Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries

AB1,AC2,AC3,AC4,AC5,
AE6,AG7,AL8,AL9,AL10,
AL11,AM12,AN13,AN14,AN15,
AN16,AN17,AN18,AN19,AQ20,
AR21,AR22,AR23,AR24,AS25,
AR26,
BA27,BE28,BE29,BR30,
CA31,CA32,CA33,CA34,CA35,
CA36,CA37,CH38,CH39,CH40,
CI41,CL42,CL43,CO44,CO45,
CO46,CO47,CO48,CO49,CR50,
CR51,CR52,CR53,CY54,CY55,
CY56,
DA57,DE58,DI59,DI60,
DI61,DO62,DR63,DR64,
ED65,
EL66,EP67,ER68,ER69,ER70,
EU71,
FO72,FR73,FR74,FR75,
FR76,FU77,FU78,
GA79,GE80,
GE81,GE82,GE83,GE84,GE85,
GL86,GL87,

Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

HA94,HE95,
HE96,HE97,HE98,HE99,HE100,
HO101,HY102,
IB103,IM104,IR105,
IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).

 

 

Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Mid-Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-

Number

Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

1

Red

Red

2

Yellow

Yellow

3

Blue

Blue

Number

Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

10

Orange

Vitamin C

11

Green

Lime

12

Violet

Magenta

Number

Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

100

Red Orange

Orange

101

Yellow Orange

Tangerine

102

Yellow Green

Lovely Lime

103

Blue Green

Light Teal

104

Blue Violet

Grape

 

Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.
 

Page 40

Chrysanthemum 'Golden Orfe' Oct 78
PICT00975.JPG

Chrysanthemum 'Golden Orfe' Oct 78
PICT00976.JPG

Chrysanthemum maximum Aug 72
Shasta Daisy Mayfield Giant
PICT00980.JPG

Chusquea couleou
Shoots on bamboo first year canes
Oct 78
PICT00973.JPG

Chusquea couleou
Shoots on bamboo first year canes
Oct 78
PICT00974.JPG

Chusquea couleou Sep 78
Bamboo
PICT00972.JPG

Cirsium spinosissimum 12 7 64
Spiniest thistle on Hoher Jpen
PICT01003.JPG

Cistus ladaniferus Jul 84
PICT01013.JPG

Cistus ladaniferus Aug 79
Gum cistus
PICT01017.JPG

Cistus ladaniferus Jul 79
Gum cistus
PICT01018.JPG

Cistus ladaniferus 07 85
PICT01005.JPG

Page 41

Cistus purpureus 06 85
PICT01028.JPG

Cistus purpureus
PICT01023.JPG

Cistus purpureus Jun 82
PICT01025.JPG

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 71
PICT01031.JPG

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 73
PICT01033.JPG

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 73
PICT01034.JPG

Clematis lasurstern Jul 78
PICT01037.JPG

Clematis lasurstern Jul 84
PICT01040.JPG

Clematis lasurstern 07 85
PICT01039.JPG

Clematis macropetalla May 73
PICT01047.JPG

Clematis macropetalla May 70
at Wisley
PICT01041.JPG

Page 42

Clematis montana Jun 84
PICT01052.JPG

Clematis montana 06 85
PICT01053.JPG

Clematis montana May 85
PICT01045.JPG

Clematis montana 'Alba' May 73
PICT01048.JPG

Clematis montana 'Alba' May 73
at Wells in Somerset
PICT01054.JPG

Clematis montana 'Alba' Jun 72
in Norfolk
PICT01051.JPG

Clematis 'Nellie Mosa' at Hythe
Jun 73
PICT01057.JPG

Clematis 'Nellie Mosa' at Hythe
Jun 73
PICT01058.JPG

Clematis 'Nellie Mosa' at Hythe
Jun 73
PICT01056.JPG

Clematis viticella minuet Oct 78
PICT01067.JPG

Clintonia alsinoides 23 5 70 at Wisley
PICT01036.JPG

Page 43

Clematis tangutica Aug 72
PICT01063.JPG

Clematis tangutica Aug 72
PICT01064.JPG

Clematis tangutica
PICT01060.JPG

Clianthus dampieri May 76
Sturts desert pea
PICT00999.JPG

Clianthus dampieri 13 6 62
Sturts desert pea at Kew
in the Pea family
from Australia
PICT00992.JPG

Clianthus dampieri Jun 76
Sturts desert pea
PICT00993.JPG

Clianthus dampieri Oct 76
Sturts desert pea
PICT00997.JPG

Clianthus dampieri
growing in our -
Ron and Christine Foord's -
greenhouse Sep 76
PICT00989.JPG

Clura muniata garden form
(amaryllidacea) in Kew Mar 65
PICT01068.JPG

Cobaea scandens 8 10 64
at Borough Green
PICT01069.JPG

Cobaea scandens 8 10 64
at Borough Green
PICT01071.JPG

Page 44

Cobaea scandens flora alba Oct 78
PICT01077.JPG

Cobaea scandens flora alba Oct 78
at Sissinghurst Castle Garden
PICT01073.JPG

Codonopsis clematidea
PICT01083.JPG

Codonopsis clematidea Jul 70
PICT01078.JPG

Codonopsis clematidea Jul 73
PICT01095.JPG

Codonopsis clematidea Aug 70
PICT01086.JPG

Codonopsis clematidea Jul 71
PICT01089.JPG

Colchicum luteum Apr 70
PICT01105.JPG

Colchicum luteum Mar 70
PICT01110.JPG

Colchicum luteum Apr 71
PICT01113.JPG

Colchicum luteum Mar 72
PICT01108.JPG

Page 45

Colchicum speciosum album Oct 78
PICT01118.JPG

Colchicum speciosum album Oct 78
PICT01114.JPG

Coleus blumei at Rochester 19 09 88
PICT01125.JPG

Coleus blumei at Rochester 19 09 88
mixed colours
PICT01128.JPG

Coleus blumei at Rochester 19 09 88
PICT01126.JPG

Commelina coelestris
PICT01132.JPG

Conradinae verticulata 23 5 70
in Alpine house at Wisley Jun 70
PICT01134.JPG

Convallaris majalis variegata
Variegated lily of the valley
PICT01135.JPG

Convolvulus cneorum Jul 84
PICT01143.JPG

Convolvulus cneorum Mar 74
PICT01139.JPG

Convolvulus cneorum 05 90
PICT01144.JPG

Page 46

Convolvulus mauritannicus Jul 72
PICT01155.JPG

Convolvulus mauritannicus
PICT01156.JPG

Convolvulus mauritannicus
PICT01159.JPG

Convolvulus mauritannicus Sep 85
PICT01158.JPG

Cornus alba variegata May 86
Variegated dogwood
PICT01164.JPG

Cornus canadensis May 70 at Wisley
PICT01166.JPG

Cornus canadensis May 70 at Wisley
PICT01167.JPG

Cornus kousa Jul 79
PICT01174.JPG

Cornus kousa Jul 79
PICT01176.JPG

Cornus sanguinea Oct 71
Variegated dogwood
PICT01177.JPG

Corokia cotoneaster May 73
at Wells in Somerset
PICT01180.JPG

Page 47

Coronilla emerus May 71
at Triesenburg in Liechenstein
PICT01183.JPG

Coronilla minima
PICT01182.JPG

Coronilla minima Jun 73
PICT01184.JPG

Coronilla vaginalis 12 5 71
at Gaflei in Liechenstein
PICT01188.JPG

Coronilla vaginalis 12 5 71
in Liechenstein
PICT01185.JPG

Coronilla vaginalis 12 5 71
at Gaflei in Liechenstein
PICT01187.JPG

Cortaderia selloana Pampas Grass
PICT01195.JPG

Cortaderia selloana Jul 76
Pampas Grass
PICT01191.JPG

Cortusa matthiola 15 7 64
and Viola biflora at Einodsbach
PICT01196.JPG

Cortusa michelii 15 7 64 at
Einodsbach
PICT01193.JPG

Cortusa michelii 15 7 64
North from Einodsbach
PICT01194.JPG

Page 48

Corydalis ambigua Apr 80
PICT01200.JPG

Corydalis ambigua Apr 80
PICT01199.JPG

Corydalis cashmiriana May 72
PICT01223.JPG

Corydalis cashmeriana Oct 70
PICT01207.JPG

Corydalis cashmeriana Sep 70
PICT01209.JPG

Corydalis cashmeriana Sep 70
PICT01210.JPG

Corydalis cashmeriana Oct 70
PICT01205.JPG

Corydalis cashmeriana Sep 70
PICT01216.JPG

Corylopsis sinensis 26 3 67
PICT01178.JPG

Corydalis flexuosa
PICT01226.JPG

Corydalis flexuosa
PICT01224.JPG

Page 49

Corydalis solida Apr 82
PICT01229.JPG

Corydalis solida May 73
PICT01233.JPG

Corydalis solida
PICT01234.JPG

Corydalis solida
PICT01236.JPG

Cotinus coggygria 2 20 84
Smoke tree in Rye churchyard
PICT01245.JPG

Cotoneaster horizontalis Jun 71
PICT01242.JPG

Cotoneaster horizontalis Oct 77
in Rochester
PICT01241.JPG

Cotyledon oppositifolia
PICT01240.JPG

Courtleya lutea 14 9 68
PICT01121.JPG

Courtleya lutea 14 9 68
PICT01122.JPG

Courtleya lutea 14 9 68
PICT01119.JPG

Page 50

Crataegus tanacetifolia at Kew 13 6 62
PICT01123.JPG

Crinum powellii Sep 80 Rochester
PICT01257.JPG

Crinum powellii 08 92
PICT01256.JPG

Crinum powellii 08 91
PICT01249.JPG

Crinum powellii 08 89
PICT01248.JPG

Crocosmia x crocosmiflora
08 88 Montbretia
PICT01244.JPG

Crocus albiflorus 15 5 71
at Liechenstein
PICT01265.JPG

Crocus 'Bluebird' 26 4 70
PICT01269.JPG

Crocus 'Bluebird' Apr 70
PICT01268.JPG

Crocus 'Bluebird' Apr 70
PICT01275.JPG

Crocus 'Bluebird'
PICT01278.JPG

Page 51

Crocus chrysanthus 'E.A.Bowles'
Mar 70
PICT01286.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'E. A. Bowles' Mar 70
crocus coming up through snow
PICT01288.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'E. A. Bowles' Mar 72
with Tulipa turkestanica
PICT01285.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'Saturnus' Mar 85
PICT01295.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'Saturnus' 03 91
PICT01294.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'Snow Bunting'
26 4 70
PICT01300.JPG

Crocus chrysanthus 'Snow Bunting'
Mar 70
PICT01298.JPG

Crocus chysanthus 'Warley White' 03 91
PICT01348.JPG

 

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©February 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

 

 

The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.


Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
8,
9, Low-Growing
10,
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2

 

Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use
pages.

 

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 4 Gallery:
Page 41 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

cistuspurpureus0685PICT01028a

Cistus purpureus 06 85
PICT01028.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistuspurpureus0685PICT01028

cistuspurpureusPICT01023a

Cistus purpureus
PICT01023.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistuspurpureusPICT01023

cistuspurpureusjun82PICT01025a

Cistus purpureus Jun 82
PICT01025.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistuspurpureusjun82PICT01025

cistussunsetjul71PICT01031a

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 71
PICT01031.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistussunsetjul71PICT01031

cistussunsetjul73PICT01033a

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 73
PICT01033.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistussunsetjul73PICT01033

cistussunsetjul73PICT01034a

Cistus 'Sunset' Jul 73
PICT01034.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

cistussunsetjul73PICT01034

clematislasursternjul78PICT01037a

Clematis lasurstern Jul 78
PICT01037.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

clematislasursternjul78PICT01037

clematislasursternjul84PICT01040a

Clematis lasurstern Jul 84
PICT01040.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

clematislasursternjul84PICT01040

clematislasurstern0785PICT01039a

Clematis lasurstern 07 85
PICT01039.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

clematislasurstern0785PICT01039

clematismacropetallamay73PICT01047a

Clematis macropetalla May 73
PICT01047.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

clematismacropetallamay73PICT01047

clematismacropetallamay70wisleyPICT01041a

Clematis macropetalla May 70 at Wisley
PICT01041.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

clematismacropetallamay70wisleyPICT01041

I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since
99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that
removing the weeds and applying Growmore fertiliser will solve the problem. Every time you remove
a plant or a flower with its foliage for floral arrangements you are removing chemicals which were
used to create that weed or flower/foliage which you are not replacing. If you keep eating the
contents of a box of sweets, eventually there will be nothing left and hey presto you are surprised
that your garden looks poor.

Why you are continually losing the SOIL TEXTURE if you keep removing
plants/foliage/flowers/vegetables from your soil - which will revert to clay,
chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.
Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus,
25% clay and 50% sand - The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to
as its texture and is described in What is Soil Texture?

Soil Texture
The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to as its texture as shown in the diagram below.
The gaps between the soil particles are called ‘soil pores’. These soil pores are used to provide the
plants with water, air and nutrients dissolved in the water. The soil pores for sand (like the big
gaps in a jumbled pile of bricks) are large and clay (like the small gaps in a loose pile of cement)
pores are small.

Addition of Humus, Sand and Stone to improve the structure of Clay Soil
The Soil - The most important element to consider, when starting a planting plan, is the soil.
Soil provides anchorage for plant roots and holds the water/nutrients that are necessary for
maintaining life. It is made up of the following elements:-

  • ROCK PARTICLES - All soils except peat are mineral soils formed from rock particles. They
    have been ground out of the rocks on the planet's surface by the relentless action of rain,
    wind and frost. The size and shape of the particles vary according to the parent rock and
    the weather action, so that different types of soil are formed: clay, silt, sand and chalk.
    Each type of soil has different qualities of aeration, drainage and nutrient holding capacity.
  • HUMUS - The product of decayed and decaying plants and animals; humus or 'organic matter'
    is the magic ingredient which gives fertility to the soil. Humus improves the structure of
    the soil, making it dark brown and crumbly. It holds moisture without impeding drainage
    and is home to a wide range of bacteria and other micro-organisms that help the gardener
    by breaking down organic matter to release nutrients. Earthworms thrive in humus-rich soils,
    and their movement through the soil aids drainage and aeration. The proportion of humus
    to mineral particles varies in different soils. It can be added to poor soil in the form of well
    rotted manure, compost or leaf mould.
  • WATER - Entering the soil by precipitation (rain and snowfall), by absorption upwards from
    the water table underground and by seepage from rivers, lakes and ponds. Water is lost
    from the soil through natural drainage, through evaporation and through plants taking it
    up through their roots. Plants need access to water for the food-making process of
    photosynthesis.
  • AIR - Plants breathe through their roots, using the air trapped between the particles of
    rock and humus. Without air, soil becomes waterlogged suffocating most plant roots.
    The living organisms in the soil, on which plants depend, also need air.

ACID and ALKALINE SOIL - Soil with a high lime or chalk content is alkaline. When lime is not
present, it is neutral or acid. Peat is acid. Acidity and alkalinity is measured in terms of the
soil's pH level.

Neutral or nearly neutral (6.5-7.5) soils are ideal for most plants. At this pH level, nutrients are
readily available. Some plants prefer alkaline soil and a few will only thrive in acid soils

 

The Soil Textural Triangle

soil12cultureindex

Types of Soil

  • CLAY SOIL - Slow to dry out after rain. A lump squeezed in the hand feels dense, sticky and
    pliable like the clay used in pottery. Clay soils are known as 'heavy' soils. Clay can be acid,
    neutral or alkaline.

    (Clay soils contain 50% of stiff unctuous clay)
     
  • SANDY SOIL - Dries out quickly. Disintegrates when handled. Sandy soils are 'light'. Nutrients
    and lime are washed away, so sandy soils tend to be acid.

    (Sandy soils contain upwards of 20 %, or thereabouts, of silica; that is, of the crumbling
    debris of granite or sandstone rock)
     
  • PEATY SOIL - Holds water like a sponge. Usually acid and not very fertile.

    (Peaty soils or vegetable mould, the richest of all garden soils, contains from 5-12%
    of humus; that is, decomposed vegetable and animal matter)
     
  • CHALKY SOIL - Drains rapidly washing nutrients away. Very alkaline; the white parent rock
    is often close to the surface.

    (Calcareous soils contain upwards of 20% of lime in their composition)
     
  • LIMESTONE SOIL - Drains rapidly. Numerous stones are present, from tiny ones to large
    rocks. Alkaline pH, but less so than chalk.

    (Marly soil is the debris of limestone rock, decomposed and reduced to a paste. It contains
    from 5-20% of carbonate of lime - calcium carbonate.)
     
  • PERFECT GARDEN SOIL - The best all-purpose soil is known as loam, It is a balanced mixture
    of clay and sand with plenty of humus and is nearly neutral (The interaction between clay
    domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how quartz grains - sand - are
    joined together by clay, organic matter and bacteria). Soils are usually described in terms
    of their relationship to this ideal, for instance sandy loam, clay loam, silty loam.

    (Loamy soil is soil in which the proportion of clay varies from 20-25%; sand, and various
    kinds of alluvium, making up the remainder.)

    Some recommendations below on how to improve your soil texture - I spent some months
    working on 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as
    a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new
    residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees
    were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those
    5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil
    before planting into that and the rubble under it. I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of
    bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the
    plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm)
    and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then
    its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was
    not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds
    as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I
    resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses
    in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding
    years.
     

Information in brackets in the 'Types of Soil' above comes from
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited. ASIN: B000WG5WK

The climate in the South of England is temperate, with up to 20" of rainfall and a minimum
temperature of 20-30 degrees Fahrenheit, and so require draught tolerant frost hardy plants.
 

 

Soils and their Treatment
(from
Colour All The Year In My Garden: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials,
perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour in the
garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book from Ward, Lock & Co
published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year
and for those in the smallest garden.)
The perfect soil for general use should be composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and
50% sand. Soil containing constituents in these ratios will rarely be found, but many loams will
not be far from the ideal, and with a little judicious improvement will furnish a compost in which
most plants will thrive.

Soil Improvement
Water-logged soil will not allow the continual life of the majority of plants. Very sandy soil so
unretentive of moisture is equally hopeless. What most plants require is a soil which, while
efficiently drained and containing within a few feet of the surface no body of stagnant water,
shall yet be of such a texture and shall include a sufficient proportion of organic material as
to retain for an appreciable time a moderate degree of water. If the soil is naturally very heavy,
that is to say, if it consists very largely of clay, and especially if it rests at a comparatively
shallow depth below the surface on an almost impervious layer, it is almost certain to be more
or less water-logged. And it is necessary in such a case to dig it deeply and to provide adequate
drainage, and at the same time to lighten the upper layers of the soil by the addition of sand,
leaf-mould, and organic manures such as stable manure (I prefer cow manure since it contains
no weed seeds). In a similar way very light, sandy soils should be improved by the liberal
addition of clay, fibrous loam such as is obtained from the top spit of meadow-land, leaf-mould,
and cow or pig manure. These latter, which, in the case of the heavy soils, serve to keep open
the clay which would tend otherwise to form a solid block, help, in the case of sandy soils, to
bind them together, and enable them to retain a greatly increased volume of water.
In the case of practically all soils one of the first things to do, over and above such special measures
as have been suggested, is to trench the ground or to dig it deeply.

Instead of digging it deeply or trenching the ground I have followed other systems as shown in
the
What is Soil Texture page.

The simplest private garden maintenance is the following from the
Private Garden Maintenance Site Map page:-

  • Weed your flower bed, donate weeds to UK council.
  • Then prune your shrubs/ hedge/ perennials and lay thin prunings on lawn (shrub/tree
    prunings no thicker than little finger onto lawn, remainder donated to UK council) from
    that weeded flower bed.
  • Mow lawn with rotary mower and cover weeded flower bed with 0.5 inch depth of
    grass/shreddings mowings. Fallen leaves in Autumn can be included in this mown lawn
    by cutting at highest grass cutting height first, then cutting the lawn at the normal height.
  • Leave for 2 weeks, then repeat from "Weed your flower bed" onto next section of bed
    to be weeded.

Have you ever been to an unmanaged forest and walked through it? - from
What are Soil Nutrients Page.
You will find litter on the ground and the following article from
Wikipedia will explain where that
forest gets its nutrients from
:-

"Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material, such as
leaves, bark, needles, and twigs, that have fallen to the ground. This detritus or dead organic
material and its constituent nutrients are added to the top layer of soil, commonly known as the
litter layer or O horizon ("O" for "organic").
Litterfall is characterized as fresh, undecomposed, and easily recognizable (by species and type)
plant debris. This can be anything from leaves, cones, needles, twigs, bark, seeds/nuts, logs,
or reproductive organs (e.g. the stamen of flowering plants). Items larger than 2 cm diameter
are referred to as coarse litter, while anything smaller is referred to as fine litter or litter. The
type of litterfall is most directly affected by ecosystem type. For example, leaf tissues account for
about 70 percent of litterfall in forests, but woody litter tends to increase with forest age. In
grasslands, there is very little aboveground perennial tissue so the annual litterfall is very low
and quite nearly equal to the net primary production.
In soil science, soil litter is classified in three layers, which form on the surface of the O Horizon.
These are the L, F, and H layers:

L - organic horizon characterized by relatively undecomposed plant material (described above).

F - organic horizon found beneath L characterized by accumulation of partly decomposed
organic matter.

H - organic horizon below F characterized by accumulation of fully decomposed organic matter
mostly indiscernible.

Surface detritus facilitates the capture and infiltration of rainwater into lower soil layers. Soil litter
protects soil aggregates from raindrop impact, preventing the release of clay and silt particles from
plugging soil pores. Releasing clay and silt particles reduces the capacity for soil to absorb water
and increases cross surface flow, accelerating soil erosion. In addition soil litter reduces wind erosion
by preventing soil from losing moisture and providing cover preventing soil transportation.

Many organisms that live on the forest floor are decomposers, such as fungi. Organisms whose diet
consists of plant detritus, such as earthworms, are termed detritivores. The community of
decomposers in the litter layer also includes bacteria, amoeba, nematodes, rotifer, springtails,
cryptostigmata, potworms, insect larvae, mollusks, oribatid mites, woodlice, and millipedes.
Their consumption of the litterfall results in the breakdown of simple carbon compounds into
carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), and releases inorganic ions (like nitrogen and phosphorus)
into the soil where the surrounding plants can then reabsorb the nutrients that were shed as litterfall.
In this way, litterfall becomes an important part of the nutrient cycle that sustains forest environments.
As litter decomposes, nutrients are released into the environment. The portion of the litter that is
not readily decomposable is known as humus. Litter aids in soil moisture retention by cooling the
ground surface and holding moisture in decaying organic matter. The flora and fauna working to
decompose soil litter also aid in soil respiration. A litter layer of decomposing biomass provides a
continuous energy source for macro- and micro-organisms."
This is why when I am maintaining a client's garden, I weed and put the weeds under the hedge
or inside the base area of groundcover shrubs/trees, remembering to take out the weed roots as
well. I spread a 4 inch (10 cms) depth of Spent Mushroom Compost on the weeded area before
going to the next area to be weeded the following visit. When I have weeded and mulched the
garden beds/hedges, then on each subsequent visit I go round all the garden beds and hoe any
weed that pushes its way through the mulch and leave it to dry off and wither away on top of the
mulch. I then prune the shrubs/hedges or remove bedding plants etc as required and place those
on the lawn before mowing them and the lawn and putting a 0.5 inch (1 cm) layer of grass
mowings/prunings on top of the mulch. This then mimics the same process as detailed above in
the Wikipedia article to feed my client's plants and reduce their water consumption.

So, what happens to the elements in the soil when it rains? The answer is detailed in
How are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? page.
Phostrogen Plant Food
provides:-

Nitrogen,
Phosphorus,
Potassium,
Magnesium,
Calcium,
Sulphur,
Boron,
Copper,
Iron,
Manganese,
Molybdenum and
Zinc

in soluble form for applying using a watering can, or it can be used as powder at 70 grammes
per square metre as a soil dressing in Spring and again in Summer.

Maxicrop Seaweed Meal or Maxicrop Calcified Seaweed can also be obtained from garden centres
to provide more of the trace elements each Spring.
These two items would provide a fair proportion of nutrients required in your first year as a
top-up for most small gardens and then it would still be usefull to have a 3-4" deep mulch of
organic material on the beds/hedges as well annually.

Small quantities of the

J Arthur Bower's Garden Lime (instead of Dolodust for Calcium),
Sulphate of Iron,
Superphosphate (for Sulphur) and
Phostrogen Plant Food (for Potassium and Phosphorus instead of Phosmag)

can also be found and then its stockist locator can find a garden centre close to you in the UK.

The next section shows how the earthworm provides nutrients together with the nutrients in
the manure from cows, pigs and horses to be included in the 3-4 inch (7.5-10cms) deep mulch
of organic material together with grass mowings and shredded prunings.
The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow
Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association:-
"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms
and especially the garden worm
(Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the
period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK)
drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant
material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract.
The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an
increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing
the scope of a fertile soil.
After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and
    hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents
    at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years.
    It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been
    completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does
    contain grass seed and other seeds."

     

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape



Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
...Bedding
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container
...Hedge
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.