Spartium

 

Deciduous Shrub

 

Viburnum tinus

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

PROBLEMS CAUSED BY PLANTING TREES TOO CLOSE TOGETHER, UNLESS YOU WANT AN IMPENETRABLE CONTINUOUS HEDGE

  • "How Much Room Should I Allow?
    With all these considerations, when you are looking for trees to plant, look at the final sizes listed for them and then get out into the garden with a measure, to see how much room you really have, considering all the things we have talked about here. Look at the places you were thinking of planting and consider the following distances.
    To protect foundations, sewers and drains, allow the following spacings:
    • Small trees, such as flowering dogwoods, magnolia, or smaller conifers – allow 10 feet.
      • Medium-sized trees, such as fruit trees, birch trees, or larger Japanese maple – allow 20 feet
      • Large-trees, like sugar maple, oaks, Gingko, or flowering pear – allow 30 to 50 feet
      • Large, aggressive trees like poplars, silver maple or willows – allow 100 feet
  • Distance From Buildings and Other Trees
    There are other factors worth considering when planting near your home, besides protecting foundations. First there is visual scale. A typical two-story home, with a pitched roof is 20 to 25 feet tall. Many trees, evergreen or deciduous, will grow 60 to 80 feet tall, and right alongside your home that is going to look pretty silly. Besides that, overhanging branches can break, causing roof damage, or if the whole tree comes down in a storm it will demolish most of your home. Far better to plant trees that grow no more than 40 feet tall within a 20 feet radius around your home. Keep those larger trees further away, where you can see and admire their beauty, without any risk.
    Consider too the width of the tree. As a rule of thumb, if you half the width listed for a mature tree, that should be the minimum distance away from the house – even then the branches will in time touch the windows. So a better rule would be two-thirds of the listed width. That is also a good rule for spacing trees apart, if you want them to retain their individual identity. Trees planted close together make a nice forest, but that may not be the garden style you had in mind!"
  • View these pages for further details -
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt ,
    Subsidence caused by water in Clay and
    Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

     

Outside the shop of Gillingham Street Angels in Chatham, Medway Council has installed a new tree in a 2 x 2 metre area with stakes. Photo taken on 30 june 2023 by C. Garnons-Williams.
chathamtreeintarmac1garnonswilliams
Some material was placed in that 2 x 2 metre area after the tree was planted and then a wacker plate was used to vibrate that material down at 3.2 metres per second with 520 Kg per square metre pressure right up to the trunk of the new tree. Any tree roots under that would have been crushed by that vibrating 1146 pound pressure, which is more than half a ton.


When planting these trees in the next 2 years, try not to kill every one.
Soil for plants must have air in it for the roots to use to go places; so do not use waker plates to kill them off. I hope that this process of hammering down the earth for each of the new tree roots in Medway will not be repeated to waste the £125,000 funded by the Forestry Commission's Urban Tree Challenge Fund with its matched funding of £125,000 from Medway Council and the £115,000 from the Local Authority Tree Fund over the next 2 years from 2 December 2022.

WHY IS THERE NO MEMBER OF THE MEDWAY STAFF OR ITS HIRED CONTRACTORS WHO KNOWS ANYTHING ABOUT PLANTS AND WHO ALLOWS THIS, AND
THE NEGLECT OF THE OTHER TREES IN THE CHATHAM HIGH STREET THAT ARE NOW BEING CUT DOWN DUE TO NEGLECT IN ALLOWING THE PROTECTIVE METAL STRUCTURES ROUND THEM TO BE GROWN INTO BY THOSE TREES WHICH THEN KILLS THE TREES
?

Unfortunately the material that was pressured down was not soil, because on Thursday 25 May 2023, I saw that tarmac had been laid on top of that material in the 2 x 2 metre area right up to the trunk of the new tree.
Did you know that is also what Guernsey did in September 2019?
This stops water etc as detailed in point 10 below from interacting with the crushed roots of that tree, so that the

  • Forestry Commission,
  • Medway population who are funding this £125,000 matched funding and
  • the Local Authority Tree Fund
    will be very grateful to Medway Council in wasting their funds by planting trees and then proceeding to kill them.


    This copy of point 7 comes from the Home page:-
    7. 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-
    • Death of tree roots and
      • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
      • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
        Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
      • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
      • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
      • Area of Open Ground round trees,
      • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
      • Irrigation of current trees,
      • Watersprouts on trees,
      • Crossing Branches in trees,
      • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
      • Lights on trees,
      • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
      • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
      • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
      • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
      • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees. "Understanding Fern Needs
        Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
        What, then, does a fern need?
      • All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
      • All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
      • For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
      • Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
      • Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
      • Nitrogen Cycle -
        Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
      • Oxygen Cycle -
        No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
      • Carbon Dioxide -
        Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
      • Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
      • Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.
      • The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."
      • You can see further damage done to trees in pavements in Madeira in these pages:-
        Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
        Damage to Trees - Pages
        1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
        6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
        11, 12, 13
        for trees 1-54,
        14, 15,
        16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
        21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
        for trees 55-95,
        26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
        31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
        36, 37,
        for trees 95-133,
        38, 39, 40,
        41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
        for trees 133-166



        Let us repeat point 10:-
        10. Since I was adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-
        chathamtreeintarmac2garnonswilliams
        This row gives a very clear overall description of the
        Cultural Needs of Plants
        from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

By the bus stop for the 145 after the George Pub on City Way, Rochester, there is a mature tree killed by honey fungus. A few yards away, there is a new building being built with a great deal of heavy steelwork. The lorries bringing that steel do not put down supporting trackways and so the pavement had 2 deep indentations in it. The roots of this mature tree were in that area and would have been broken by this and that is where the honey fungus got in. Having infected that tree and killed it off, the fungus went up about 20 yards to a pollarded tree that had been knocked to a 45 degree angle by a heavy duty motor vehicle and infected that as well. When Medway Council sent repairers to relay the pavement tarmac, I informed them about the trees. The dead trees have not been removed and so that honey fungus will continue up and down City Way on the grass and tree verge between the road and the tarmac pavement, and into the gardens along that side.

Like the new trees that had died of disease in a car park of a new Aldi store in Gillingham, nothing was done about them by Medway Council for about a year, while Aldi continued to sell garden trees from the same car park area.

Perhaps it might make sense if all the trees under the protection of Medway Council were identified, put onto a map and their details held in a database and what happens to each in each year. Then have a department to look after them on a continuing basis. Unfortunately Medway trees are only dealt with when they have died or in the case of trees in Chatham High Street where the trunk has exceeded the space within the metal fence surrounding it and the metal has entered the trunk - once a circle of metal has gone into the trunk then the 1 cell thick cambium layer has been breached and everything above it dies. Because nobody has stopped this from happenning, good mature trees have been killed off by neglect due to no maintenance staff.

 

Collins Aura Garden Handbooks Trees for Small Gardens by Susan Conder. Published by William Collins Sons & Co Ltd in 1988.
On page 17 , it shows how to plant a tree in a lawn, but:-

  • Only 1 stake should have been used at 45 degrees and meeting the trunk at about 50 cms (20 inches) with that stake inserted into the ground on the side where the wind usually comes from. It's purpose is to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground and for the tree finding out about the weather, so that it then decides whether to strengthen its trunk before going on to extend its trunk and its branches. When stakes support the tree at 6 feet from the ground and stop it moving, then when that support is removed after 2 or 3 years, the first gale may well snap the tree at that point.
  • The tree is surrounded by grass which will rapidly grow back next to the trunk. Grass will absorb all the rain and any nutrients supplied. Thus like the disaster at Gloucester Council, this planting would have been a total waste of time. The root system of a tree extends to the tips of the branches as shown by their diagram on page 21, so no grass should be allowed from the trunk to this width, but bulbs and a 3 inch (7.5cm) depth of mulch like mown leaves should replace that grass.

    See further details on the right hand side of the Welcome Page in Table 4.
    Below that above description in Table 4;
    there is a photo of a tree planted in Chatham in a pavement in June 2023 as shown in the row above.
    Tarmac was compacted round that tree.
    By January 2024, that level tarmac had dipped.
    Conclusion:-
    • the roots of the tree had been killed due to using up all the water in its locality,
    • it had used up what nutrients there were within the scope of its roots,
    • it had its access to receiving oxygen or excreting carbon dioxide blocked by the tarmac above it
    • its soil organisms had died due to lack of water, food and oxygen because their access to it had been blocked by the tarmac above it.
    • so the tree roots had died and rotted away - for those which had not already been killed by the compaction above when the tarmac was laid and compacted.
    • When the Type I Roadstone had been pressed down using a whacker plate, a layer of soil laid; the tree planted in that soil, then the tarmac laid over its roots and also pressed down to level that area with the surrounding pavement, then those remaining tree's roots had been killed.
      Could you survive the pressure of a small plate compactor providing 2,400 (1088.622 Kilogrammes) pounds of force per square foot (12 x 12 inches = 144 square inches = 929.03 square centimetres) with compaction going as deep as 8 inches (20cm) on you?
      RuggedMade's largest plate compactor model can deliver 9,000 pounds per square foot and compact to a depth of 34 inches (85 cms), which is below the roots of this tree that was planted. The vibrating plate compactor will get rid of the airspaces between the solids that it is compacting. That means that no water, air, or organisms to make soil can move between those solids and that soil is dead and will continue that way. That means that gradually we are killing the ground round where we live, work and play including that whackered down drive, patio, artificial grass area and paths in your garden contribute their nails in your coffin.
    • Living organisms like humans need to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants convert that carbon dioxide back to oxygen. Why is that humans are intent on commiting suicide by destroying plants in putting concrete/ tarmac/ bricks over the landscape and not providing the replacement plant material to provide that oxygen?
  • On page 23 it has diagrams showing how to remove a large limb. The fourth diagram is incorrect and below is why - you should leave the branch collar on the tree instead of cutting it off. In the centre of each trunk and branch there is a section of nerves used by the tree to get information from all of its branches and trunk and then sending replies of what to do about it. You could say that the Branch Collar is like a junction box, where you cut off after it but not before; otherwise the tree still thinks that branch is still there and then will make invalid decisions. These nerve fibres are the last item in the branches/trunk that rot away.
    Branch Collar

thumbbranchcollarriverside1a

Most gardens of new houses in England in 2023 are too small for trees, and I would recommend using Soft Fruit and Top Fruit trained onto the boundaries.
If you add a chainlink fence, then you will have plenty of places to tie cordons, espaliers, fans and blackberries.
If you want trees, then you can follow their method of putting them into containers as shown on pages 18 and 19, or
train the trees as a a 80 (200cm) high hedge and allow 36 inches (90) from the boundary to the lawn for the hedge to grow in with bulbs and mulch between the lawn and the hedge.
Use the advice in Grow Your Own Fruit by Ken Muir to plant and cultivate that soft fruit and top fruit.
 

 

TABLE A with white background column

Pre July 2022, the
Evergreen Perennials used this
gallery only.

The Evergreen Perennials have

  • Plant Description Pages
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their Plant Use compared in another Gallery

The following Column cells with White Background explains the above process in this table.
The next 2 tables (TABLE B and TABLE C) support this explaination.

If both 'Evergreen Perennials' and
'Every Plant detailed in this website' use the same Flower Colour per Month Gallery or
flower shape table,
then the 2 cells are joined together)

This TABLE A will be appended to every page
(TABLE B and TABLE C will be appended
only to the site map pages)
comparing Evergreen Perennials in
the following galleries:-

P-Evergreen A-L Evergreen Perennial
Plant Descriptions

P-Evergreen M-Z
Evergreen Perennial
Plant Descriptions
.

Evergreen Perennial for 7 flower colours per month .

Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape
for
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape
.

Evergreen Perennial Plant Use .
 

 

TABLE A with yellow background column

Post July 2022, then
'Every plant detailed in this website' will also use this gallery.

Every Plant detailed in this website has

  • Plant Description Pages or row in a table
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their plant Use compared in another Gallery

The following Column cells with Yellow Background explains the above process in this table.
The next 2 tables (TABLE B and TABLE C) support this explaination

If both 'Evergreen Perennials' and
'Every Plant detailed in this website' use the same Flower Colour per Month Gallery or
flower shape table,
then the 2 cells are joined together)

This TABLE A, TABLE B and TABLE C will be appended only to the site map pages in the remaining galleries and to the site map pages comparing 'Every Plant detailed in this website' in the following galleries:-

Plants detailed in this website by Botanical Name as shown in the next row,
Wildflowers detailed in their Common Name and Botanical Name in the second row down, and the third row down shows even more.

Evergreen Perennial 7 flower colours per month .

Wildflower Flower Shape for
Flower Shape
.

Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape for Plant Use .
 

 

Their Plant Description Pages in

 

...P-Evergreen A-L

...P-Evergreen M-Z
with the following
Evergreen Perennial and Alpine Evergreen Index Pages
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
 

Their Plant Description Page or row in

 

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,

 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

Continuing from October 2023
All
use of plants will be compared in Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery,
Flower colour/month in Evergreen Perennial Gallery and
Flower Shape in Wildflower Flower Shape Gallery

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

 

 

 

The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers -
    The Index and Flower Colour per month plants are detailed in the Yellow background of Table 4 in the next Table on the right.
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
    P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
    The Header Row for the above Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
    O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
  • Plants that grow in Chalk -
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
    O, P, QR, S, T, UV, WXYZ ,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers -
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G,H, I, J, K, L, M,
    NO, PQ, R, S, T,UVWXYZ ,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the previous column of this table.

    Also, the plants detailed
    in the yellow background of Table 1 in the next table on the right.

    Also the plants detailed in
    All Plants Index Gallery
    in the aquatic colour background of Table 1 in the next table on the right.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen as detailed in Table 6 below in the previous column
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System as detailed in Table 8 in the next table on the right
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders as detailed in the yellow background of Table 7 in the next table on the right
  • Lists from from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. She is writing about perennials in America as detailed in the yellow background of Table 2 in the next table on the right

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-
A 1, 2, 3, B, C 1, 2, D, E, F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries, which comes from the list
Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc
in the second row of Topic Table, which is usually positioned as the first table on the left:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

 

Their 7 flower colours per month compared in Evergreen Perennial
with the
Evergreen Perennial and Alpine Evergreen Index - pre July 2022 -
in each page

Their 7 flower colours per month compared in Evergreen Perennial
 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then,
I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using
'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into these relevant 3 GALLERIES:-

 

GALLERY 1. FLOWER COLOUR PER MONTH
Flower Colour per Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery
including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower. This compares the Flower Colour per month for
both the Evergreen Perennials prior to July 2022 and
all plants detailed in the rest of the website including Evergreen Perennials


 

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1a

 

Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed

 

  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover A, B, C,
    ...D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ
    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     

 

Their Flower Shape compared in Evergreen Per Shape Gallery
...Flower Shape

Every Plant in this website has their Flower Shape compared in
Wildflower Flower Shape

 

 

GALLERY 2. FLOWER SHAPE
Evergreen Per Shape Gallery for Evergreen Perennials and into
Wildflower Shape Gallery pages for all the other plants in this website:-
 

 

 

GALLERY 3. GARDEN USE OF PLANT
into pages in the
...Flower Shape for Plant Use

 

 

Most of the
Plant Selection by Garden Use of different types of plant in
Level 2c and Level 2cc from the PLANTS and PLANTS EXTRA Topic have been transferred to
Evgr Per Shape Gallery:-

Garden Plant Use
ANIMAL RESISTANT PLANTS ,
Aquatic ,
Aromatic Foliage ,
ATTRACTS BEES ,
ATTRACTS BUTTERFLIES ,
Back of Shady Border ,
Bedding ,
Bog Garden ,
Coastal Conditions ,
Containers in Garden ,
COTTAGE GARDEN ,
Crevice Garden ,
CUT FLOWERS ,
Desert Garden ,
EDGE OF BORDER ,
Edibles in Containers ,
Finely Cut Leaves ,
FRAGRANT FLOWERS ,
Front of Border ,
Hanging Basket ,
Hedge ,
Large Leaves ,
Non-Green Foliage 1 ,
Non-Green Foliage 2 ,
Other Garden ,
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 ,
Raised Bed ,
Rest of Border ,
Rock Garden ,
Scree Bed ,
Specimen Plant ,
Sword-shaped Leaves ,
Thorny Hedge ,
Trees for Lawns ,
Trees for Small Garden ,
Wildflower ,
Windbreak ,
Woodland .

 

Lists from
Alpines without a Garden as
detailed for their uses in the
white background of of the previous table on the left

 

Lists from
Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown.
She is writing about perennials in America as detailed for their uses in the
yellow background of the previous table on the left

 


Table 6
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

 

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.
Menu in Table 6 in the previous column

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

The following plants shall be added to the Flower Shape pages of this gallery
from



Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...Uses in USA,

after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
 

 

 

 

Add these plants from PLANTS topic from the soil it prefers:-
Information for its Plants - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Information for its Plants -
Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
Information for its Plants - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z
Information for its Plants - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Poisonous Plants
Rose Rose Use

 

FINALLY
I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.
Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

The above will take time!!!

 


The following design concepts from my anaylsis of the Royal Horticultural Garden at Wisley may be useful to you together with the rest of the data on that page concerning that part of the East or West Border of the MIXED BORDERS:-
 

Garden Design Comments on RHS Garden at Wisley in the 71 pages of the EAST and WEST Borders in the MIXED BORDERS
Flower Colours in each of the 71 Parts of the Mixed Borders - with area indicating that the respective colour has not been used in this part .

More (See un-labelled bedding) than 102 plants (This is 29%, which is almost a third) were missing their identity when in flower in 2013 out of 348 in 768 square metres of Mixed Borders garden beds - These herbaceous borders are 6 metres (20 feet) deep and 128 metres (427 feet) long.
 

Part Number of East and West Mixed Borders

 

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Number of either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

49 mis-sing out of 176

19 mis-sing out of 73

34 mis-sing out of 99

East 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal style required in moving people from Entrance to outlying areas

East 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Position plants with tiny flowers close to the lawn or path

Provide plant support structures

East 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Make plant labels visible to aid plant sales and

No plant labels on Pansy / Viola Display

East 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Create History of each garden bed, so that planting errors can be corrected

East 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

1

Use a system to select your plants from their flower colour

East 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

Use the colours of the buds, flowers and seedheads with different foliage colours in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn of each heather for your groundcover and background

East 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

1

 

Use

to choose from

East 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

Use turf protected paths instead of slabbed paths for small gardens

East 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Make your flowers all the same colour like White to harmonise as your flower colour in the simplest flower colour scheme

East 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Bulbs can provide flowers from January through to May in the bare ground round the permanent shrubs and perennials

East 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Replace bedding and perennials with wildflower lawn edged with normal lawn to reduce gardening time to 1 hour a week

East 12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

With limited garden space, put a wildflower lawn on the roof of your shed / garage / leanto or concreted area on ground to provide flowers

East 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Create fun version of Snakes and Ladders game using clock flowers

East 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

Further reasons to create garden bed Histories

East 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

Create track and use the Square Foot Gardening system for:-

  • wheelchair-bound disabled to use for radio-controlled models on the ground-level of the garden
  • wheelchair-bound children/adults to maintain and replant the raised beds, whilst sitting with their knees under each raised bed
  • school pupils to learn to grow plants
  • wheelchair supported children/adults recovering in hospital, rest or care home to go outside, view them and/or maintain those beds themselves
  • transport the raised bed into the patient's room, so that the patient can admire close-up what they normally see outside from their bed; and then for them to maintain or simply view for a while before that raised bed is returned outside that same day
  • infirm children, adults or pensioners to maintain and replant the raised beds, when they do not need to kneel down, bend their knees or reach above their shoulders

East 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

East 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

Create game using Slider Signs that alternate turning left or turning right at each Path Row Junction for you to pick your fruit, flowers, grasses or vegetables.

East 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Turf protection from wear by people walking or standing on it

East 19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Balance Income with Expenditure in Garden

East 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Safety - If a visitor reports a safety concern, then do not ignore it

East 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

 

East 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

 

East 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

East 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

Hide unwanted views of buildings or other areas of garden

East 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

East 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

East 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

East 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

East 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

Select tender plants and then provide Plant Protection from Frost

East 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Control human movement through areas

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Unlabelled Bedding plants

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

Further Plant Label and Path Foundation Comments

WISLEY WISLEY Rose Classification System

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

West 35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

West 36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

West 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

 

West 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

West 42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Build soil fertility and structure with legumes and mulches

West 47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

West 49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Split garden area into separate shapes

even when a public path goes through the garden

West 53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use Companion planting with Green Manure to deter Pests / Diseases and

Another Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

West 54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use long-flowering Speciman Roses as a backdrop

West 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

 

West 60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

West 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Reduce time for garden maintenance by avoiding mixing plants together

West 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 66

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

West 67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

West 71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Provide irrigation facilities to water plants and clean paths

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Confidential email replies from the Royal Horticultural Society to emails from Chris Garnons-Williams with their following instructions for everybody else:-
The contents of this email and any files transmitted with it are confidential, proprietary and may be legally privileged. They are intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender. If you are not the intended recipient you may not use, disclose, distribute, copy, print or rely on this email. The sender is not responsible for any changes made to any part of this email after transmission. Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Society.

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

 

This section of a table was copied from
Ivydene Gardens Flower Shape and Use in Landscape for all Wildflower and Cultivated Plants in this Website Gallery
 

This table does have the links attached to its cell text content, because of memory,
they are in Tables 2 and 3 within TABLE B (the fifth in the row) of
Evergreen Perennial Shape Gallery Map Page
 

 

 

These 2 systems of comparison:-

The Evergreen Perennials have

  • Plant Description Pages
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their Plant Use compared in another Gallery


Every Plant detailed in this website has

  • Plant Description Pages or row in a table
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their plant Use compared in another Gallery

are detailed in the TABLE A on the right

 

 

PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES
compares the use and flower shape of plants in this website
- WHICH ARE THOSE PLANTS FROM OTHER GALLERIES BESIDES THE WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY -
 

combined with those already compared in
Bedding,
Bulb,
Evergreen Perennial,
Herbaceous Perennial and
Roses
pages as linked to in row


Topic - Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
in the TOPIC table - on the extreme left - at the end of this page with

Tip Colour background as shown in the cell above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.

Wildflowers with the same genus name as for the plant in these following lists with their Species will be added to these lists so that you can then use them with those cultivated perennials for the same purpose in your garden. Their botanical names will be in black.
 

Woodland Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Perennial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Beds
Site

 

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Borders Site

 

Shade Border and Woodland Garden Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

These pages in this section of Yellow Background are
List of Perennials by Landscaping Site - xxxx

with Plant Type, Evergreen or Herbaceous or Deciduous, Sun Aspect and Listed Species

from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. Her ideas about Perennials (a plant that lasts for more than 2 growing seasons) include most of the other plant types except Annuals and Biennials for use in America

Long Bloomers

 

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender, called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Bedding Out and Bedding Out of Roses

Bedding for Filling In

Bedding for Screening

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr
 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Bedding for Pots and Troughs

Bedding in Window Boxes

Bedding in Hanging Baskets

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Bedding Foliage

Bedding:- Spring

Summer

Winter

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Compound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Perennials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Perennials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Bulbs to Combine with Perennials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Perennials

Subshrubs to Grow with Perennials

Annuals to Use with Perennials

Herbs for Decoration as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Perennials to grow Annually

Perennials which Self Sow

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Perennials which prefer Moisture

Perennials which do best on Margins of Water

Perennials which are Drought Tolerant

Perennials which tolerate Dense Shade

Perennials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Perennials (or easy Maint-enance)

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Wildflowers with the same genus name as for the plant in these following lists with their Species will be added to these lists so that you can then use them with those cultivated perennials for the same purpose in your garden. Their botanical names will be in black.
 

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Wildflower Form and

Evergreen Perennial Form

Wildflower Form and

Evergreen Perennial Form

Mat-
form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trail

Prostrate or Trailing.
 

Climb
 

Climbing

Cushion or Mound

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread or Creep

Spreading or Creeping

Clump- form

Clump-forming

Stem- less.

Stemless.


Sword-shape
Leaf

Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Erect or Upright.

Arching

 

Arching

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Wildflower Use and Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Conditions
+
Coastal

Speciman Plant

Under-plant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Conditions

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors
 

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

 

 

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
 

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F,
G-L, M-R,
S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

Wildflower in Soil and Evergreen Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Evergreen Perennials in Pages in Plants

 

Potted Fruit Outdoors

Potted Fruit Indoors

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

Fruit Outdoors

Plants for Outdoor
Containers Index
A-C,
D-M,
N-Z

 

 

 

1/3 of the food we eat
is made possible by bees' pollination and
in its entire lifetime,
1 bee will produce approximately 1/12 of a teaspoon of honey.

Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers') are useful to honeybees,
but double flowered cultivars are no benefit at all.
Bloom type depends on the number of petals for Roses:-
• Single blooms are fully opened and almost flat, consisting of 1-7 petals per bloom.
Wild roses and single-flowered garden roses
yield pollen for honeybees.
• Semi-double blooms consist of 8-15 petals in two rows and are
of little benefit to honeybees.
• Double blooms consist of 16-25 overlapping petals in three or more rows and
no benefit to honeybees at all.
• Full: 26-40 petals in three or ore rows.
No benefit to honeybees
• Very full: 40+ petals in three or more rows.
No benefit to honeybees.

Information about Bee Pollinated Plants is in the Site Map of Evergreen Perennial gallery:-
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers

All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month,
Index

 

This table provides the index for each month of each flower colour and
the flower colour wheel to compare those bee-pollinated plants:-


The 264 bee-pollinated plants in Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index are in addition to the
bee-pollinated plants shown as thumbnails in the pages of this Gallery of 12 Flower Colours per month FROM the Circular Colour Wheel below.


Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.
Click on the OOO in the Index Table below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month.
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
 

OOO
 

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
 

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
 

OOO

OOO
 

OOO
 

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
 

OOO
 

OOO
 

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
 

OOO
 

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
 

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
 

OOO
E144


The above Index table states details of each plant in each page of Bee Pollinated Bloom Calendar Colour Wheel Gallery below.
"The Beesource Beekeeping website was started in 1997 by a hobbyist beekeeper and became an online community for beekeepers and beekeeping in 1999. It has experienced organic, word of mouth grassroots growth ever since. Today, Beesource.com has 48.2K registered members and is the most active online beekeeping community of its kind in the world."
Bee Pollinated Bloom Calendar Colour Wheel:-
 

bloomsmonth2a2a1a1

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90- 180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Shrub Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90- 150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150- 300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Tree Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-240 inches (0- 600 cms)

Blue = 240- 480 inches (600- 1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200 + cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Climber Height from Text Border

 

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

 

Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60- 180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

 

Dry Soil

BEE-POLLINATED BLOOM IN MONTH PLANT INDEX GALLERY PAGES

Site Map

 

Societies by Plant Type in USA
National Plant Societies in UK


Site design and content copyright ©July 2013. Amended Menus July 2015. Amended Menus and corrected meta tags June 2017. Amended Table 10 July 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

How trees fight Climate Change.

 

Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index.
So, how can I feed the bees if I have no soil in my garden?

  • You could start with a sedum roof covering for a DIY green roof on a flat roof of a house, garage, carport, on a roof which is not more than 20 degrees from horizontal, or on top of hardstanding which is at ground level. Biodiverse mats could be used instead of sedum mats for the above areas to attract bees.
  • Then, there is no reason why you could not have Green Walls as well.

You could then progress to Rootop Gardens, which may require a further strengthening of the supporting structure to carry the potential extra weight:-

If you do not fancy putting plants on the walls or your roof, then you could have a series of window box gardens and Balcony gardens using self-watering planters and boxes from Amberol.

If you have the room in the hardstanding round your property then why not use a series of Promenade Self-Watering Planters from Amberol. These are easy to work on - even if you are in a wheelchair or otherwise infirm - and they could still then provide flowers for the bees to use.

"What do bees need?

  • Undisturbed nesting sites
  • Solitary bees may burrow into the ground, into mortar in brick and stonework, or use hollow bramble stems, or beetle borings in rotten wood.
  • Increasingly, artificial purpose-built 'homes' are being provided by conservation minded people.
  • Social bees, such as bumblebees, may construct their nests in old mouse, vole and mole holes; under hedge vegetation; beneath moss or grass tussocks, and under piles of cut vegetation.
  • Honey bees will use beehives, cavities in old trees or walls, roof spaces and chimneys.
  • Locations where the queen bumblebees can over-winter, dry and undisturbed.
  • Consistent supplies of pollen and nectar sources from early spring to late autumn. Pollen is needed for its proteins, lipids (essential for brood food production) and other constituents to produce sufficient brood, feed adult bees, help ensure the health of the colony and to create new comb. Nectar is collected and processed by another bee before being stored in the comb as honey. Both Pollen and Nectar is required by the bee colony throughout the 9-10 months they are active and rearing brood. When required, some of the bees will uncap the cells, add water to make a 50:50 honey to water mix and distribute it to others in the colony to provide the energy they need - especially in the winter during the other 2-3 months when not collecting pollen or nectar.
    The Beekeeper's Garden by Hooper and Taylor - Published by Alphabooks Ltd., in 1988 - ISBN 0-7136-3023-X - provides comprehensive information on suitable plants, also useful is the classic text of
    Plants and Beekeeping by Howes, F.N, which was originally published prior to 1923 and a reproduction by Ulan Press and printed by Amazon.co.uk, Ltd was produced this century.
  • Unpolluted water." from
    Plants and Honey Bees
    An Introduction to Their Relationships
    by David Aston and Sally Bucknall.
    Printed by Northern Bee Books.
    First published 2004, Reprinted 2009. ISBN 0-393-30879-0

The Potential Impact of Global Warming
The potential impact of global warming on UK gardens has been considered in the report 'Gardening in the Global Greenhouse, the impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK', published in November 2002 under the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP(). A number of scenarios were described, together with the likely changes in garden styles caused by climatic changes. These could have a significant effect on the availability and timing of bee forage. The following is from its conclusions:-

  • The role of gardens and parks as innumerable components in a green web, supporting and at times replacing the fragile network of natural ecosystems, has been little explored in this report. However, these millions of landscapes, large and small, will have a vital role to play in reinforcing a system of ecological corridors through which wildlife can migrate in response to climate change.

 

The plants in Table 10 (on the right in Bee Bloom Calander Gallery)
and others within this table cell below will be included in either
Bee Bloom Calendar Gallery or
Bees Bloom Calendar Gallery :-

there are Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in these pages
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct


and the following:-
ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
with Acer pseudo-platanus (Sycamore) in April-May (Green)
and Acer campestre (Maple, Field Maple) Native in Maple Family in May-Jun (Green)
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
in Above 72 inches (180 cms) page
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
with Crocus vernus (Crocus purpureus, Spring Crocus, Purple Crocus) -
Crocus vernus 'Flower Record' in Feb-Apr (Purple) from
Bee pollinated flowers in winter Nov-Feb in Plants Folder and
in Colchicum/ Crocus Gallery
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant -
for those plants.
 

 

What are Beebombs and why do we need them sown?  

  • 97% of native British Wildflower habitat has been lost since World War 2. 
  • Wildflower habitats are where bees and butterflies make their lives.
  • With Beebombs you can re-create these lost habitats and to help bring back the bees.
  • Beebombs need no gardening skill and can be scattered straight onto open ground at any time of the year. 
  • Once scattered, Beebombs just need lots of water, sun and time. Wildflowers are hardy and adaptable but slow growers. This means that they can be out-competed by faster growing grasses and perennial weeds at the critical early stages, so straight onto soil is best if possible. 
  • The soil will help your Beebombs germinate and the clay will protect them as they dissipate.
  • Lots of sun and rain is of course important, as is time. 
  • Wildflowers are a little slower growers than many imported plants and flowers. Some will flower in the first year but most will not come out until the 2nd year.
     


Plants and Beekeeping by Howes, F.N. originally published prior to 1923, republished by Amazon on 21 March 2007 and it represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. Its contents are being used in the creation of this Bee-pollinated Bloom Index Gallery. I insert the plant names into this Index, but I cannot insert all the useful data as well!
 

 

 

Comparing Alpines.

The variety of plants that can be used in alpine gardening is obviously very large and very bewildering at first approach. With a view to easing the task of selection here are lists of alpines most likely to thrive and flourish under certain easily defined conditions and for special purposes, which may be considered first choices, from Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club. Published in 1962.

Alpine Plants for a Purpose:-

  • Beginner's Choice for an All-the-year-round-show in SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, WINTER.
  • Plants of Foliage Beauty.
  • Alpines for Full Sun, Hot, Dry Positions.
  • Alpines tolerant of Shade.
  • Alpines for Dry Shade.
  • Alpines tolerant of Lime or Chalk.
  • Alpines readily raised from seed.
  • Alpines for the damper places.
  • Alpines for planting between Paving Stones.
  • Scree Plants.

EXTRA PAGES OF PLANTS
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil
,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for
Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1, 2, 3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4, 5, 6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


THE REASON WHY FLOWERS WHICH ARE NOT SINGLE ARE NO USE TO BEES:-

  • In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-
"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.
2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.
3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.
4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.
5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.
6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 
7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.
8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.
9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.
10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


There is always room in a garden for bulbs, especially the ones for bees for butterflies:-

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

PLANT USE Plant Selection Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)

Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


There is always room in a garden for perennials, even if there is not enough room for shrubs.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit List - Mat-Forming

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-

Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and
the flowers extend above.
alchemillacfor1alpinafoord1a
Alchemilla alpina

Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and
the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
linariafor1alpina1a
Trailing Linaria alpina

Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
anemonecforblandawikimediacommons1a
Anemone blanda

Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level.
tulipaforapeldoorn1a
Upright Stemless Tulipa 'Apeldoorn' 4L24R

Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
saxifragaforcebennensis1a1
Cushion Saxifraga cebennensis

Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
prunellaforgrandiflora1a1
Spreading Prunella grandiflora

Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and
the flowers.
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntflostalkgarnonwilliams1a1
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'

Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
bomareafloscaldasii1a1
Tuberous-rooted Bomarea caldesii twining climber

Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

The Herbaceous Perennial Gallery,
Evergreen Perennial Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the
Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plant growth habits in thumbnail form and larger size form.

The following pages lists these
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habits:-
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching

You may not have room in your garden for trees, but you can plant them in containers.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Oval

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1a1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1a1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1a1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1a1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1a1
 

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a1a
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1a1

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1a1

 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1a1
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1a1
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1a1
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a1a
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1a1
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following pages list these shapes for the trees:-
Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

If you still have not enough room for trees,
then you can create hedges with trees,
screens with topfruit and softfruit on chainlink fencing
or fruit-bearing areas using chainlink supports on walls.

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape
5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table,
the header of the middle data table and on
the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 

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Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart

 

The following Diagram is from Wikipedia.org/wiki/wood.jpg:-

evergreentreediagram1a

 

I believe that the Pith section in the middle of the trunk or branch contains the central nerve system, which receives signals from the roots and the above growth as to what is happenning. Probably it is at the branch collar between the trunk and the roots, which then decides what to do and sends out the neccessary signals to the roots and above ground growth.
I found that when the 72 inch (180cm) trunk stump left in my front garden had rotted for quite a few years, so that using my hands I could take off the rotten wood before coming to a black central core that was still hard. This extended from the ground up the trunk and to each branch and sub-branch.
If a stump grew new branches at the edge of the stump of a trunk or a branch, there was no connection with this central nerve system and it became a parasite tree on the original tree with very little strength between it and its parent. It is only connected by bark and part of the xylem sections which are responsible for the transport of water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. It is not connected to the pith of its parent and also not to its central nerve system.This means the original tree could not know what was happenning to its child and could not know that the parasitic tree would damage it. The parasitic tree has no roots, which could support it, like they do for the original tree
I think that any plant that has roots and growth above these roots will also have a central nerve system to grow and maintain itself against predators, wind, sun, temperature, lack of water, and lack of nutrients in the soil.

When a tree grows it has Bark on the outside, which is the tree's growth area. 

Inside that are the xylem sections which are responsible for the transport of water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. 

Inside that is Heartwood. Heartwood is wood that has become more resistant to decay as a result of deposition of chemical substances (a genetically programmed process). Once heartwood formation is complete, the heartwood is dead. Some uncertainty still exists as to whether heartwood is truly dead, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but only once (Shigo 1986, 54).

The Bark and Xylem sections on the outer part of the trunk or branch are quite thin. The Heartwood does the structural support of the entire tree. The Heartwood is dead and therefore if anything attacks it, the tree cannot defend itself from woodworm, wet rot, dry rot, honey fungus etc. Therefore if the Heartwood is exposed it needs to be defended against attack. It used to be done using concrete, but unfortunately concrete shrinks when it cures and therefore it allows for air and water to get at the heartwood again. If the tree bark and cambium layer is broken apart all the way round a trunk so that the lower liquid in it cannot connect with the liquid in the higher trunk, then all the trunk above that will die.

Some of the branches have fallen away from the trunk and are almost on the ground, but are supported on thin branches from them to the ground (the next paragraph explains how we will provide nutrients for these thin branches in the ground). We will replace the rot at the trunk-branch connection with Foam and apply the Masonry Paint. All the exposed Heartwood on these branches and the rest of the tree will also be liberally painted with the Black Masonry Paint to prevent woodworm or anything else from eating or changing it thus removing its function of holding up the rest of the tree. The colour of the paint is immaterial but black is easy to buy and does not draw attention to the fact that 20% of the tree will have to be painted, unless you wish us to create a painted work of art!

The roots of a tree are generally embedded in earth, providing anchorage for the above-ground biomass and absorbing water, air and nutrients from the soil. It should be noted, however, that while ground nutrients are essential to a tree's growth the majority of its biomass comes from carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere. Some of the area round the tree has been used to dump the subsoil from digging graves. Subsoil has no nutrients and so is not a benefit for the yew tree. We can change the subsoil into topsoil by mulching it with organic material which the worms will take down into this subsoil. It is suggested that all the flowers and foliage from the church and churchyard are placed on top of the pile of branches on the ground next to the trunk between 9.00 and 10.00 o’clock when looking at the tree from Station Road. These can then be spread over the area (under the tree not cut by the lawnmowers) before covering it over with a thin layer of shreddings of tree prunings to make it look tidy. The shreddings will come from professional tree surgeons; and as they decompose this mulch will replenish the minerals for the tree. You will notice in a natural wood, that when the leaves and branches fall on the ground, they are not removed but are recycled by the worms and bacteria for the trees to reuse the minerals for future growth. This new mulch will duplicate this natural process in a neater fashion.

This repair and restorative work will take some time for David and I to complete.

The Yew Tree of St Margaret’s Church, Rainham, Kent, written by Clifford Hansford. Contributory Member of the Ancient Yew Group www.ancient-yew.org

"Observations of the tree’s current restoration/conservation work now nearing completion, 15th February 2010.

The following observations have been recorded in response to a request from Tim Hills (Ancient Yew Group) for information relating to the particular method currently being used to rescue and protect the above yew from further decay. It is hoped that the information will be of use to assist Mr Russell Ball, President of the United Kingdom & Ireland International Society of Arboriculture, in assessing the methods’ acceptability for such a task.

Having learned of the tree’s plight from a colleague at the Kent Wildlife Trust, and visited the yew on Sat’ 13th February with Mr Chris Garnons-Williams, who is undertaking the work, my understanding of the situation is as follows:-

1: This yew (recorded in the AYG Gazetteer) is believed by the church to be an ancient yew of approximately 1300 years old.
2: Concern was raised by members of the church regarding the way in which the open centre of the yew retained water. Such water retention was believed to be accelerating the decay already prevalent in this area of the yew. Also, it was noted that other areas of the yew were displaying similar symptoms, particularly where a large branch had partially broken away from the main trunk.
3: Having engaged the services of Chris Garnons-Williams, the proprietor of Ivydene Horticultural Services (www.ivydenegardens.co.uk) a horticulturalist, it was agreed to implement the current method of recovery and conservation as Chris has proved it successful when used on other types of tree.
Firstly, all old decayed material is removed. All hollows and cavities are then back-filled with a combination of empty bottles (supplied by the pub next door to the church) and expandable polystyrene foam. The bottles are used to help fill the cavities, thus saving money on the use of foam. Care is taken to ensure the foam forms around the bottles, and mates with all areas of surrounding heartwood. Finally two coats of black masonry, water based paint is applied to both the foam and locally exposed heartwood (Without a paint covering the foam decays if directly exposed to sunlight).
4: To date £700 has been spent on this work, (£200 donated directly by a group of church members and the remainder supplied from church funds).

Notes:

  • An assortment of different size bottles, ranging from whiskey and wine (large bottles) to the smaller fruit juice bottles, are used depending on the size of the cavities/gaps to be filled.
  • In hindsight, Chris would recommend the use of high-pressure water to remove the decayed wood rather than screwdrivers and other blade-type implements. The residual water left from the process would help to set the expandable polystyrene foam.
  • Work started in August 2009, with a break during the cold weather, and is still ongoing. A further five to ten days is anticipated for completion.
  • All old, firm wood has been left in situ. Lots of new shoots are now forming.
  • Between Chris and myself we were able to measure the girth of the yew as being 26 feet at its base.

It just so happened that on the day Chris and I met for the first time (13 Feb 2010), the church had its annual open day. This gave me an opportunity to learn from church members how very determined they are to preserve this much respected yew.

evergreentreewesternfacing1

Western facing aspect.

 

evergreentreeeasternfacing1

View of Eastern aspect.

 

 

evergreentreesouthernfacing1

View of Southern aspect

 

View of Northern aspect which indicates the open centre before preservation action.

evergreentreenorthernbefore1

 

 

View of Northern aspect with Clifford Hansford - after preservation action.

evergreentreenorthernafter1

 

evergreentreebottlefoam1

Bottle-filled foam repair.

 

View showing filled split in a limb growing from a fallen branch.

evergreentreesplit1

."

Information about this yew tree on 22 March 2020 from rainhamchurch.co.uk website.

 

For educational purposes, so that people following best practice can fully understand why the evergreen trees never lose their leaves; here are the written facts from The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrooke:-

 

'Winter was coming, and the birds had flown south, where the air was warm and they could find berries to eat. One little bird had broken its wing and could not fly with the others. It was alone in the cold world of frost and snow. The forest looked warm, and it made its way to the trees as well as it could, to ask for help.

First, it came to a birch-tree. "Beautiful birch-tree," it said, "my wing is broken, and my friends have flown away. May I live among your branches till they come back to me?"

"No, indeed," answered the birch-tree, drawing her fair green leaves away. "We of the great forest have our own birds to help. I can do nothing for you."

"The birch-tree is not very strong," said the little bird to itself, "and it might be that she could not hold me easily. I will ask the oak." So the bird said, "Great oak-tree, you are so strong, will you not let me live on your boughs till my friends come back in the springtime?"

"In the springtime!" cried the oak. "That is a long way off. How do I know what you might do in all that time? Birds are always looking for something to eat, and you might even eat up some of my acorns."

"It may be that the willow will be kind to me," thought the bird, and it said, "Gentle willow, my wing is broken, and I could not fly to the south with the other birds. May I live on your branches till the springtime?"

The willow did not look gentle then, for she drew herself up proudly and said, "Indeed, I do not know you, and we willows never talk to people whom we do not know. Very likely there are trees somewhere that will take in strange birds. Leave me at once."

The poor little bird did not know what to do. Its wing was not yet strong, but it began to fly away as well as it could. Before it had gone far, a voice was heard. "Little bird," it said, "where are you going?"

"Indeed, I do not know," answered the bird sadly. "I am very cold."

"Come right here, then," said the friendly spruce-tree, for it was her voice that had called. "You shall live on my warmest branch all winter if you choose."

"Will you really let me?" asked the little bird eagerly.

"Indeed, I will," answered the kind-hearted spruce-tree. "If your friends have flown away, it is time for the trees to help you. Here is the branch where my leaves are thickest and softest."

"My branches are not very thick," said the friendly pine-tree, "but I am big and strong, and I can keep the north wind from you and the spruce."

"I can help too," said a little juniper-tree. "I can give you berries all winter long, and every bird knows that juniper berries are good."

So the spruce gave the lonely little bird a home, the pine kept the cold north wind away from it, and the juniper gave it berries to eat.

The other trees looked on and talked together wisely.

"I would not have strange birds on my boughs", said the birch.

"I shall not give my acorns away for any one," said the oak.

"I never have anything to do with strangers," said the willow, and the 3 trees drew their leaves closely about them.

In the morning all those shining green leaves lay on the ground, for a cold north wind had come in the night, and every leaf it touched fell from the tree.

"May I touch every leaf in the forest?" asked the wind in its frolic.

"No," said the frost king. "The trees that have been kind to the little bird with the broken wing may keep their leaves."

This is why the leaves of the spruce, the pine, and the juniper are always green.'

 

IMPROVING ST BARTHOLOMEWS CHURCHYARD, CAN YOU HELP?

I visited this churchyard on 19 May 2013 and found that the clearing work I had started in July 1999 had been considerably further extended, so now there is a glorious view beyond the church of the surrounding hills and valley.

The current very elderly yew trees on the left as one comes into the churchyard have rotten open trunks, which could have the earth removed from inside together with the heartwood rot using trowels and chisels. Then, use a high-pressure water hose to remove yet more of the internal rot, before following what was done to protect the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent as detailed in this Introduction Page

.

IMPROVING ST BARTHOLOMEWS CHURCHYARD, CAN YOU HELP?

Written for the congregation in July 1999 when I was clearing its weeds and brambles as the volunteer. I mulched round the shrubs/trees with the shredded prunings and mown weeds.

 

The following plants are all rabbit-resistant, suitable for clay soils and for flower arranging. The areas under the yew trees have been used by the gravediggers for the excess soil. The intention is to plant around these trees to make the churchyard more attractive and to provide the church flower arrangers with foliage and flowers throughout the year

.

Plant

Attractive to Birds (Bi),

Bees and Butterflies (Bb)

Scented Flowers (Sc),

Aromatic Foliage (Ar)

Uses in flower arranging/

Churchyard

Ajuga
‘Braun Hertz’,
‘Pink Elf’ and
reptans ‘Atropurpurea’

Bb

 

Miniature arrangements/ Groundcover. Plant with the irises and geraniums

Aucuba japonica ‘Rozannie’ and ‘Variegata’

Bi

 

All-year-round shiny foliage with berries in autumn and winter/ Groundcover. Plant with orange-cupped daffodils

Berberis
‘Rubrostilla’,
x ottawensis ‘Superba’ and
thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea Nana’

Bi, Bb

 

Foliage spring to autumn with flowers in spring and berries in autumn/ Groundcover and autumn foliage

Buddleia davidii
‘Black Knight’,
‘Dartmoor’ and
‘White Profusion’

Bi, Bb

Sc

Fragrant flowers in summer/

Choisya ternata ‘Sundance’

 

Ar

Fragrant flowers in summer with yellow foliage all year/ Groundcover.

Cotoneaster adpressus praecox and dammeri

Bi, Bb

 

/Groundcover. Plant with buddleia and ribes

Eucalyptus gunnii

 

Ar

Silver-blue foliage all year/

Geranium
‘Claridge Druce’,
macrorrhizum ‘Album’, psilostemon and
wallichianum

 

Ar

Flowers late spring to autumn / Groundcover

Hypericum androsaemum and Calycinum

Bi, Bb

Ar

Golden-yellow flowers summer to autumn/ Groundcover

Iris
Foetidissima citrina and unguicularis (stylosa)

 

 

Winter to early summer flowers/ Groundcover

Lonicera
Japonica ‘Halliana’ and periclymenum ‘Serotina’

 

Sc

Scented flowers in summer and autumn/ Climber

Narcissus (Daffodil)
‘Carlton’,
‘St Keverne’,
‘Ice Follies’,
‘Golden Ducat’,
‘Geranium’ and
‘Salome’

 

Sc

Spring flowers/

Rhododendron
‘Britannia’,
‘Blue Peter’,
‘Christmas Cheer’,
‘Harvest Moon’ and
‘Snow Queen’

 

Sc, Ar

Foliage all year with flowers in summer/ Groundcover

Ribes alpinum ‘Aureum’

Bi, Bb

Sc

Spring flowers/

Rosa
‘Paulii’
‘Partridge’ and
‘Rushing Stream’

 

Sc

Scented summer and autumn flowers/ Groundcover bushes

Rosa
‘Bobbie James’,
filipes ‘Kiftsgate’,
‘Francis E. Lester’,
‘Kew Rambler’,
‘May Queen’ and
Wedding Day

 

Sc

Scented summer flowers/ Climber

Solidago ‘Goldenmosa’

Bb

 

Summer and autumn long-stemmed flowers/

Spiraea japonica
‘Anthony Waterer’,
‘Goldmound’ and
‘Shirabana’

Bb

 

Spring flowers/

Syringa meyeri ‘Palibin’

Bb

Sc

Fragrant spring flowers/

 

Copied from
TABLE 3 on the
Home Page.

Internal Link from this page to a page anywhere else in this website will not work from this Table on this page.
If you want to use the valid links, then use them from TABLE 3 in the Home page.

External links to other websites from this table on this page should work.

 

Other items in this table about trees in pavements below might be of interest:-

  • Trees falling down from within pavements in Funchal, Madeira in the second row below and then in the second and third table;
    below the first on the right.
    Since it was 1 of 6 tree experts from Portugal that have monitored and advised Madeira about these trees, then I would be extremely worried about the trees under his control falling on me when I might visit either Portugal or Madeira.
    My reaction on this situation in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2022:-
    • Reaction 1 from 2018 - 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect during 2018).
    • Reaction 2 from 2019 - Photos 6 and 7 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 show a tree in a pavement with 70% of its heartwood rotted away from the earth to the base of the Forked Leader of the trunk as it splits to form another trunk going up. See Forked Leader in Photo 4 in Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page to see why this section of the trunk had been cut away before; but it never has had its wound dressed to prevent this rotting process.
      See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this tree in pavement damage. This may have caused Funchal to get 1 of the 6 tree experts from Portugal to come in September 2019.
    • Reaction 3 from 2020 - Further photos were taken of the trees and added to the website after contacting a member of the staff in Funchal local government.
    • Reaction 4 from 2022 - The photos in the second table on the right show that a tree with most of its heartwood rotted away was cut down, and that at least one other tree that was cut down had more than 80% of its trunk rotted before it was cut down. Both trees were cut down in February 2022. They had both been rotting for years within 2.5cms (1 inch) of traffic on a main road. The trees or parts of them like their main branches could have fallen down at any time - even when under an expert tree man from Portugal, who has been monitoring them for the last 2.5 years; and declared them safe to the taxidrivers.
       
  • Tree roots being denied rainwater, nutrients, air exchange and death of the soil surrounding their roots within tarmaced pavements in Guernsey. Nor do they provide an organic mulch or green manure to feed their trees or redcurrant bushes.
     

 

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality -
See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020 1, 2 pages by his department.
See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this damage.
The following 12 sections provide more detail; with section 12 providing a cheap start to improving the life for the roots:-

  • 1. This tree trunk in Madeira will fall because of the heartwood being rotted away.
  • 2. Electrical cabling tied to trees in Madeira is killing the tree.
  • 3. Constriction of trees by metal, tarmac, stone, concrete etc will cause the tree to grow over the constriction. At some point that tree will break at this fulcrum and fall over; due to the weight above that fulcrum being in excess of what the heartwood at that fulcrum can support.
  • 4. Growing trees within 2 metres of a vertical drop in the soil and thus automatically restricting it's circle of roots means that the tree will have complete lack of support from a large section of root and is vulnerable to falling down from wind. Also the Eucalyptus roots extract a lot of water from the soil causing that soil to lose its cohesion and fall away.
  • 5. The weight of a growing unbraced shrub/tree in a small volume of soil, surrounded by impervious material, is going to exceed the weight of that soil. That means that that plant will fall down at the fulcrum of that trunk with the ground.
  • 6. Constriction of trees by plastic twine, baling twine, metal wire will cause the same problem as in Sections 2 and 3.
  • 7. Photograhic evidence of damage to 166 trees in Funchal, Madeira with explanations and possible solutions.
  • 8. In Medway, England the council has sprayed herbicide round the base of trees in public spaces to kill off the grass. The grass dehydrates the roots of the tree below.
  • 9. This explains why grass is detrimental to other plants growing in it.
  • 10. The cultural needs of plants for water, gas exchange and nutrients is explained. If these are not met then that plant will die.
  • 11. Earthworms provide the transport system in the soil for the rainwater, gas exchange and nutrients dissolved in that water to reach the tree roots via tunnels. No access for earthworms, no earthworms, cultural needs of plants not met.
  • 12. Although some solutions have been given in the previous sections, this provides a start for improving the cultivation conditions for the roots of those plants in Madeira and in other countries.

 

1. Could Madeira use this tree in its current state as Cheap Staff Accomodation for

  • staff at the Forum Shopping Centre
  • or
  • for me as accomodation, while I sort out their tree problems
    (at least when I would fall asleep, it would be sitting up as required below? Madeirans care for their staff in knowing that I would not have far to travel to go to work)?

Photo 10 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6063.JPG in
Damage to Tree Roots in Madeira caused by People Page in Section 7.
The hole in the trunk could be sold by the Tourist Office or rented out, who would install a thin front door (you would need to go inside your bijou residence sideways) with a toilet behind it ( you could also sleep on this toilet saving hotel bed costs), a small sink to the side and hanging space for one's clothes for a very reasonable selling or renting price. A camping stove could be set up outside to cook your meals - or you could eat in the establishments within a 150 metres in the Forum Shopping Centre; and then you could use a small fold-up stool for seating outside. Rubbish could be installed in a bag behind you, which could be lent against as a cushion/pillow at nightime.
Household insurance to cover the flat from being blown down could be expensive. You would need to scrub off the charcoal from the burnt inside of the trunk, before you could paint it magnolia. You might not be able to extend the living space within the trunk without structural collapse.

Try not to be on the zebra crossing when it does fall if there is no repair. This tree probably has the same width of live trunk left
next to the ground as you can see of a cut down tree in the pavement less than 300 metres away as shown in
Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services page.
 

damagetotreeroots10garnonswilliams1


2.
The following 2 photos illustrate how easy it is for an electrician to kill a tree by tying a metal/plastic tie so tight that it cuts through the Outer Bark, the Inner Bark or Phloem and the Cambium layers depriving the trunk above and kills it, without him/her knowing that is what will happen. Combine that with no maintenance of these trees in pavements and so the population and the paying visitors prepare to endure the failure of branches/trunks of these trees and hope that they are not underneath or that those trees will not interfere with gas tanks which are below them:

lightsontrees11garnonswilliams1

 

lightsontrees12garnonswilliams1

note the splits in the exposed heartwood, where the heartwood is starting to fail.

Below is a diagram showing how thin are the 3 top layers of a tree/shrub which provide protection and power to live for that tree and how easy it is to be damaged without the tree being able to repair that damage:-

 

trunkdiagram2garnonswilliams1

 

3. The following photo comes from Madeira Island News.com with the accompanying text dated 30 July 2018:-

ironfoundationringsmadeiranews1

"A set of iron foundations placed around some trees of regional road 104, in the stretch between the PSP and the Ponte Vermelha, in Ribeira Brava, are conditioning the growth of the trees and generating controversy.
According to one reader to JM, the fact is that the same bases, which are completely rusty as the image demonstrates, are clearly affecting the growth of the species in question, which in their opinion may lead to the destruction of the species.
In addition, it indicates that many of these bases are even reaching the interior of the trees and there are cases of some species that are already higher in relation to the pavement.
Several popular have already expressed concern about what happened. They understand that the solution is to remove the iron bases."
If these iron bases are reaching the interior of the trees, that means that as that tree grows it will at some point be too heavy to be supported by the trunk at the base level and it will fall down - WHY DOES NOBOBDY IN MADEIRA GET EDUCATED ABOUT HOW TREES GROW AND SHOULD BE MAINTAINED, OR DO THEY PREFER TO HAVE ANOTHER 13 PEOPLE KILLED BY FALLING TREES AS HAPPENED IN 2017? AND WILL THEY MAKE THE SAME MISTAKE WHEN PLANTING 288,000 TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE ECOLOGICAL PARK? Since nobody in Portugal or Madeira is reading this during April 2019, perhaps somebody might tell them or will you also be wasting your time?

 

4. Another report from Madeira about trees:-
PPM WARNS TREES AT RISK OF FALLING ON THE ROAD BETWEEN CANHAS AND PAUL DA SERRA
TOBI HUGHES 22ND FEBRUARY 2019
The PPM Madeira was today on the road connecting the parish of the Canhas to Paul da Serra, according to the request of the people who contacted the party, to see the danger of some large trees that are in danger of falling.

“What we saw there is very worrying,” says Paulo Brito, who photographed some of the trees with their roots in sight without the necessary support to stand. In his opinion, “a stronger wind is enough that they come down”, others that have been severely burned by the last fires and are dead, “just waiting to fall”.

We saw large branches and trees already with a level of inclination for the road, almost at a stage of a possible tragedy.

The road also needs a lot of attention as it is in a very bad state  and is a road used by locals and many tourists, as one of the main routes to Paul da Serra.

exposedtreerootsmadeiranews1

Taken from Funchal News.
This tree does not have any root support for over 50% of its circular root area. There are at least 3 trees in this photo that are within 1 metre of the cliff face to the road. I wonder if these trees are Eucalyptus (one of the reasons for the introduction of Eucalytus to the Island was for the production of paper) which has one of the highest demands for water and therefore if grown on a slope with many others, the ground underneath this tree may have reached the Permanent Wilting Point. Then, the soil between the tree roots falls off the side of a cliff as shown here; and the ground becomes too dry to support the other trees in this wood. In this photo there are at least 2 trees which are no longer vertical and if the ground moisture below them has reached beyond the Permanent Wilting Point for those trees, then they likely to continue the descent to ground.
Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent Wilting Point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

 

 

5. If you put a shrub/tree in a very small volume of ground and allow it to grow, there will come a point where the weight of the tree/shrub above ground exceeds the weight of the earth/roots below the ground and so it becomes unstable and falls over as you can see in an evening for falling trees in October 2017 article. The earth in the hole where the shrub is surrounded by impervious material is not enough area or depth for its roots to continue to provide itself with a stable platform as it matures.

Tree Root Systems - 130/95/ARB - by Martin Dobson of Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service:-
Tree root systems are wide spreading, extending radially in any direction for distance in excess of the tree's height; frequently no deeper than 200 cms (80 inches, which as noted above; soil moisture is generally considered to be in the upper 80 inches) - see What to do about subsidence caused by clay page to see the effect of the length of different tree roots. Roots grow predominantly near the soil surface (see photo below with tree roots on the soil surface) - over 90% of all roots, and virtually all the large structural supporting roots, are in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. Soil disturbance within the rooting are should be avoided, as this can significantly affect tree stability and moisture uptake. Lateral roots taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms distance they are usually only 2-5cms (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm.
Roots branching from the upper side of laterals grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated, to form fans or mats of thousands of fine non-woody 'absorbing' or 'feeder' roots. In woodland, they grow horizontally between the 2 to 3 year old fallen leaves to absorb moisture and nutrient uptake. In order for roots to survive, oxygen must be available in the soil immediately surrounding them. Depositing toxic or impermeable materials on the roots will damage the roots" by stopping access to oxygen and soil moisture from above. Having grass over the tree roots is also detrimental as shown in section 9 below.
Our local church has a very large yew tree, where the local authority have removed the leaves, dead church flowers, prunings from the rest of the churchyard and grass cuttings to make sure that it has no nutrients and the grave-diggers continue to dump 60cm (24 inches) depth of the subsoil from new graves onto the yew tree roots robbing them of both moisture and oxygen - noted on 6 January 2022.
Why is it that nobody in Great Britain in parks or gardens open to the public, or gardens of homeowners understand the cultural needs of plants, as shown onsection 10 of this row? and why do they want to kill these plants as shown in the sections of this row in Madeira? Every country in the world puts tarmac on top of tree roots in pavements of roads, right up to the trunk. Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then, collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.

 

 

6. "This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.
gardenmaintenanceimprove1a
Please also do not use tarred cord as it will last too long and cause the same problem as above, use garden twine which will rot within a few years and then allows the plant' stem to expand. For trees or shrubs remember that the stake is only a support for the first 3 years at most, in order to stop the plant from being uprooted and to allow the stem above the 18 inches (45 cms) where it is tied to being able to sway in the breeze and strengthen rather than being tied at 60 inches (150 cms) and then when the support is removed the tree trunk is not strong enough and breaks in a strong wind. If you going to support climbers then also use garden twine, since when you cut it to move or remove that branch every 2 or 3 years, it can then lie on the ground and be recycled by your friendly earth organisms!" from Growing Edibles in Containers in Plants Extra.
If the tree is constricted by a metal ring as shown above; then it will grow over that ring and when the weight of growth above is too much for the area of heartwood within that metal ring, it will also snap off at that point.

 

 

7. 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages (and further detailed in the following Camera Photo Galleries Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4):-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

The people of Madeira and/or VAN DEN BERK NURSERIES could SOLVE THESE TREE PROBLEMS
or

they could continue to kill these trees and others in the same situation elsewhere on the island
and then continue to be killed by those trees falling on them or on a 1000 gallon cooking gas tank for each of 2 hotels, causing leaks, followed by explosions

or
invite me to do the work unpaid, with Madeira providing food/drink, work clothes, materials and equipment for these tree problems (Madeira would donate the use of the following sleeping facility with my ankles and head above my stomach to drain my ankles and prevent drowning from phlegm created in my throat during my sleep together with 11 medications for heart failure, head tumour, diuretics, blood thinners, reduction of heart rate by 60 beats a minute, glaucoma, and 3 of those medications for diabetes, etc).
It might take me a little time

  • to gather over 50 tons of seaweed/ cow manure and mix it before delivering it 3 times a year to each tree and pavement flower bed in this section within Funchal; more would be needed to cover the others in the island,
  • removal of pavers and white/black marble pavements and replace with reduced size pavers with 2 inch depth of sharp sand under them,
  • deal with unsealed tree branch cuts and rotting holes,
  • deal with rotting tree roots,
  • deal with root/lorry problems,
  • retighten tree braces,
  • erect steel structures over gas tanks to prevent damage by falling trees,
  • provide irrigation to the trees in those pavements on a weekly basis
  • create database of all trees/flower beds in pavements in Madeira, with repair schedule and paver replacement/ irrigation/ fertiliser creation; and irrigation and fertilising time schedules.
  • following my use of 6 FAIL (Fortran Assisted Instruction Lecture) written notes, so that the students from Years 1 and 2 of the Architecture Dept of Portsmouth Polytechnic would receive the next 1 hour lecture notes at the end of the previous, I taught the Fortran language, hardware, software, flowcharting and documentation to them within 6 hours followed by 2 afternoons of practical in creating stats from an experiment in the laboratory. Those students passed with 75% following my exam of a waffle, flowchart and program questions supervised by the Computer Science Dept. I graduated with a 2.2 in Psychology from Brunel University the previous year to this teaching, having spent 18 months under Section 22 from falling on my head at 60mph in Wales from a motorbike and then recovering the use of the spoken and written English language by myself. I was passed mentally fit in the January of the year that I took my finals. Due to 1/3 of my brain being detached from my skull, I am discouraged from engaging in contact sports. Following close contact between a female dentist and my teeth, which resulted in a 2 month hiatus in my blood-thining medication, I am also allergic to close contact with the female species, unless my eyes are closed until they move 2 feet (60 cms) away. I have a temperature range between 18-20 degrees Celcius, so it can be a problem where air-conditioning only brings the temperature down to 24 degrees Celcius as in cinemas, theatres and banqueting halls.
    Then perhaps I could teach the following students:-
    • Tree-surgeons to get trees thinned, crowned, etc to aid the purpose for which those trees were planted, not pollard the whole tree and produce a very dangerous result when used for trees in pavements, or for hanging electricity lighting schemes on them - the ties slowly cutting through the bark and the cambium killing the trunk/branch above.
    • Bed maintenance staff in how to prune, which does not mean chopping a rose to ground level each year and nor does it mean using a flail to chop shrubs into rectangles or turn shrub borders into oblong hedges.
    • Bed and tree maintenance staff with use of green manures, seaweed/cow-, pig-, sheep-, chicken-manure, recycled food waste from restaurants and food markets mixed with shredded shrub/tree prunings and used as a mulch to feed the plants under their care.
    • hotel and restaurant staff in checking the state of their toilets to stop the leakage of thousands of gallons of water from the overflow in the cistern or the washer seals into the latrine bowl.
      Having had to reveal 2 leaks in the 2 toilets in the Pestana Promenade Hotel suite in 2018 followed by a leak in 1 of the toilets in the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Suite in 2018 followed a year later in the Pestana Promenade Hotel Suite with one of the same toilets still leaking and it taking an hour for the Maintenance Manager to cure it this time, I am hopefull that next year there will not be a repeat performance.
      Your toilet cisterns remind me of the self-cleaning tumble dryer that used the water removed from the drying clothes to wash the condenser into the same match-box tank with foam pressure valve which activated a pump to transfer that water into a large tank at the top. Unfortunately when the system washed the fine dust into that matchbox, it clogged the foam and activated the pump. When no more water could be pumped, it refused to allow the machine to start drying. That tank was inaccessable to the machine owner and so cost £180 a time to get emptied. Brilliant - a machine designed to fail if it carried out its function, rather like the toilets in Madeira in wasting water.
    • educate the public about their relationship with plants that come into their environment to realise that without them they would be dead from lack of oxygen. In public spaces, it is advisable to be careful since many people suffer from hay-fever, so plants from All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month could be used, which would not affect them and those planted areas could be identified for them.

I could use Companion Planting, but I am sure that the above is enough for me to start with in taking 400 hours per day leaving my time schedule for sleep and nourishment not executed,
if
the people of Madeira do not wish to sort out these tree/shrub plant problems themselves as can be seen from the lack of response to what I wrote last year in the Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page.
 

Although the above is about the trees in the pavements in Madeira, other towns in other countries may find the information within it useful. There are also Problems with Trees in Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019 Page.

 

 

8. I have noticed in my home town that herbicide has been spread

  • round the trees on lawn-grass between the kerb and the tarmac pavement and
  • under the hoop barriers
    (hoop-barriers would probably be easier than the more effective Brett Trief Vehicle Containment Kerb system) stopping cars from parking on that verge in March 2019.
  • Also, where trees are in lawn-grass on steep slopes so that their roots are exposed up the bank, that that lawn-grass has been removed - instead of herbicide being used - between those visible roots.


Perhaps Green Manure seeds will be sown in these areas.
If the Green Manure (Mustard is bee-pollinated) is bee-pollinated rather wind-pollinated, then hay-fever sufferers would not be affected when it flowers and sets seed.
Then,

  • if the contractors using their ride-on mowers or rotary mowers cut into the green manure as well, it will not matter as the seed generated from that green manure will grow and replace the damaged legumes.
  • These legumes under the hoop barriers and besides the trees will then feed nitrogen to the roots of those trees and
  • what rain water that these legumes do not use will be available for those same tree-roots. This will help the trees
  • as well as reduce the possible damage to the bark of those trees by strimmers from those same contractors and
  • reduce the amount of grass mowings being put into the storm drains, when it rains after those mowings have strayed onto the tarmac road. Green manure instead of grass in and around hoop barriers within a very thin strip of grass between the road and the tarmac pavement will not require strimming as the grass it replaces does.
  • if the grass next to private household fences/walls/ telegraph poles/ other items within public grassed areas or next to public buildings is also killed off with herbicides and replaced with green manure like mustard, then the strimming of that public grassed area next to those boundaries could be stopped.

The legumes like mustard between spring to autumn will replace the bare earth, which would otherwise grow weeds and look unsightly - it does not matter if some mustard grows into the grassed areas, since it would be cut down.
Use Lawn Aerating Shoes to spike the bare earth, spread the green manure seed thinly and spread using a soft brush into the holes created by the spikes. Spray the seeded ground with water to dampen the ground, before spreading a thin layer of sharp sand over the seeded area and leave the seeds to grow.
Repeat this next spring, since the first frost during the previous autumn will have killed the top growth of the mustard and the worms will then clear the ground. It becomes too cold for the weeds and just replanting in the spring with mustard will superseed any new growth of weeds.

Overall maintenance cost would thus be greatly reduced and the trees would benefit.

 

9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-

hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1a

This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

 

Have you ever wondered how much grass is at a Major League Baseball stadium?
We did and found the answer. The average professional baseball field in America will use around 100,000 square feet of turf (~2.25 acres), which will need approximately 62,500* gallons of water per week (under normal watering schedule of 1″/week). This is equivalent to the amount of water 89 homes will use in the same amount of time. 62,500 gallons = 284130.63 litres. This is used by 89 homes in 7 days = 456 litres per day per home. This water is being used by the grass every week and if you do not irrigate, then it gets it from the soil and when it rains. Ever wondered why the ground under turf in public areas is so dry to the detriment of trees/shrubs growing within it or in beds alongside.
In Bevan's speech, he warned that because of climate change, by 2040, more than half of UK summers were likely to exceed 2003 temperatures – meaning more water shortages. By 2050, the amount of water available could be reduced by 10%-15%, with some rivers seeing 50%-80% less water during the summer months. This would result in a higher risk of drought, caused by the hotter, drier summers and less predictable rainfall. Water shortages are not uniform across the UK, with the North-west, Wales and Scotland generally having an adequate supply and the South-east experiencing the greatest pressure. According to the Greater London Authority, London is pushing close to capacity, is likely to have water supply problems by 2025 and “serious shortages” by 2040.
Building Regulations 
There have been changes over the years to the Building Regulations in order to try to reduce water consumption. Main changes in the 2015 edition of the Building Regulations include the introduction of an optional requirement for tighter water efficiency in Regulation 36 (section G2). 
The amendments are separated into two levels:
(a) 125 litres per person per day; 
(b) or the optional requirement of 110 litres per person per day (which may be a requirement of the water companies within that region). Planning Authorities in the South-East have decided on the 110 litre per person per day; produced by the builder fitting different taps, etc that will reduce current usage of 131 litres per person per day to 110, without the buyer in the South-East of England being aware.

ALTHOUGH THE VOLUME OF DRINKING WATER IS REDUCING IN THE SOUTH-EAST, MANY NEW HOMES ARE BEING BUILT AND SO FAR DESALINATION PLANTS OR MORE RESERVOIRS HAVE NOT BEEN BUILT TO KEEP UP WITH THE EXTRA DEMAND. AS EACH HOME IS BEING BUILT IT REDUCES THE LAND AREA FOR RAIN TO SOAK INTO THE LAND TO BE COLLECTED IN CHALK AQUIFERS OR WATER RESERVOIRS - THE NUMBER OF CHAMBERS FILLED WITH BULLETS IN THE REVOLVER FOR RUSSIAN ROULETTE IS INCREASING FROM 3 TOWARDS ALL 6 AND THIS IS BEING CARRIED AS GOVERNMENT POLICY.
 

hotelgardens5garnonswilliams1

Photo 5 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG_6222.JPG

The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is witin an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?

 

10. Since I was adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-
This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
Nitrogen Cycle -
Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
Oxygen Cycle -
No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
Carbon Dioxide -
Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

11. Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from tree roots

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting the requirements then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree.
You can see the thinness of the tree roots in IMG 004 of Table 4 within Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services page, where the roots are exposed of the tree that they cut down. Madeira had also ignored the great deal of rot that had occured in the tree trunk; and only cut the tree down because they said it was pushing the wall beside the pavement over!!! irrespective of the rot that eventually would have made that tree fall down maybe onto the traffic 6 inches (15 cms) from its trunk or onto the hotel below it on the other side of the wall. This is despite a tree expert from Portugal having been employed previously, who must have stated that this tree was safe!!!! despite it rotting for quite a few years. How many more trees in pavements of Funchal are like this one besides the one that is less than 300 metres up the road with a new bus stop near it and a zerbra crossing in front of it for it to fall on as shown above for more than 10 years.
Because a builder could not be bothered to prevent the weight of steelwork vehicles from depressing the tarmac pavement by a bus stop in 2022, the damage broke the roots of a tall mature tree, which then got honey fungus and killed that tree. 6 months later that tree in a public verge is still standing in City Way, Medway and eventually that will also fall down onto traffic or nearby houses. That honey fungus has travelled 30 metrees up the grass verge to a tree stump where a vehicle ran into that tree pushing that tree over to 45 degrees and the council then had pollarded it to about 2 metres, some months previously. So if the honey fungus has travelled there; then it can also go into the gardens in City Way, Medway and kill off their shrubs and trees.
What a waste of my time in writing the above is, when nothing will get done about it, unless someone can make some money out of it!!!
The roots of each tree covered by tarmac, concrete or stone (in any country in the world) will create a Russian Roulette situation, where the asphixiated, dehydrated and starved tree may fall down. In this situation, there is only one place where the tree may get the water and nutrients requiired and that is by taking them from a branch, normally the ones nearest the ground to be able to compete for new branches and leaves at the top in competition with either other trees or buildings shading their tops. This can be seen in dense forests.
Human beings must be the only animal that is determined to kill itself by denying itself oxygen to breath.
Nitrogenous fertilizers tend to create acidic conditions, which are fatal to the worms, and dead specimens are often found on the surface following the application of substances such as DDT, lime sulphur, and lead arsenate. In Australia, changes in farming practices such as the application of superphosphates on pastures and a switch from pastoral farming to arable farming had a devastating effect on populations of the giant Gippsland earthworm, leading to their classification as a protected species. Globally, certain earthworms populations have been devastated by deviation from organic production and the spraying of synthetic fertilizers and biocides with at least three species now listed as extinct but many more endangered.
Vermicomposting of all organic "wastes" and addition of this organic matter, preferably as a surface mulch , on a regular basis will provide earthworms with their food and nutrient requirements, and will create the optimum conditions of temperature and moisture that will naturally stimulate their activity.

This earthworm activity aerates and mixes the soil, and is conducive to mineralization of nutrients and their uptake by vegetation. Certain species of earthworm come to the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil. Because a high level of organic matter mixing is associated with soil fertility, an abundance of earthworms is generally considered beneficial by farmers and gardeners.

 

12. The easiest and quickest solution for existing pavement areas using pavers or paving slabs is the SuDSFLOW System using paving spacers for permeable paving. Simply take up the paver/paving slab and re-install with the spacer and laying coarse sand if you cannot afford to also install the correct subgrade. You would then end up with redundant pavers/paving slabs and the same system could be used elsewhere.
The same SuDSFLOW System could be used on Domestic Driveways, Patios and Terraces, Car Parks and Footpaths including the laying coarse sand and subgrade to absorb the rainfall even if the soil is clay underneath. This would prevent the rainwater falling on your land from leaving it - which is illegal in the UK.
Instead of wasting your time using the existing compost bins in private gardens; use the vermicomposting system to create a better product for your home garden.
Use the same vermicomposting system on organic waste from restaurants, hotels and supermarkets, before mashing it into small compost particles and put into a water solution to give a monthly supply to the trees in your pavements in your village/ town/ council area.

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