Ivydene Gardens Home: Site Map

Pollution is biggest threat to Wildlife on our UK waterways.

"Why is our water in such poor condition?   

Pollution in freshwater ecosystems includes pathogens from human and animal waste, nutrients from wastewater and agriculture, organic matter from agricultural run-off, and chemical pollution from pesticides and runoff from mines.    

1 Sewage and storm overflows – Water  companies  require permits  to discharge untreated sewage into the local environment, which is allowed under certain exceptional criteria. However, recent monitoring has exposed the alarming rate that sewage is being discharged into our rivers. In 2020, water companies in England discharged raw sewage into  rivers 400,000 times, and  over 100,000 times  in Wales.   

2 Excess nutrients from agricultural run-off –  Agricultural practices often use fertilisers, manure and slurry containing nitrates, including ammonia, and phosphates. These can spill over into our watercourses and feed algae, making oxygen levels in the water to drop, water quality decrease and kill animals and plants living in the water.   

3 Pesticides  including  herbicides  –  Often applied at scale in agricultural systems to control unwanted plants and insects, pesticides can have  significant negative effects  on aquatic plants and wildlife. Costs arising from the contamination of drinking water with pesticides in the UK, has previously been  calculated at £120 million per year.  These costs are then passed on to people who pay for them through their water bills.    

4 Chemical pollution  from mines – Active and abandoned mines and waste heaps can cause pollutants, such as heavy metals, to be washed into local watercourses. It is estimated that over  1,500 km of rivers  in England are polluted by mines, and in Wales, NRW has recently estimated it will cost  £282 million  to end water pollution from existing mines.    

5 Plastic pollution (a  recent report  found that the River Mersey in England was proportionally more polluted with plastic than the Great Pacific Garbage Patch) and

6 Pharmaceutical residue (The  Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development highlights  some stark concerns about the impact of pharmaceuticals entering freshwater systems, including increased risk of some cancers and antibiotic resistance in humans and changes to the behaviour and reproductive success of aquatic species) are emerging threats to our freshwater systems but their impact is understudied.   


Whilst several pressures are causing the UK’s rivers, lakes, and other freshwater systems to be polluted,

  • agricultural and wastewater pollution are currently recorded to have the largest impact. 
  • Latest reports  from England found that 40% of water bodies are suffering from agricultural pollution,
  • and 35% from wastewater from the water industry.
  • In Wales, agricultural pollution has caused water quality failures in  113 waterbodies. There is very limited data available on the reasons  behind failing water quality in Northern Ireland, and this lack of transparent information is a recurring issue.    "

from New Report reveals pollution is biggest threat to wildlife on our waterways. Wednesday 15 September 2021 by The Wildlife Trusts.

"It has been widely reported that Einstein said that without bees to pollinate our food crops humans would die off in just 4 years. He was wrong, we will die off in 7 years. We have been warned, but will it do any good? We are the most intelligent animal that has ever lived, but we have not yet acquired the ability to learn from our mistakes, and we continue to elect politicians who promise us jam today and jam tomorrow. Isn't it time we grew up?" from The Bumblebee Pages



This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.



Explanation of Gallery Structure and its expansion capability of this educational non-income-generating-for-me website hobby with more than 217 folders containing more than 17,000 webpages; each of which may be downloaded, copied into a Word-processing Package, the 2 side tables removed and the midlle data table resorted to your requirements:-

Each Plant Description Page may have the following photos in 150 x 150 pixel or larger pass-through graphics:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers to show flower distribution
  • Leaf
  • Foliage to show how the leaves are arranged
  • Shape to show overall natural shape
  • Fruit/Seeds to show juvenile, mature and old fruit/ seeds

then in each Comparison Page in 50 x 50 pixel pass-through graphics there will be:-

  • Flower,
  • Foliage,
  • Form,
  • Shape,
  • Fruit/Seeds or
  • The plants in Flower Beds

Comparison Pages:-
The comparison pages (see
Website Design History Page) in all the other photo galleries including the Cultivated Plant Galleries (See for example the Bulb Gallery) show thumbnail photos / butterflies on the same page for selection purposes. Clicking on the thumbnail photo adds another page (which you can move elsewhere on the monitor screen) giving the detailed text description of the plant / butterfly with more and larger photos. From October 2014, it changes the Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page - currently this is being done for new and previously created Rose and Heather Plant Description Pages (October 2014).

then in the Flower Colour per Month and the Colour Wheel Pages in 50 x 50 pixel pass-through graphics there will be:

  • Flower

This adds up to a fair number of photos.

It is worth reading and using the Comparison Menu like the following above the compared images to understand the image and the information in its text box below that image:-

Ivydene Gardens Rose Plant Gallery: Red Flowers

Flower Colour

Other Colours



Red *



2 or more Colours Page 1

2 or more Colours Page 2


Rose Use


Climber /Pillar


Exhibition, Speciman


Grow In A Container


Climber in Tree


Edging Borders

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Tolerant of Shade

Back of Border

Adjacent to Water

On North-Facing Wall


FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Moderately Fragrant or Very Fragrant in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

NOT FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Slightly Fragrant or nothing mentioned about fragrance in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

Rose Bloom Shape

High Centred







Click on thumbnail to change to Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the text below that photo where its text border is Cyan, Green or Pink.
The Comments Row of that Rose Plant Description Page details where that Rose Plant is available from.

Rose Petal Count



Semi-double: 8-15 Petals


16-25 Petals


26-40 Petals

Very Full:

40+ Petals


Rose Plant Height from Text Border
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Blue = 0-2 feet
Cyan = 0-2 feet

Green=2-6 feet
Green=2-6 feet

Red = 6+ feet
Pink = 6+ feet

Rose Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to add the Rose Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the Text box below that photo - or - click that Rose Plant name in the relevant "Roses in this Gallery Link Index" menu for non-users of pop-up windows such as for IPHONE users, where the text border is Blue, Green or Red.



Each Site Map Page is limited by the length of a displayed Page to about 400 web filenames, so with the Comparison Pages this limits the number of Plant Description Pages to about 330.

Because of this for example; the Site Map Page that you link to from the Main Menu on the top left for Bulb is the Gallery that contains all the Bulbs from the other Galleries in 1 of 6 Flower Colours in each of the Months that Bulb flowers in:-

These bulb names are in the Bulb Index Table on the right hand side in every page of that Gallery. This Bulb Index then links to the relevant Bulb Description Page in the relevant Gallery. As more plants are added to a Plant Type like Bulbs, then perhaps another new Gallery will be added to the expanded list and prefixed by ... in the Menu list.

Each expanded list will only then appear in the relevant galleries. This system is repeated for the Wildflowers, Roses, Climbers, Perennials, Shrubs and Trees.




For the Alpine Plants, there is only the following:-

worms pairing in May 1971Verse 1 of Hymn 777 states the following:-

A wiggly, waggly worm, a slipp'ry, slimy slug,
a creepy, crawly, buzzy thing, a tickly, wickly bug;
of all the things to be, I'm happy that I'm me.
Thank you, Lord, I'm happy that I'm me.
I'm happy that I'm me, happy that I'm me.
There's no one else in all the world that I would rather be.
worms matingA wiggly, waggly worm, a slippery, slimy slug,
a creepy, crawly, buzzy thing, a tickly, wickly bug.

I have adopted the worm as my logo.



All things bright and beautiful, all creatures great and small,
All things wise and wonderful, the Lord God made them all.
But what we never mention, though gardeners know it’s true,
Is when He made the goodies, He made the Baddies too.


All things spray and swattable, disasters great and small,
All patios paraquatable, the Lord God made them all.
The greenfly on the roses, the maggots in the peas,
Manure that fills our noses, He also gave us these.

The fly that gets the carrots, the wasp that eats the plums,
How black the gardener’s outlook, though green may be his thumbs
But still we gardeners labour, midst vegetables and flowers,
And pray what hits our neighbours, will somehow bypass ours.

The greenfly on the roses, with garlic round each root
Ivydene then assaults their noses, and gives the fly the boot.
The worms that eat your compost, the worms that eat the shreddings,
Help production from your roses for red flowers in your weddings.


All things bright and beautiful ……

Do you want help to design, construct and maintain your private garden?
Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.
About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Statement,
Contact Information,
Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services,
Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions.
The Ivydene Gardens Site Map
Tree Problems in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira in February 2018
Death of tree roots in Madeira caused by people
Death of tree trunks/branches Madeira caused by people
Solution to tree problems
Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 1 of 4
Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 2 of 4
Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 3 of 4
Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 4 of 4
Damage to Tree Roots in Madeira caused by People
Area of Open Ground round Tree in Madeira
Irrigation of current Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Crossing Branches in trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Utility equipment with Tree Foliage in pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Lights on Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Irrigation and fertilising of trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Bicycle Lane in pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Public Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira
New trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page 1 of 2
New trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page 2 of 2
Problems with Trees in Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019
Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 of 2
Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 2 of 2
Medway Proposed New School
Home Electric Re-wire 2021 Page 1 - Concerns about electrical work 21.03.2021
Home Electric Re-wire 2021 Page 2 - Questions concerning electrics 21.03.21
Home Electric Re-wire 2021 Page 3 - Re-wire narrative 19.04.2021
Home Electric Re-wire 2021 Page 4

I watched the program about the slums in Bombay, India last night (15 January 2010), where the inhabitants wanted fresh drinking water and sanitation.

Perhaps if they had a self-imposed tax - of donating 1 day per fortnight and the pay of that day for those who earn money - to pay for and create that water supply and sanitation. For those too old to earn money, they would only donate 1 day per fortnight of their time.

A large pipe could be attached to the wall alongside the river into which pipes could be put from the latrines overhead. The pipe could lead to a new lake area downstream where the effluent could flow through reeds set A that would clean it up (BritishFlora know which plants to use). If there is no area to create the lake in, then cover over the river for about 300 yards and use that (0-50 yards are cleaning reeds A, 50-100 is solids settlement/ vegetable area, 100-200 settling lake,150 clean water pumped out for recycling to sewage drains and irrigation for vegetable area, 200-250 vegetable area/ solids settlement, 250-300 are cleaning reeds B). When the water in the lake is clean enough, a small fish farm could be set up in the middle of the lake to provide protein for those too young or too old to work. If there is too much clean water for recycling, then the excess can simply be allowed to irrigate vegetable area B, which can be used to grow vegetables for those too young or old to work. The remainder of the end water could then be recycled using solar power to the start of the latrine pipe so that the effluent would drop into a pipe with flowing water in it. Every few months (vegetable growing season time period) the sewage would be switched to the other set of reeds/vegetable area, as would the irrigation water and the excess soil created in the last vegetable growing period could be sold off to become a mulch on the fields for the farmers outside the city. Excess cleaned water could then be discharged to the river.

Another large water pipe could also be attached to the same wall and small plastic pipes could be led off it to 1 of 24 water areas. Each water area would receive water in one of the 24 hours. These small thin 1" diameter plastic pipes could be either put under the walkways between the houses or at first up on the outside walls and strung over the gap to the next house. Smaller diameter 0.5inch pipes would then be taken from this 1" pipe to each household.

Sanitation could be done using 4" pipe under the walkways and leading into the river sanitation pipe (The toilets in the houses could be fitted with macerators to create a sludge to put down the 4" pipe, rather than solids/liquids). Washing up water could be stored and put down the outside drains at the end of the hour when water is supplied to the household, thus clearing the drains in the street or into the household sanitation pipe where the macerator is. Recycled water from the lake could also be used to flush the 4" sewer pipes in the same hour and same area; when the fresh drinking water is being supplied to that area.

About once every 4 months, all workers in one water area could carry out a major project on sanitation/water supply on the same day, like submerging the fresh water and sewage pipes under the walkways between the habitations. These might be put into a Civils Polychannel SK system to provide easy access for replacement or additional pipes.

Low-growing sedums (Enviromat) could be planted on areas of roof to provide oxygen to breathe, flowers and cool the room below.

Vertical vegetable growing areas could be created using the Mobilane system and solar-powered irrigation.

The above systems could all be manufactured, installed and maintained by the slum dwellers, without cost to the city. It would improve the morale and living conditions of everyone living there.

Even the rubbish tips could be split into 2, so that quick-growing trees for paper production or plants for Bio-fuel for vehicle engines could be grown and the methane produced underground used for heating communal showers/laundry water. Once harvested, that surplus ground soil is sold off and the rubbish tipped onto that site, before the other rubbish site then grows that crop.


Perhaps Herbert Dreiseitl from The American Society of Landscape Architects can improve the above idea, since he has the holistic approach and interpersonal skills to be able to improve any environment.





Heather created the original single folder website and now she has gone up in the world with photography.
You can also view her other 154 images as a slideshow.
Chris Garnons-Williams has increased the number of folders to over 220.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Flower Shape
Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
for Bedding
in Windowboxes
in Border
naturalized in Grass
in Bulb Frame
in Woodland Garden
in Rock Garden
in Bowls
in Alpine House
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




Plant Bedding in

Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

HOME PAGES - Use this website in Landscape mode on an iPAD instead of an iPHONE, when away from home.
Welcome *
About Chris Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,
Contact Chris Garnons-Williams - Contact Information (Never Fail Cake Recipe),
Website Design History - Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.
Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map - usually each of the educational not commercial 212 topics (none of these 212 linked websites sell or buy anything, nor do they take or give commission, and the only adverts are of products/services that I believe would benefit my visitors and are inserted by me) has its own Site Map, which is normally the first page of that Topic linked to from other topics.
Every page should have 3 separate tables - the Topics Table, the Data Table and the Pages/Index Table.
Each page has its own resources and is not data-base driven, so can be downloaded - downloading the whole website of 20.44 GB (3 Dec 2021) annually, with pages being between 1200 and over 6000 pixels wide and between 16k and over 33k long would provide you with an updating resource when either visiting a garden or planning your own. Usually 3 or 4 clicks gets you to any page in these 9763 pages in these folders from any other page.
Usually the top gallery of a plant type has all the flower images of that and the subsidiary galleries in 1 of 6 colours per month pages, with that flower thumbnail being in each month page that it flowers.
Clicking on the middle of that thumbnail will transfer you to that flower's page or row in data table within that page description; and
its link - the link may not work the day after it was created - to a mail-order nursery selling you that plant directly should be in the Comments row of that Plant Description Page.
The majority of the original images in this website are inserted, published in Freeway which produces a 72 pixel per inch Freeway image. This is exported to a File, and the image published by Freeway replaced by the re-imported Freeway image file as a pass-through image; before that is published again and the resulting folder website uploaded for visitors. The lower resolution speeds up the display of the 28,398 JPEG images - some of these images are re-used in different comparison pages of different galleries and therefore added to the resources of each of those galleries (6,508 images have garnons williams or garnons-williams as the ending of the filename and those can go in the public domain as of 5 June 2019, but all the remainder are
copyrighted by others and may not be re-used elsewhere without the permission of the copyright holder).
Camera photos of Coleus RHS Bedding Trial starts the process of displaying the complete 4000 x 3000 pixel original photos from Chris Garnons-Williams. Since each photo can be 3.5-6.0 Mb and there may be 11 of these on a page; each page may take a long time to download .

Page Menu may also have
an Index (
Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Besides informing you how to


FURTHER PAGE/INDEX TABLE OF PROBLEMS with each row detailing a problem in light blue background colour

The UK Labour or Conservative government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for over 40 years, without its population realising:-

  • See HISTORY OF THIS in row 2 of the next table on the right; followed by
  • SUMMARY OF ITS EFFECT in row 2 and
  • WITH HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE also in row 2,
  • to lead to THE UK IS SUFFERING ANARCHY in row 4.
  • Row 6 - If members of the UK public complain then Government's Public Order Act 2023 will put them in jail.

    If workers strike, then the Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill (passed by House of Commons and House of Lords 4 July 2023) will kick in so you could be fired by ignoring a "work notice" ordering you to work on strike days for you in health, education, fire and rescue, transport, border security and nuclear decommissioning and radioactive waste management.
  • Row 7 - Water companies in England have faced a barrage of criticism as data revealed raw sewage was discharged for more than 3.6m hours into rivers and seas last year (2023) in a 105% increase on the previous 12 months, including that 38,000,000 tons of waste going annually into the River Thames from London. Environment Agency confirms 54% increase in sewage spills to more than 4,000,000 hours of raw sewage thought to have been discharged into rivers and seas in 2023. This kills the fish, marine life, as well as people/ visitors/ students from the UK and overseas/ swimmers in the waterways and the beaches in the UK, and via the seas to surrounding European countries of 1,000,000's of tons of raw human and animal sewage, microplastics and glyphosate pollution.

    My Experience with raw sewage in the sea and the Camber Sand staff stating it was only the result of a dead sheep in order to get adults and children to swim and play in human sewage, but it was because their was actual dumping of raw sewage in the river each side of the camber sands - I went to CAMBER SANDS beach last week with my wife, her 2 brothers and 2 children of 1 of the brothers.
  • Rows 8 and 9 provide further details on the dehumanizing of the UK population.

    Amazing how you can con 65,000,000 UK citizens, who will vote for this con-merchant in 2024. -
    Con 1 - by setting up a system that tells you a ratio to lull you into thinking finances are okay, but does not tell you how much extra debt that they have created that year.
    Con 2 - Also create a series of government departments to give the impression of controlling the privatised water boards, but actually they let them dump raw sewage into rivers and the surrounding seas. Southern Water gets most sewage dumps into rivers between 7am and 10am as people get up in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. As it cannot treat its present population's human sewage waste, so any addition to the population such as students and immigrants coming into Kent in the UK in small boats across the Channel will simply add to these sewage spills.
    Con 3 - Using the Sewer Flow Diagram in the next table for Mains Water flow instead, you can see that if you increase the weirs to get water to separate new customers instead of to sewage treatment plants, then you will run out of water when there are too many for the capacity of that mains pipe laid in the 1800's.
    Con etc -
    Benefit slavery System,
    British Industry Supercharger,
    Genetic Technology (Precision Breeding) Bill ,
    Public Finance Initiative,
    England's schools to be given £370,000,000 less money after Department for Education admits bungling figures, etc


Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020 1, 2
after the pages below were produced in 2018 and 2019

Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018

Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.
Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people, to their Roots


Britain runs out of food during summer of 2024. If a worker is on State Benefits and is only allowed to work up 15 hours 59 minutes a week at minimum wage, then with these extra new border control food charges it will cost that person 12% of their gross wage each week and 12% extra if they are supporting their child; from 30 April 2024.


8 problems caused by building house on clay or
with house-wall attached to clay.
work on polluted soil.
is about warnings of the government in the UK turning its population into slaves.


TABLE SOS where the action of humans breathing produces carbon dioxide and the trees/plants/algae cannot process that; because we either cover the roots in concrete/tarmac or kill the algae in the sea from the phosphorus in the human produced sewage. So we are slowly asphixiating ourselves in the UK.
The level of oxygen refers to the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere or water. Oxygen is produced by photosynthesizing organisms that live in the ocean, in fresh water, and on land. These organisms include bacteria, algae and plants. Photosynthesizing algae in the ocean produce around 70% of oxygen in the atmosphere. The UK pollution going into the sea is killing the algae which provide 70% of oxygen for UK, France, Holland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
Row 7 in last table on the right in Black Background - Welcome to the UK (Urinating Knave) with details of UK government backed pollution of millions of tons per year into its rivers; which the sea transported across the Channel to Europe killing marine life and humans.
Pollution is biggest threat to Wildlife on our UK waterways.
Photo of permanent air pollution over London.




These remaining items are of no interest to people outside the UK,
but will affect you,
if have property in the UK or
intend to reside in the UK for longer than 1 week.

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019

Neighbour cutting branches off our trees without Conservation Area permission and attempting to sink our house with 1000's of litres of their sewage by blocking the drain to our cesspit. For the following week, they continued to download their sewage after we had written to them stating that the cesspit was full and that the drain was blocked.

Gas explosion from incorrectly installed home boiler, with other customers refusing to correct the situation.
Other items in the Home Section which have nothing to do with gardening, but reading them might deter you from visiting Great Britain; or employing its workforce; or trusting its local or main government.

Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since NAPIT requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems.
Would you; after reading these pages? Manderson emails to us about re-wire.
We wrote the
concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
Pages 10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021, (the electricians testing 2 of the double power sockets installed in the kitchen in 1987 found that they were polarity reversed. This risks a short circuit, shock or fire. They corrected the problem immediately)
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended

Because we had paid part of the cost to Manderson Electrical Services Ltd using a credit card, then after we had contacted them and sent the report, the credit card company re-imbursed us. We then used that money towards a total removal of all wiring and total rewiring by the electrician who had produced the report.


The above was a pointless waste of time - we have now had the house completely rewired again without any recompense from the original contractor's lies, thiefery and extremely dangerous work with the government body Napit being no help at all. The unfortunate consequence of either buying a house or having anything done to it is that you the owner can and will be totally screwed by the majority of the British Workforce.
I have looked at a job of the third replacement of turf in a back garden of a new house. The back garden was clay and sloped down to the house - that house will have subsidence problems within 10 years. The only way that it might save itself is to rip up the lawn and plant shrubs that will absorb every drop of rain that falls on that garden -
you are not allowed to either drain into the storm drain of the house which is what takes the rain from the roof of the house/garage or
drain the rainwater from your garden to outside your property onto either public land or into somebody else's property.
I refused the job and told the owner to get onto the builders to rectify their error.
Since builders are repeating the same error on a massive scale in Ashford in Kent, the poor owners of new £500,000 houses are going to be upset.

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