Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 10 Gallery:
Page 115 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

leycesteriaformosajun84PICT03135a

Leycesteria formosa Jun 84
PICT03135 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03135indexleycesteriaformosajun84foord

leycesteriaformosaPICT03136a

Leycesteria formosa
PICT03136 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03136indexleycesteriaformosafoord

liatrisspicata0991PICT03139a

Liatris spicata 09 91
PICT03139 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03139indexliatrisspicata0991foord

liatrisspicata0991PICT03138a

Liatris spicata 09 91
PICT03138 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03138indexliatrisspicata0991foord

ligulariadentatainleedsPICT03141a

Ligularia dentata in Leeds
PICT03141 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03141indexligulariadentatainleedsfoord

liliumauratumPICT03106a

Lilium auratum
PICT03106 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03106indexliliumauratumfoord

liliumauratumPICT03143a

Lilium auratum
PICT03143 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03143indexliliumauratumfoord

liliumcandidumjul73madonnalilyPICT03107a

Lilium candidum Jul 73 Madonna Lily
PICT03107 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03107indexliliumcandidumjul73madonnalilyfoord

liliumcitronella0689PICT03109a

Lilium citronella 06 89
PICT03109 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03109indexliliumcitronella0689foord

liliumcitronella0785PICT03110a

Lilium citronella 07 85
PICT03110 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03110indexliliumcitronella0785foord

liliumcitronellaPICT03112a

Lilium citronella
PICT03112 .JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT03112indexliliumcitronellafoord

I have copied this Plant Care section from the Introduction Page of the
Colour Wheel Use of Plant and Flower Shape Gallery.

It is a pity that the people in Madeira and Guernsey seem to have lost the
knowledge of their forebears

  • in that plants have needs and they prevent those needs from being
    realised so that the vegetable/flower bed looks neat and tidy instead of
    having an organic mulch above it or green manure to feed it, recreate
    the soil, keep the moisture in the ground ( I have elsewhere in this site
    given the example of Melcourt Industries Ltd who divided a field in half
    and in half just planted the field with juvenile fruit trees and soaked the
    ground in April; the other half they planted with the same type of fruit
    tree, soaked the ground in April and laid down a Melcourt Organic Mulch.
    They measured the moisture level in the soil throughout a very hot
    summer. The trees without the mulch were suffering from dehydration by
    August, whereas the others with their mulch were fine, healthy and still
    with soil moisture. Besides taking the soil moisture levels during each
    month from April to August no further work was done to that field).
  • The same people in each country of the world think that trees surrounded
    up to their trunks by GRASS, tarmac, concrete, or metal, will quite happily
    grow and provide the calming influence on the population as well as the
    oxygen for them to breath.

 

Plant Care

This is a photo of a Ryegrass plant, that was growing in Type I MOT Roadstone on
flat ground in a private garden. You will note that it has a great deal of fibrous
root - apparently in American Baseball Stadiums each grass plant has over
100 miles of root.

grassroot2a1

.

That root in cooperation with worms, bacteria etc takes in food, which is brought
down from the surface by water (usually rain, but can be by irrigation) either in
tunnels created by the worms, moles, etc or when the ground cracks open in the
summer when the clay soil dries up and shrinks - clay soil can absorb 40% of its
own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. That root also breathes in
oxygen then expels carbon dioxide (Click on Carbon Cycle) and nitrogen
(Click on Nitrogen Cycle) ALL THE TIME. That is why the Action Plan for YOU to
Do with Your Soil Page
could help.

If you buy Sharp-Washed-Sand from a Builder's Merchant and put that into a clean
pot round a plant, then using NPK fertilisers the roots of that plant can absorb that
food dissolved in water. Once you stop supplying that water and food, that plant will
die (it is like saying that for you to survive, that you need a lb of glucose each day,
so I sit you down outside and put 365 lbs of glucose round your feet. It rains and
within 6 weeks that glucose has either been eaten by you or dissolved in the rain and
washed down into the ground below your feet. Then you complain to me that
you are hungry).

To make that Sharp-Washed-Sand into soil, you need dead plant material, shit from
animals or dead animals, bacteria, worms that can be eaten by the animal, bacteria
and worms to bind those sand particles together with clay and organic matter
(Click on Soil Structure). That soil can then hold onto the some of the rain
(Click on How does Water act in the Soil) with food for the animal/plant in it, before
the excess rain drains through below the top soil to the sub-soil and the food in it is
then lost to the plants above it. The easiest method of supplying the dead plant
material is to collect your potato peelings, tea bags, coffee grounds in a bucket under
the sink before putting them on the ground surface round a plant. Then, mow the lawn
and put 1cm or 0.5 inch depth of grass mowings on top to complete the organic
mulch, provide water from the grass and nitrogen from it to compost the peelings
below. The worms having made tunnels in the soil may also eat the peelings. When it
rains the water can absorb nutrients from that mulch and take it down using those
tunnels. WHEN THOSE TUNNELS ARE FULL OF WATER AND A CLOD-HOPPING HUMAN
WALKS ON IT, THEN IT COLLAPSES AND NO LONGER FUNCTIONS. If it rains heavily,
allow the ground to recover for a couple of days before walking on it.

You can then see that a Sandy Soil is much easier for the roots of a plant to get into,
but when it rains it dries up quickly and then the food in it gets washed through it very
quickly (Click on How are Chemicals stored and released from Soil?). It is also easier
for the gases to get in and out.

A clay soil is more difficult for plants, since when it rains the tunnels fill up with water and
thus could drown the roots. Put sand round its roots up to the surface of the soil and this
will combine with the clay to stop the roots from being drowned or without Nitrogen and
Carbon gas exchange. If your lawn is soggy when it rains, then cut the lawn short when it
is dry and apply 25Kg of sand over a 5 metre x 5 metre area once a month for 3 months
during May-September and it will change the soil structure to lessen that problem.

A mixture of Clay and Soil is best (Click on Soil Formation - What is Soil Texture?).

 

I saw a yew tree that had been planted in a churchyard in 2000 as a 2 foot high tree. In 2009
it had reached 7 feet high and 3 feet across. Why had it not grown?

It was planted on a 30 degree slope in clay/sand soil with grass growing round its base. It had
the following 3 reasons for failure to grow:-

  • When it rained, the water would either be taken up by the roots of the grass (Click on
    the roots of just 1 plant in the photo above) or run off down the slope.
  • The grass would take all the nutrients out the top soil leaving none to be washed down
    to the roots of the yew tree.
  • The grass would be using all the oxygen that came down the tunnels, leaving none
    for the yew tree

So, I carefully removed the grass and its roots from around its base out to the tips of the tree
branches and mulched that bare ground with shrub prunings / grass mowings to a 4 inch depth.
A year later it was growing quite well with new leaves and an increase of density of branches.

In Maderia I saw a mature olive tree - which had been transplanted from the nursery to a roof
garden - a year after it was planted. It was on a mound with brazilian grass growing round its
base. It was dying from dehydration even though it was irrigated every other day - the grass
was growing well.

An organic mulch about 4 inches deep on weeded soil makes garden maintenance very easy.
Once a week you walk round the garden and using a swoe (a hoe has 2 arms to the horizontal
blade, a swoe only has 1 so that you can stand on the lawn and be able to hoe behind the plant
in front of you) hoe through the weed root in the top of the mulch and remove the uprooted
weed. I find that Spent Mushroom Compost is light, easy to lay, easy to hoe and lasts a relatively
long time. You may lose about 50% each year. If you do not apply any mulch and you do have
groundcover plants covering all the soil, then you will enjoy permanent weeding chores like the
painters on the Forth Bridge last century - you come to the other side and have to start again
immediately. When you prune your shrubs/trees/hedges then put the prunings on your uncut
lawn. When you deadhead your bulbs or remove perennials, shake off the earth from the roots
and place on the uncut lawn. Using a rotary mower cut your lawn and it will cut the grass and
your prunings/perennials into small bits which you then mulch your flower beds/hedges with.
In the autumn, set your mower to its highest cut and transfer the autumn fallen leaves onto
the lawn before mowing them and mulching as before. Continue mowing once a week untill
all fallen leaves have been removed.

If your garden is on a steep slope - I maintained one that had half-circle beds with lawn paths
round them - the diameter of the circle was usually level and the half-circumference went down
the slope. The ground had flint and chalk in it and the plants in it were usually the inverted
cone shape. When it rained, the stones would be washed off onto the lawn paths and damage
my mowing machine. Providing any mulch applied to those beds is covered with grass mowings,
then that problem - of the stones being washed off by any rain however hard onto the
paths - is stopped.

Roots of plants that you put into your garden do extend and grow, but the existing roots do not
move by themselves to better places. You have to untangle them and spread them out yourself.
I planted a blue cedar in my front garden and 9 years later it died. When I took it out, I found
that the roots which had been going round the inside of the pot before I planted it had expanded
sideways to fill the complete space between them as if they were still in the pot. There were very
few roots which had grown away from this rootball and so the plant died due to dehydration,
lack of food and lack of gas exchange in the ground.

A minor point that people forget is that you only live because you can breath oxygen, and plants
provide it. So please look after the plant so that they have food, water and air (best soil has at
least 30% air in it) on a regular basis, just like you do for your children.

 

The following is taken from What Types of Organisms are found in the Soil? Page within the Soil Topic:-

"A more-in-depth explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding
the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the
leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These
secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly,
their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in
the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's
root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the
rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or
a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron
microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi,
nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates
in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume
plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes
and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions.
Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as
nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere,
the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own
benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who
are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control
the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the
exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other
nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil
protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the
bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat
the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete
excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates
are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and
themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one
big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves
they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound
together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them
together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and
protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil
food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps
create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they
provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are
retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical
fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to
drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside
soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as
wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in
situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community.
Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group
can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in
the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so
many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of
members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and
protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are
the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical
barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat
surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something
impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily
be attacked.

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web,
toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important
fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When
chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and
microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical
fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation
of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other
members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food
and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since
they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure
deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves
and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling
(rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms,
and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of
necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil
food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils.
First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web
operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web
community does."

Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1 of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic
Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis
ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010. This book explains in non-technical language
how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you
plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings
and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground,
the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to
provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent
to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil."

See row above to show you how soil stays as soil and how it degrades to only rock when
starved of some of its component parts.

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape



Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...
H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...
O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...
V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...
H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...
O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...
V,W,XYZ,
...
Diascia Photo Album,
...
UK Peony Index
...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
...Bedding
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container
...Hedge
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries

AB1,AC2,AC3,AC4,AC5,
AE6,AG7,AL8,AL9,AL10,
AL11,AM12,AN13,AN14,AN15,
AN16,AN17,AN18,AN19,AQ20,
AR21,AR22,AR23,AR24,AS25,
AR26,
BA27,BE28,BE29,BR30,
CA31,CA32,CA33,CA34,CA35,
CA36,CA37,CH38,CH39,CH40,
CI41,CL42,CL43,CO44,CO45,
CO46,CO47,CO48,CO49,CR50,
CR51,CR52,CR53,CY54,CY55,
CY56,
DA57,DE58,DI59,DI60,
DI61,DO62,DR63,DR64,
ED65,
EL66,EP67,ER68,ER69,ER70,
EU71,
FO72,FR73,FR74,FR75,
FR76,FU77,FU78,
GA79,GE80,
GE81,GE82,GE83,GE84,GE85,
GL86,GL87,

Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

HA94,HE95,
HE96,HE97,HE98,HE99,HE100,
HO101,HY102,
IB103,IM104,IR105,
IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).

 

 

Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Mid-Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-

Number

Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

1

Red

Red

2

Yellow

Yellow

3

Blue

Blue

Number

Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

10

Orange

Vitamin C

11

Green

Lime

12

Violet

Magenta

Number

Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

100

Red Orange

Orange

101

Yellow Orange

Tangerine

102

Yellow Green

Lovely Lime

103

Blue Green

Light Teal

104

Blue Violet

Grape

105

Red Violet

Process Pagenta

 

Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.
 

Page 107

Iris germanica Jun 70 garden iris
PICT02912.JPG

Iris germanica
PICT02914.JPG

Iris germanica
PICT02915.JPG

Iris graminea
PICT02917.JPG

Iris graminea
PICT02918.JPG

Iris histrioides major Feb 70
PICT02926.JPG

Iris histrioides major Feb 70 in snow
PICT02925.JPG

Iris histrioides major Mar 70
PICT02928.JPG

Iris innominata 23 5 70 Wisley
PICT02932.JPG

Iris innominata 23 5 70 Wisley
PICT02933.JPG

Iris innominata Jun 73
PICT02935.JPG

Page 108

Iris intermedia corilla Jun 70
PICT02936.JPG

Iris nepalensis Jul 71
PICT02945.JPG

Iris nepalensis Jul 73
PICT02946.JPG

Iris nepalensis Jul 71
PICT02944.JPG

Iris kaempferi bud May 85
PICT02937.JPG

Iris laevigata
PICT02941.JPG

Iris laevigata
PICT02939.JPG

Iris pacific May 85
PICT02950.JPG

Iris pacific Jun 81
PICT02953.JPG

Iris pacific Jun 84
PICT02952.JPG

Iris pacific May 85
PICT02949.JPG

Page 109

Iris reticulata Apr 70
PICT02967.JPG

Iris reticulata 26 4 70
PICT02959.JPG

Iris reticulata Mar 72
PICT02968.JPG

Iris suaveolens
PICT02973.JPG

Iris tingitana
PICT02976.JPG

Iris unguicularis 1 3 97
PICT02986.JPG

Iris unguicularis 03 89
PICT02979.JPG

Iris 'White Cliffs of Dover' 06 85
PICT02865.JPG

Iris 'White Cliffs of Dover' 06 85
PICT02866.JPG

Iris 'White Cliffs of Dover'
Tall White Bearded
PICT02869.JPG

Iris 'White Cliffs of Dover' 06 92
PICT02868.JPG

Page 110

 

Page 111

 

Page 112

 

Page 113

 

Page 114

 

Page 115

 

Page 116

 

Page 117

 

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©January 2021.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

This cell gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.

"

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

 

 

The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.

 

 

If concrete paving is the only option, then why do you not use a Sustainable Drainage System like Marshall Priora as the UK's most popular permeable block paving (CBPP) system as detailed on Permeable Paving & Suds Page of Marshalls? Combine this paver with my other ideas and you could have tree-lined streets with healthy trees throughout the world. This would:-

  • increase the value of the buildings alongside,
  • reduce crime,
  • increase contentment in the human population using these pavements
  • as well as reduce the carbon dioxide levels
     


Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
8,
9, Low-Growing
10,
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2

 

Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use
pages.

 

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals