Ivydene Gardens Home: Mission Statement

Chris Garnons-William's mission is to educate and inform as many people on how to garden successively using organic methods and companion planting. This involves design, construction and maintenance of private gardens.

As a non-income-generating-for-me-or-Ivydene-Horticultural-Services hobby it also involves creating Photo Galleries to compare the flower, foliage, shape/habit, fruit/seeds and in flower beds of all cultivated and native to UK wildflowers either grown and/or sold in the UK to aid your choice of plants for mail-order directly from the supplier to you


Tree Facts

According to the Kent and Medway Landcover Survey in 2003, 12.5% of Kent was covered in woodland in 1999.
Trees help reduce the 'greenhouse effect' by absorbing CO2. One acre of trees removes 2.6 tons of CO2 per year.
2 mature trees (or a 25 feet by 25 feet lawn) provides enough oxygen for a family of 4.
One person causes about 10 tonnes of Carbon Dioxide to be emitted a year. 1 tree removes about 1 tonne of CO2 per year. Planting 30 trees per person will remove each person's carbon debt for that year.
20 trees can offset the polluting effects of 1 car driven 60 miles.
The presence of trees can increase the value of a property by up to 20%.

If you can maintain your garden to produce as much oxygen as possible then you and the others on this planet can breathe.
The Department of Geographical Sciences of the University of Maryland in America has produced a map of Global Forest Change between 2000 and 2012. In that time the Earth lost a combined 'forest' the size of Mongolia, or enough trees to completely cover the UK 6 times. As of January 2014, we are increasing vehicle use and creating more people with decreasing the vegetation on the Earth to produce the oxygen for us and those vehicles to use. Trees are defined as all vegetation taller than 500 cms (192 inches) in height.

From The Times of 15th March 2006 :-

"Food transport now accounts for a quarter of all HGV miles in the UK and is responsible for almost 2 per cent of our annual carbon emissions. Air freight is the biggest culprit - the number of planes rushing us our Ugandan mange tout and Brazilian figs has doubled in 10 years".

  • The high-food-miles food that the journalist had consumed on a Saturday and Sunday had travelled 153,290 miles from the producer abroad via the supermarket to his home. If each item he had eaten only weighed 4 ounces per mile travelled, and he weighed 200 lbs, then his weight of food would have travelled 191.6 miles. If he had used his car to travel this distance, then it would need 64 trees for those 2 days and 11656 trees per year to offset the pollution created.
  • The low-food-miles food he had consumed for a different 2 days had originated from this country and it had travelled 899 miles. If he had used his car to travel 1.1miles, then it would need 0.37 trees and 69 trees per year to offset the pollution created.
  • From the Countryside Survey 2000 produced by DEFRA, there is 1.5 million hectares of Broadleaved woodland and 1.4 million hectares of Coniferous Woodland in the UK in 2000. Broadleaved woodland only has its foliage for 2/3rds of the year. There is 2.47 acres to the hectare and about 60 million population in the UK, which gives an average of 0.1 acres of usable woodland per person per year. If a tree is planted every 5 yards, then 195 trees could be planted per acre, giving 19.5 trees per person.
  • Even if we ate food produced in this country, we would still require 3 times the woodland cover that we have and 600 times the woodland cover if we ate that food imported from abroad.



If you could produce any of your own food on your own land, this would produce a reduction in pollution.

"From: Gabbie Joyce <gjoyce@gardenorganic.org.uk>

Subject: Re: Master Gardener promotion

Date: 14 February 2013 19:57:53 GMT

To: Christopher Garnons-Williams <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>

Hello Chris


Many thanks for taking time to respond to our letter.  I've just had a look at your website and it certainly is comprehensive. Well done on creating and maintinaing such a database of detailed information.  I will certainly share it amoung my Master Gardener volunteers, who may find it of benefit.  


Thank you for your kind offer to share images. Being a programme involving members of the public, we have to adhere to very strict guidelines regarding permissions and are unable to share them outside of our programme generated media.


Kind regards



Gabbie Joyce

Co-ordinator for Norfolk & Medway

Master Gardener Programme

Garden Organic

Gressenhall Farm and Workhouse, Dereham, Norfolk. NR20 4DR

Mobile: 07584 583803

Email: gjoyce@gardenorganic.org.uk

Web: www.mastergardeners.org.uk

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NorfolkMasterGardeners - for the latest news


The joy of my role is that I'm often out and about meeting lovely people. I usually visit my emails daily, however if your enquiry is very urgent, you are welcome to contact Philip Turvil, Programme Manager, on pturvil@gardenorganic.org.uk


Master Gardener Programme - volunteer network supporting people and communities grow fruit and vegetables in their gardens and on local communal land.

We are recruiting - Ask me about it.


----- Original Message -----

From: chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk

To: gjoyce@gardenorganic.org.uk

Sent: Wednesday, 13 February, 2013 12:52:24 PM

Subject: Master Gardener promotion


Dear Ms Joyce,


Thank you for your letter of 12 February.


As an organic gardener, I have maintained , designed and constructed private gardens for the last 21 years, including 7 years of vegetable growing for a client.


In my spare time, I am creating a small non-income-generating-for-me website www.ivydenegardens.co.uk part of which aims to compare the flower, foliage, shape, fruit/seeds, in flower beds / landscape/ pond /stream of every wildflower and cultivated plant either grown and/or sold in the UK. The comments row in each Plant Description Page aims to have links to external mail-order suppliers or nurseries. The member of the public contacts and pays that supplier for direct delivery to their own home. No commission is paid by me to that supplier or that supplier to me for this free advertising service.


I do not have the time to help others in the field, but can promote the information through my hobby of a website.  The Companion Planting Topic may be 1 of the useful topics for your volunteers.


If you would be prepared to share photos of the plants from seed to end of life with the copyright permissions as stated in http://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/copyrightpermiss.html , I could then show them in one of the existing 150 topics or create a new one if necessary.


Yours faithfully,


Chris Garnons-Williams



Registered Charity No. 298104. Company Limited by Guarantee. Registered in Cardiff No. 2188402.

Garden Organic is the new working name of the Henry Doubleday Research Association.

Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, Warwickshire, United Kingdom. CV8 3LG"


What a shame that as a member of Garden Organic, The Royal Horticultural Society and The National Trust, it seems that information or help can only go 1 way.

Still it gives me a little job to do in my spare time to provide this educational service free of charge by taking my own photos, then finding out the optimum growing condtions myself before inserting that information at my expense into my website so that the mail-order nurseries throughout the world can receive the orders from the public using the thumbnail, description and list choices in my website. Unfortunately most of those suppliers or organisations like Garden Organic, The Royal Horticultural Society and The National Trust will not provide the photos or growing conditions to this website free of charge



Independent of climate, forest cover in southern Amazon may fall to 20% by 2016 (03/09/2008).
Forest cover in the "Arc of Deforestation" of southern Amazonia will decline to around 20 percent in 2016 due to continued logging and conversion of forests for cattle pasture and soy farms, report researchers writing in the journal Environmental Conservation. Analyzing high resolution satellite data from 1984 through 2004 for the Alta Floresta region in northern Mato Grosso, Fernanda Michalski, Carlos Peres and Iain Lake of the University of East Anglia found that
forest cover declined from 91.1 percent to 41.7 percent between 1984 and 2004. They note that while the deforestation rate has slowed to around 2 percent per year since peaking at more than 8 percent annually in late 1980s to mid-1990s, renewed expansion of road networks will enable loggers to increasingly exploit remaining forests, leading to degradation and likely eventual conversion for agricultural use. Overall Michalski and colleagues forecast that forest cover in Alta Floresta will fall to 21 percent by 2016, a decline of 77 percent since 1984.



Cobtree Manor Park is where I and my friend used to take her dog for a 2 hour walk every week. See Map Cobtree Manor Park and Cobtree Manor 18 hole Public Golf Course (1golf.eu picture shows the golf course with its fairways to the left of the point 2/3rds across the picture from the left, with 2 grassed areas dotted with trees behind a hedge of trees above that golf course - that area is where people walk their dogs) occupy 50 acres of parkland displaying a diverse and maturing collection of trees and shrubs. I would be surprised if Cobtree Manor Park grassed area occupied more than 6 of those 50 acres. The Park Ranger and Maidstone Borough Council have decided that every dog will be put on a lead at this public place with no method of allowing that dog any exercise unless the owners can run with the dog under their byelaws of 1998.


Cobtree Manor Park

To reduce dating in the woods of Cobtree Manor Park (seen as the top right section of the 1golf.eu picture below the Industrial Estates) and to improve the amenities, The Cobtree Officer of Maidstone Borough Council, King Street, Maidstone, Kent. ME15 6JQ has produced a Draft Master Plan and is requesting comments to be forwarded to that Cobtree Officer by noon on Friday 16 April 2010. A copy of the plan is available at Cobtree Manor Cafe for inspection and from this link. As of 9 April the local dog walking area has been moved to the furthest point away from the car park at the end of the woods and notices have been put up showing dogs on leads instead of roaming free.

"The Master Plan sets out a number of improvements which should increase the number of visitors to the park whilst maintaining its heritage and many of its delightful rural features.

Cobtree Manor Park was bequeethed to the people of Maidstone by the late Sir Garrard Tyrewhitt-Drake. Maidstone Borough Council maintains the park as public open space and may, with the consent of the Cobtree Charity and Kent County Council, provide additional facilities for the benefit of the people of Maidstone and other members of the general public.

The master plan proposes a number of new facilities and the council would like to hear your views on each, as well as your views on the overall scheme. Please complete the table overleaf and return it as indicated by noon on Friday 16 April 2010.

Your comments and contributions will be considered carefully by the council, and will help us develop the park in a way which reflects your wishes." from the Cobtree Manor Park - Questionnaire. Written comments on paper should be sent to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk and must be in by Friday 16th April 2010.



It is noted that notices in the park have been requesting members of the untrained public to assist in pruning and clearing in the park. This they have done under the supervision of the staff; to the extent that most of the undergrowth under the trees has been cleared allowing the wind to blow straight through and the loud noise of the motorway to reach the other end of the park. We can now see the Industrial Estate of Aylesford, which we could not before.

In doing this clearing, we did point out to the staff a large area of Tuberous Comfrey which was in a thicket by the Old Iron Gates leading to the hill with the Elephant House on it. The thicket has now been pruned, the Tuberous Comfrey been trampled on and is no longer visible. From Derby City Council Flora of Derbyshire "Tuberous Comfrey is a very rare casual perennial of waysides and rough ground. In recent times, only four locations have been reported, all in lowland, southern and eastern parts of the county (Allen Wood SK3175; Scarcliffe SK4968; Brook Farm SK3027, near Caldwell SK2618). While certainly indigenous to northern Britain, an older record from Crich (SK35) for 1913 has been taken to suggest the plant was once also native to Derbyshire (Clapham 1969)." The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path to behind the existing pond at the top of the hill with the Elephant House on it would destroy another area of Tuberous Comfrey and trample over a small cemetery of little animals. "It grows wild in European woodlands in damp, dappled shade, & along riverbanks. In the garden it requires persistent moisture & falls flat on a hot dry day, though it won't be as sickly as it momentarily appears & a good ground-soaking perks it right up. So long as it does not experience drought, it will adapt to a wide range of soil conditions from loamy to sandy to clayey, with pH ranging from a bit acidic to a bit alkaline." from paghat.com. Drought will now occur where it was by the Old Iron Gates since the thicket has been "pruned".
We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas. Hopefully the remaining rabbits might be housetrained to mow the grass in rows!

The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path would also disturb the declining numbers of Great Crested Newts who use that pond.

The proposed Local Dog Walking Area has been placed furthest from the Park Car Park on a 45 degree sloped part of the wood where either badgers or foxes have had their set or lair, with a muddy horizontal path through it, and trampling on the orchids if one strays from that 30 yard length path to use the full area of slope. This Local Dog Walking Area is located in the 3rd Thick line of trees from the right hand side of the bottom of the 1golf.eu picture and you may have the added benefit of being hit by straying golf balls. Since 80% of the people who walk in the area from those Iron Gates up to the Pond and through the grassed areas are walking their dogs, it is assumed that implementing the proposed Master Plan will involve having to either carry their dogs to the Local Dog Walking Area or have them on short leads to that area. At 61 and my friend being 27 years older than me, we would not be strong enough to carry the dog, and we would be sorry to lose the facility to have the bitch unleashed as we can at the moment in all of the Cobtree Manor Park. As of April 9ht this Local Dog walking Area has been moved to the furthest point away from the Golf Club house but still within range of stray golf balls.

Lizzie is a P.A.T. Dog (Pets as Therapy Dog), who looks forward to the exercise in the Park on the days either side of when she visits and comforts the sick in Rochester. "Pets As Therapy is a national charity founded in 1983. It is unique in that it provides therapeutic visits to hospitals, hospices, nursing and care homes, special needs schools and a variety of other venues by volunteers with their own friendly, temperament tested and vaccinated dogs and cats. Since its beginning over 23,000 P.A.T. dogs have been registered into the Pets As Therapy scheme. Every year some of these retire and new dogs, having first been examined and passed on health, temperament, suitability and stability grounds, join Pets As Therapy." It would be a shame to stop this beneficial exercise for a working 14 year old Border Collie.

It is interesting that a lake is proposed that close to the Cafe, with the likelihood of flies pestering the eaters. Presumably the water in it would come from the public mains supply. Why not have used the water from the springs on the hill with the Elephant House on it and the water draining past the old Iron Gates into the ditch beyond? Line the end of the ditch with a pond liner and have the water being used by the rapidly disappearing rabbits and squirrels. The Island beds of Trees and Shrubs with nettles and brambles used to provide shelter from the dogs and people, but these are now being "pruned" to leave no shelter, but it does make it easier to use a tractor mower near them. This lake would be the other side of the Car Park, thus distracting the flies from crossing to the Cafe or Exhibition Areas. The staff did point out to us on the 9th of April an improvement for the wildlife by weaving the cut down branches through the 2 rails and post fence between the park and the golf course with the intention of allowing the bramble to grow through it. I am grateful for the superior knowledge of these staff who consider that rotting timber will not rot the rails of a wooden fence and nor will the bramble - entwined in those rotting branches stopping the wind from going through the space between those rails - not cause those rails to be broken, but we must be grateful for the short time within the life cycle of the butterfly that they will be able to use this facility before the cycle is ended in the autumn/winter clearout and them being shredded.

The Raised Cycle Path in the bottom woods does not seem to have a large enough width to allow ambulances to come and take away the cyclists who have fallen off it. This Cycle Path is at the other end of the woods, so how are you going to stop the cyclists from cycling in the wood, round all the proposed new pathways or on the grass between the car park and the woods, which they have done during the week from the 9th to the 16th April? Shame about the wild flora that might be growing there with its wildlife isn't it? Is Mote Park in Maidstone not big enough for the cyclists?

The new paths up the hill to the rest of the grassed areas may exceed the maximum gradient required for wheelchairs, perhaps those people could be catered for?

One of the walkers we met did say that "Kent County Council now has a policy of banning dogs from public places" and that this might be the policy here?

Since a majority of Cobtree Manor Park has been allocated to the Golf Course in the 1960's, could we not still have a larger area than 30 yards of muddy track to walk the dog who is assisting us?

Leave the area beyond the old Iron Gates to the walkers and people in wheelchairs to have restful walks, and put the children in the remaining area with its woods below it instead of them being allowed to cycle round the entire park. Fence that area off to prevent 4x4s from driving in circles on the grass for their fun, which they did last year, from the Old Iron Gates to the Road by the Entrance, and up from the gates through the cleared woods to stop the access there with metal security fencing or concrete anti-tank bollards. Lock those gates, so that only the staff can get through in vehicles to mow the grass, collect the litter or maintain the trees/shrubbery. Kent Wildlife Trust is across the road from the Golf Course and could assist in plants/wildflower meadows/ponds to create a more friendly place for wildlife and for us to study it with their information about the flora and wildlife - badgers, squirrels, butterflies, great crested newt, tuberous comfrey in the Llama Barn. The current policy of "pruning" everything kills off any overwintering wildlife (caterpillars etc) when put through the shredder - if only 1/3 of the area was tackled each year by getting rid of dead, damaged or diseased material, and then the crossing branches, the wildlife like the badgers might survive by migrating to another part of the park every 2 years. The pruned branches could be put in heaps by the boundary shrubbery to provide material for wildlife like Staghorn beetles. This would also leave the undergowth alone for 2 years, which would reduce the noise from the motorway, the wind howling through and provide shelter for the wildlife from the humans passing by or through that area. The flora could be noted and notices put up to show it to the public, rather than them trampling all over it in the woods, boundary shrubbery or island beds for at least half of the remaining part of the Cobtree Manor Park, when you consider how much has been given of the estate to the few who play golf.


Since there have only been 2 visitors to this site who have emailed me in the last 2 years, the above comments may be a waste of time, since written comments on paper to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk must be in by Friday 16th April 2010 and not emailed to me.



Brookweed Fruit


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  



In 2020, over 400,000 discharges of untreated sewage into English rivers/ sea.


You might decide that dying from that activity caused by sewage that Members of Parliament have agreed should be released into those environments might make you rethink about coming to Great Britain. This article from Riverford Organic Farmers arrived on my doorstep today (2 November 2021):-

"Flushing away our water quality.

This week my attention was caught by a battle not in our usual fields (nor on land at all), but important none the less. As children in the '60s, we swam and fished in the River Dart, which runs past our farm, without worry. We took it for granted. But by the early '80s, few people would risk swimming; in quieter stretches, the riverbed became covered up in up to a foot (30 cms) of brown algal growth. Sitting with a notorious local poacher in the early hours while he plied his trade, the reason became obvious: the river changed colour and developed a horrendous stench as the local sewage plant opened its gates under cover of darkness. Soon the river was dead, and most of the fish gone. Then, in 1989, Thatcher privatised South West Water. Whether through better management, access to private capital, better regulation by the Environment Agency, or the threat of legal action from Europe, our river became cleaner. Water bills rose hugely, but it seemed to work; farmers built better storage for slurry, and sewage treatment became much more effective.

Today, you can again see families picnicking by the river and swimming on sunny days. I find that I once more started to take this amenity for granted. But behind the scenes, things are changing. After decades of raking in billions in profit for shareholders, water companies have failed to invest in vital infrastructure - and across the UK, our sewage system is now unfit for purpose. We are told the investment needed to meet water standards is too high. But the truth is that more has been extracted in dividends than invested in improvements; one recent report found that South West Water had an average 26% profit margin over 10 years. In 2020, there were over 400,000 discharges of untreated sewage into English waters, and the UK ranks last in EU countries for bathing water quality."


"Thames21 opened last Monday’s BBC Panorama’s documentary - 12 April 2021, The River Pollution Scandal,  by highlighting the impact of sewage discharges into the river Thames. London’s overloaded sewage system routinely discharges raw sewage into the Thames, on average once a week. The city’s combined sewer overflow (CSO) system was designed to be a safety valve for occasional use, to prevent sewage backing up into people’s homes when the sewage system is overloaded. But discharges have become regular and routine." from Thames21.org.uk.
Sewage dumped in rivers for months on end" article by The Times on Monday November 8 2021 states:-

  • Untreated sewage is being spilt into rivers for months on end from emergency outlets that are supposed to be used only in severe storm conditions, an analysis for The Times has shown.
  • Conservative MPs voted down an amendment to the Environment Bill last month that would have placed a legal duty on water companies "to take all reasonable steps to ensure untreated sewage is not discharged from storm overflows".
  • The new analysis indicates that Thames Water has 5 sewage treatment works that released untreated effluent - a mix of raw sewage and rainwater - into rivers for at least 3,000 hours last year, equivalent to more than 4 months of spilling.
  • According to the Environment Agency, sewage was spilt into water courses more than 400,000 times last year - a 27% increase on the previous year. However, Hammond's analysis suggests that the Agency often has no idea about when Sewage Treatment Works are spilling untreated waste.
  • The Environment Agency generally allows discharge from sewage works as long as the treatment works are treating sewage above a rate stipulated in its permit and it is during a period of rainfall or snow melt.
  • Hammond found more than 700 breaches of these conditions at 13 Thames Water Sewage Treatment Works over 3 years. Less than 5 per cent of these are in the Environment Agency's records, suggesting that it is missing 95 per cent of Thames Water's illegal spills. He has also shown that a huge number of treatment works do not have equipment monitoring spills.
  • Anglian Water has more than 1,100 Sewage Treatment Works but only 22 have a system to monitor the amount of sewage being treated. Of those, 21 do not have permits to release untreated effluent directly into rivers. The one works with a Sewage Treatment Meter and a permit to make storm discharge is at Canvey Island. However, a freedom of information request showed that the equipment that records sewage spills at this works failed 8 weeks after installation.

Poll: Are you happy to drink recycled sewage water from the River Thames? Thames Water has proposed this as one way of ensuring it can provide an adequate water supply for Londoners in the future. But could you stomach it?

Is any of this a good idea? "We could get 30% of it [river water] being from sewage, and it may end up being closer to 50% at times," says Dr Andrew Singer, a microbiologist at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. "If there is no further treatment of the sewage before they inject it into the rivers, that could have implications for things that live in the river. The drinking water facility would have to be aware that they are starting off with so much more sewage – the pharmaceuticals in sewage are quite resistant to breaking down, so they would have to work that much harder to make sure the drinking water doesn't have these chemicals in it. It's a problem that can be solved by throwing money at it. Whether the rivers are any better off for it, you can look at it two ways – the river will have more water in it, which is a good thing, but the water is going to be from sewage effluent and that's more of an unknown." from The Guardian, Friday 10 May 2013. Thames Water are testing public opinion. "The fact we're having this conversation a good 15 years before this would even happen is a good thing because people would get used to it," says Evans. "It's all about public perception, that's the main hurdle here." So it is likely to happen within the next 7 years. According to "Sewage dumped in rivers for months on end" article by The Times on Monday November 8 2021, there is already untreated sewage being dumped by the Water Companies in the Thames and other rivers as well as in the sea round our coast, so will we catch more diseases from the chemicals which have not been removed in converting this river water into drinking water for our taps, as they are worried about in that article?


Unbelievably, MPs recently voted to DROP a new amendment to the Environment Bill that would force water companies to stop raw sewage entering our waters. Thanks to campaigners led by Surfers Against Sewage, at the time of writing a huge tide of public pressure has ALMOST OVERTURNED THIS VOTE, in what would be one of the greatest wins for the protection of water quality ever. This (I hope) victory shows the power of public pressure, if we speak up for our natural world. You can learn more and find the latest news at sas.org.uk/EndSewagePollution-SewageBill." Monday 1st November 2021. riverford.co.uk.


My 2 suggestions:-

  • If the Environment Agency fined the Water Company a pound for the first offence and THEN DOUBLED THE FINE for each successive discharge with a week to pay the fine. These fines would start on 1 April 2022, to give time for the water companies to cure the problem. Non-payment within that time period, doubled the fine for each week not paid. This information about the discharge would be displayed on a Sewage Discharge website for the whole country to view and be able to see who the offenders were and when they paid. The payment would come from each of the workforce, including the directors and anyone else who was working for the firm at that time, and not from the firm. When the fine has passed the 100,000 pound mark, then the firm is taken over by the Environment Agency and then any discharges are stopped within 2 months. If after that , the infrastructure had not been sufficiently updated, then starting with the newest properties; they would not be able to use the sewage system to accept their waste, until the water company/Environment Agency had created the infrastructure for them to do so. The fines from the fined workforce would aid the cost of creating the updated infrastructure.
  • At the same time, the Environment Agency would employ photographers to photograph every property where it abutted public land (6.6 million people have turned some or all of their front garden into parking). When it was raining, if the rainwater overflowed from the property onto the public land, then the same fine system would apply to each of the owners of that property. Each week that the rainwater could then continue to overflow onto public land, then the same doubling of the fine would occur. These fines would start on 1 April 2022, to give time for the property owners to cure the problem.
    • It is unfortunate that buildings like new homes are built on slopes of clay, and that there is no system set in place for this rainwater not to run off the property onto other property, so many new housing estates would become insolvent within a month. The builders must correct the problem for their new estates by plants and Dry Attenuation Basins - "Detention basins are surface storage basins or facilities that provide flow control through attenuation of stormwater runoff. They also facilitate some settling of particulate pollutants. Detention basins are normally dry and in certain situations the land may also function as a recreational facility. However, basins can also be mixed, including both a permanently wet area for wildlife or treatment of the runoff and an area that is usually dry to cater for flood attenuation." from The Community for sustainable drainage, as specified on Medway Proposed New School Page.
    • This would also apply to each of the owners of land where the rainwater from the land/drive/patio was directed into the storm drain for the downpipes from the roof. Rainwater Drainage article at the start of Drive Foundations in Clay page shows what legislation came into effect on 1st October 2008 about not allowing the homeowner to discharge this rainwater onto the public road from his new drive. I have seen - this week - an entire front garden converted into a drive and the rainwater is directed into the storm drain for the front and side roof of the house and now the new drive with its surface drains alongside the house to the storm drain for the roof. Allowing for the regulation depth of 2 inches (5cms) for a rainwater soakaway, then more than 6 cubic metres of rainwater would flow from the drive into the stormdrain.
    • Both sets of rainwater would add to the rainwater from the roof and overload the stormdrain, causing possible flooding of houses lower down the hill and overwhelming the storm-drain system.
    • The other problem with the drive/patio area is that the rainwater cannot then enter the ground, filter through it and be used by the water company in the future (like filter through the chalk in Medway and then be pumped up from chalk aquifers), since it would appear that the storm-drain water goes into the river or directly to the sea and is then lost.
      The planned additional housing growth for
      Medway and Kent between 2011 and 2031 is an average delivery of 8,900 homes per year = 20 x 8,900 = 178,000 homes for a 2031 population of 2,127,600 - an increase of 396,300 from 2011, equivalent to 23% growth. Instead of using 131 litres of water per person per day, Southern Water would prefer us to use only 100 litres per person per day. New Houses are fitted with a pressure reducing valve to reduce the consumption to 110 litres per person per day at a cost to the builder of about £9 for the valve. If people used only 100 litres per person per day, then this would be a 23.66% reduction in the use, which could then be used up by the increase of 23% in the population. Then if we reduce the water consumption again, then we can supply the same total volume of water and receive more money for it. But, there is a problem, as you build more roads, homes and infrasture, then you reduce the area of ground, which can accept the rain and be collected to be used as drinking water. Therefore we will end up with too many people chasing too little water. Assuming that half the increase in the population will occur between 2021 and 2031, then an extra 198,150 people will require a doctor. Assuming 2000 patients per doctor, that will require an extra 99 doctors plus all the support staff. This increase of GPs would also be required in the other counties of Great Britain, which at only 111 new GPs arriving each year could be a problem.
    • So what will happen to the volume of rain over the country due to climate change?
    • "Around 5.2 million properties in England are at risk from flooding. The Environment Agency has said that if current planning outcomes continue, this number could double in the next 50 years. The Government has recently consulted on proposals to change England’s planning policies to better respond to flood risks. The House of Commons environment committee and the Royal Institute of British Architects have raised concerns over the Government’s current planning framework. " from UK Parliament House of Lords Library. If these properties get flooded, then it means that the rain that falls on their garden/drive areas will discharge onto public land and so they will get fined and possibly lose their homes if the flood lasts a few weeks before draining away. It does not help when homes are built on what used to be a water-cress farm, that normally floods each year, but the new owners may not know that.
      "New Homes planned for Flood-risk areas" article in The Times on Monday November 22 2021:-
      More than 5,000 homes are due to be built in some of the most flood-prone parts of the country ... found that 4,255 new homes had received planning permission in areas considered highly likely to flood, which is defined as a location with a 1-in-30 chance of flooding in any given year. ... In the aftermath of flash floods that devastated parts of London in July, experts have warned that residents are being left at risk by worsening climate change and pressure on local authorities to build thousands of new homes. Researchers analysed more than 16,000 planning applications between January and September and found planning permissions had been granted in local authority areas where more than 10 per cent of homes were at significant risk of flooding." As each new house is built within a village, town or city, then flooding of the lower part of that village becomes more and more likely.
    • Drive Foundations from Case Studies would provide solutions to the above for the owners of the property. Homes that get flooded would need to build a dam round their property to keep the floodwater out and their own rainwater in. This could provide a problem when using cars or if the home-owners are disabled and use wheelchairs or vehicles for the disabled.



Gas explosion from incorrectly installed home boiler

Gas boilers are being replaced in Kent, England with the return pipe being connected to the flow of the boiler instead of the return connection. This means that a single electrical circuit is checking for overheating of the boiler and switching it off until it cools down and then restarting it. Because of the incorrect flow the other sensors in the boiler cannot operate due to receiving the cooling return water than the just heated water from the boiler. My Gas Service Engineer informed me in June 2020 that he has found this in other client's homes and that they had refused to redress the situation.
All Flowers per Month Site Map Page for details of it being done to my house and my Gas Servicing Engineers not finding it until 5 years after its replacement. Interesting that some British Gas Engineers cannot replace Gas Boilers correctly and are not concerned that it then explode. When I enquired before to the manufacturers, I was told that a switch had been installed that if the boiler was incorrectly piped, then it would not work - this does not seem to be the case.



School children are being poisoned by nitrous dioxide from their parent's cars, where the UK Government Department of Education has approved the building of their school

Over 1100 school children will be poisoned by nitrous dioxide from their parent's cars, 4 new school buses and 4 new bus routes ending at the proposed new school; which will transport them in Medway. Running vehicle engines whilst stuck in a 300 yard radius queue from that traffic lights still produces air pollution. See Medway Proposed New School Page for how government is going to kill its population using the same method as used in German Concentration Camps against the Jews, together

with Medway and its adjacent councils are going to build an extra 5000 houses requiring another 2,773,500 litres of water PER DAY,

which require a new doctor for every 2100 people (2 adults + 2.2 children per house = 20,000 patients = 10 doctors. "In February 2020, to combat the stasis in GP workforce numbers, the Government announced a drive to recruit an additional 6,000 GPs by 2024. That’s 1200-1500 extra doctors in general practice per financial year by the end of 2024. But the British Medical Association says the number of fully qualified full-time equivalent GPs has
only increased by 111 in the last year.). Unfortunately with the increase in number of patients for each GP, currently 2100, each year is causing the GP's to leave, putting further stress on the remainder, who are also likely to leave, so that the whole system collapses. Having a Tory Government, then means that we will have to turn to private medicine and many of the population will not be able to pay for it, so the population will crash).

We do and will not have the doctors to treat the patients who get ill from the traffic pollution nor the water for them to drink (27 March 2021).




My email to Leigh Academy who are going to build a school in the field opposite my house was sent on 28 July 2019 - no reply within 10 days. A 200 house development was to be built, but its proposal was defeated; and now Medway Council chose Leigh Academy to build it in 2018 (without telling the residents) and the rubber-stamping exercise with the local residents is occuring in September by them attending a meeting with Leigh Academy, before the school will be built and operate in September 2020:-
Dear Sir/Madam,

From where you intend to build a school for over 1100 girls/boys between 11-18, you will need to pump the main waste and the storm waste up to the drains in Otterham Quay Lane. This is what would have had to happen to the 200 house scheme for this field. I would suggest that you have a secondary pump system with its own generator for the event where the primary pump fails. The effluent overflowing into the railway cutting alongside for the main rail line from London to Dover would not be popular.
Southern operates in the south-east of England, serving customers in Kent, Sussex, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. It has over 300 wastewater treatment sites and Ofwat said a "significant number" of these had had been affected by problems." from Southern Water punished over 'shocking' wastewater spills article by the BBC. It has polluted rivers in southern England over seven years from The Times. "An investigation by The Times this month revealed that pollutants in England's rivers are at their highest levels since modern testing began 20 years ago, with no river certified as safe for swimmers." from The Times newspaper published on 23 August 2019.

From the photo on your website leighacademyrainhamplans.co.uk indicating the land for the school, it would appear that you will have the school building near Otterham Quay Lane with its car park whose access would be close to the railway bridge of Otterham Quay Lane. I am almost 71. During the rush hour when children are being taken to school, I can walk from my house, (see map on table alongside) into Rainham and beat the traffic to Mierscourt Road between 7:45 and 9:00. The road outside is getting more gridlocked. If you add 500 cars delivering 2 kids to school and trying to get out twice a day, then it will increase air pollution to harm these growing children (the school would be built below the ground level of Otterham Quay Lane). Sunburst Magazine of August 2019 for St Margaret's Church in Rainham stated - "The current World Health Organisation guideline value for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is 40 (annual mean) and was set to protect the public from the health effects of gaseous NO2. In 2018 in Rainham it peaked at 47.8 and had an annual average of 41.8, which is likely to be a cause of asthma in children. Medway Council state that" There is a potential public health risk to residents who live close to, and travel regularly through, these areas.... there is a risk that, with the expected growth in population of 28,300 over the next 10 years and subsequent ongoing housing developments, an increased number of cars could contribute to the rise in air pollution across other areas in Medway." "In order to sort that out you need to switch the school car park, school building and playing grounds at 180 degrees and have the road access from Seymour Road to be alongside the railway cutting. That cannot now be done, since a new dwelling has now been built during January 2020 on that land by the Seymour Road. Seymour Road needs to be widened to become 2 lane with pavement instead of a traffic lane. Where it joins Canterbury Lane, then that Canterbury Lane needs to be widened to become a complete 2 lane road with pavement to Otterham Quay Lane. That would stop further congestion on Otterham Quay Lane and split the traffic into 2 extra roads joining the A2 - Seymour Road and Oak Lane.

There are 3 roads going East-West in the Medway Area. The M2, the A2 and Lower Rainham Road. If there is a problem on the M2 then Medway becomes gridlocked because the A2 is a series of traffic lights and if you wish to get to Rochester from Moor Street it is faster to go up to the M2 along it and down the other side of Rochester airport than to use the 4th side of the A2. If you want to use the Lower Rainham Road, then there is a long section of 20 mph, chicanes and speed ramps to destroy your suspension, so that also becomes a series of queues. Build a new dual carriageway north of the Lower Rainham Road between the 7 Sisters Roundabout and a new roundabout past Pump Lane. A new dual carriageway would provide better traffic flow and reduce the production of gaseous NO2 from stationary cars in traffic queues, since there are all those new houses built which currently use Otterham Quay Lane, 1250 new homes are to be built on the orchard off Pump Lane and building this new school.

If the school is to be community based, will there be a new Health Centre built on the grounds next to the school plot of land, together with a small shop/supermarket and cafe for kids lunches/parents waiting to pick up kids. The Health Centre opposite St Margarets Church in the middle of Rainham had 4 surgeries. One closed in January and it was difficult for the others to absorb their patients. My next door neighbours when they moved in 2 years ago tried to join one of those surgeries from another one where they lived before in Medway, they were unable to and are now selling their house. My wife and I are with one of those surgeries, but a) we are outside their area for accepting patients, b) they have no vacancies and c) some of their doctors retired in March this year, and they have not yet been able to replace all of them. So if you build the facility, will you able to staff it or will the children have no doctor?

There is a section on my Welcome page of
www.ivydenegardens.co.uk which does explain why we in the South East are not just running out of water
1) because of climate change dropping less rain in the South East as the years roll on, and
2) not just because during 2 months of 2017 Southern Water over abstracted water from the aquifers under the town of Medway lowering the water table yet again,
3) and not just because the 129 litres of water normally used by each resident within the Southern Water area is now being reduced to 110 litres of water engineered into new built house/school by building regulations approved by local councils without people realising it,
4) But Southern Water is only building one new reservoir in Havant and being told by the government to regulate the supply using management techniques - increase price of water to persuade people to use less. If we dropped average consumption to 100 litres a day, then 20 million extra people could get water and the water companies would get more money for the same amount of product, since their record of reducing loss of water in their pipe system is not working very well.

I could suggest a) a 10 feet wide minarette with espalier (stepover fruit trees for the wildlife) fruit-tree and wildflower meadow buffer which includes a path within it round the site, that could be used to give the students, staff and community their '20-minutes-a-day" minimum 'dose' of time to spend in nature to help improve their mental wellbeing, the outside boundary would be acoustic barriers to reduce train and traffic noise. b) replacing car park surface with a reinforced grass system etc, and c) use the new playing fields for sports use by the community outside school hours and by a bootfair once a month for the community, with the school providing its staffing.

What is the other half of the field going to be used for? Why not annex it to the school and use it:
a) to grow the fruit and vegetables for the school to keep
Moor Street Conservation Area a Rural Area
b) use part for allotments for community access with 1 being used by the school for educating the pupils
c) use part for a school community centre to discover the community's own social needs and then to meet them.
Yours sincerely,
Chris Garnons-Williams
1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, Moor Street, Rainham, Kent


P.S. Further comments in Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019, including email to Medway Hospital who are holding an Asthma Workshop on 26 September 2019 between 10:00 - 12:00.
The consultation with the population has taken place and the website https://leighacademyrainhamplans.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Rainham-Roller-Banners-850x2000mm@50-x8.pdf now contains more information. "The closing date to share your views ahead of submission of the plans is Monday 16th September 2019". Today is the 19 September 2019.
Besides my earlier views detailed above, here are a few more:-


1. The site layout is an updated version of the one shown before the 9th September 2019 with the school etc in the same position as before. It now has a proposed roundabout with drive linking it to the school car park. It is a shame that Medway Council totally ignored its own road research where cables are laid across the road and the type of vehicle with its speed is recorded over several days. This would have shown that during the morning when schools are having their pupils delivered between 08:00 and 09:00 that Otterham Quay Lane is gridlocked as is the A2 that it leads onto. Assuming that the proposed 4 school buses could actually get round it, one would have to assume that 40 ton lorries could as well. This will cause traffic hold-ups at the roundabout with their running and polluting engines to enhance asthma in the children. Also there is little distance between this roundabout and the traffic lights at the end of Otterham Quay Lane - 100 yards, so this roundabout is also going to get gridlocked especially when you consider the extra traffic that is going to be getting on these roads from the proposed extra houses in a later point.
2. This school is still going to be lower than the public sewer drain in Otterham Quay Lane; so where is the pump to pump the sewage to a public main drain and another to pump the rainwater to a public storm drain?
3. The CGI of proposed sports hall and car parking shows tarmaced drive and concrete slabbed car parking. Why not replace car park surface with a reinforced grass system?
4. "The school catchment area is expected to be small, with the majority of students (84%) traveling less than 4km to the school". All the pupils will have to travel up or down Otterham Quay Lane to get to and from school. Many will also travel along the Lower Rainham Road, which has no pavement from Station Road to Otterham Quay Lane - that section is also narrow and so cyclists may well be knocked off their bicycles.
The legend below the diagram showing school catchment area states committed developments of 300, 90 and 121 within the school catchment area and planning application submitted for 202 and 90 residential units.
5. On the Transport plan of Proposed buses, there will be 4 new buses going along the A2 via Mierscourt Road junction with the A2 to Otterham Quay Lane and turning round the roundabout to get back onto their return routes. These will also further clog the 2 roads of the A2 and Otterham Quay Lane to the extent that during rush hour, it will be quicker to walk than take the bus and the extra pollution is going to be horrific. Combine these buses with the parent's cars and even if there was no other traffic at all, getting to and from school where it is currently proposed would be an absolute nightmare.
6. Looking at the Internal Layout Level 00 I could not see a lift, that could be used to lift disabled children to each floor or to take heavy equipment up or down floors.
7. In the Internal Layout, the number of WCs for female students is the same as for male. Female students need to sit for both functions, whereas the male does not for 1 of them, so if there is the same number of female to male students, then female students need twice the number of WCs that males require. This is especially true if only 3 male and 3 female WC's are available from the Sports Hall if that is where community socialising is to take place, while locking off the rest of the school for security reasons.
8. From the Transport maps, it does not appear as if any change will be made to the road infrastructure besides the roundabout outside the school. This is going to be an environmental disaster with so many extra houses and this school. Is Medway concerned that currently being over the safety limit for Air Pollution, that this entire design of new residential units and this school is only going to make it worse?



Totally unsafe electrical work from NAPIT registered installer

We wrote the
Manderson emails to us about re-wire;
concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with NAPIT; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from NAPIT; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
It is sad to see that the modern British Workman is prepared to create such a dangerous situation, lie about their work and steal money from the client when obviously they have re-used some of the old wiring and some of the old fittings as well in doing a rewire, but charged for those as if they were new ones in their rewire.
And they know that Nipid requires the client to re-use the same people to put the situation right, so no problem for the electrical contractor from Napit. So, with the support of Napit why not carry on and upset the client.
If the client complains, they state that is work in progress, even though we have paid for it.
In the case of no insulation behind the new stud walls; sorry sir, we will put it there; so they arrive with the insulation, spend time in the room and then when no -one is looking remove the insulation from the property without putting it into the area specified, leaving the new wiring behind the stud wall with no protection from the rodents because their is no Codex round it and no insulation either, but we still get charged for it.
10 lists 18 electrical
faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021, (the electricians testing 2 of the double power sockets installed in the kitchen in 1987 found that they were polarity reversed. This risks a short circuit, shock or fire. They corrected the problem immediately),
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended



Lack of drinking water in Southern Water by 2030.


Drinking Water deprivation in Medway, England

"Terror - Extreme fear; person or thing causing this;
Reign of terror - time in which community lives in dread of death or outrage" from Volume 2 M-Z of The Reader's Digest Great Encylopaedic Dictionary.
Drinking water deprivation in Medway, England. No tap water for 30,000 out of 45,000 newly built houses by 2035. In compensation for the additional water requirement; too much water will be taken from the chalk aquifers and this will lead to no water left in the aquifer for any Medway resident.
Too much water has also been abstracted from underground in India.

Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.

"Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from Southern Water.

Medway has a population of 274,015 in 2014.

More than 10,200 homes will be built within the next 20 years. Assuming 2 adults and 2.2 chidren per home, then there will be an increase of 42840 people which is an extra 15.63%. This assumes that the remaining 274,015 people do not have more children or get married/partnered and bring further people into Medway.

Southern Water are allowing for 15% population growth and therefore any extra growth in Medway area over that will not have water. Southern water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers. If you continue to overabstract then you run out of water. There is less water going into the chalk from the rain since more and more households in Medway pave over their front gardens and use them as car parks, so there is going to be less rain in the chalk aquifers as more of the open land is built on to hold these houses. The rain from the house drives gets into the storm drain. Most storm drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge (often covered by a grating) into a canal, river, lake, reservoir, sea or ocean.

Souther Water is building a Havant Reservoir in Hampshire which is many miles from Medway, so will they then pipe that water at least 100 miles to Medway?

Medway is not the only area in Kent, Surrey, Sussex or Hampshire where the UK goverment is requesting that many more houses be built.

"Peak Water": how to invest in a world that's drying up by MoneyWeek, shows that the world is running out of water. A solution to this is required by 2019 before more than another billon people lack access to water, with residents of Medway joining them.

According to information concerning water in a local paper given out in buses running in Medway on 22 March 2019, there will be an increase of 100,000 in the population per year within the area of Southern England serviced by Southern Water. Since Southern Water are only building 1 reservoir in Havant, some people within Southern England are not going to have water within only a very few years - this will affect students since thay inflate the population during term and disappear in the holidays. In Medway we are now short of doctors, dentists, schools, surgeries and infrastucture like roads to service these new estates.

Medway regeneration includes the following objective:

"The development of around 30,000 new homes at major new developments such as Rochester Riverside and Chatham Waterfront by 2035" - this includes the 10,200 detailed above. So if we subtract that 10,200, we are left with 19,800 homes plus the students who move into the area each term time for the 3 universities resident within Medway, who will have no water to drink or wash in, cook with, etc.
No need to worry that those new homes will also prevent rainwater from entering the ground within most of their ground area, thus reducing the volume of rainwater that reach the aquifers even further.


The Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs produced the following Water Conservation Report. Action taken and planned by government to encourage the conservation of water. December 2018:-

"We know that by the 2050s summer temperatures are likely to increase while summer rainfall decreases, leading to increased risks of short-duration droughts. The population in England is forecast to grow by over 10 million people over the same period, with a large part of this growth occurring in areas where water is already scarce."
"To maintain the current level of resilience, at least 3,300 million litre per day of additional capacity in the water supply system is required by 2050. The report suggested that this should come from one third supply-side measures and two thirds demand management measures. On demand management measures, the report recommends halving leakage by 2050, and enabling companies to implement metering beyond water stressed areas by the 2030s. In some parts of the country the volume of water taken from the environment is damaging our ecosystems. The Water Industry National Environment Programme estimates that water company abstraction volumes need to be cut by over 700 million litres per day (Ml/d) to address environmental problems. Reducing the amount of water customers use helps to reduce the amount of water that water companies need to abstract from rivers, lakes and groundwater, thereby helping to mitigate damage to ecosystems."
Southern Water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers (as detailed above).
"Reducing the amount of water we consume and waste could make a significant difference to water availability for people and the environment. For example if we were to reduce leakage by 50% and reduce per capita consumption to 100 litres per person per day we could provide enough water for more than an additional 20 million people by 2050, without taking more from the environment. In many cases efficiency can be achieved at little cost to developers. Requiring all developers to build to the lower standard of 110 litres per person per day would only cost a maximum of £9 additional per dwelling.
Southern Water water leakage in average litres per property per day was 75, 77, 80 and 80 between 2014 and 2018.
Around 22% of water currently put into supply is lost through leakage; this equates to approximately 3 billion litres of water per day. While leakage had fallen by a third since privatisation, since 2014 water companies have made little progrees in reducing leakage.
Southern Water per capita consumption in average litres per person per day in recent years is 141, 135, 130, 131, 129. Per capita consumption is a key measure for how efficiently we are using water. In 2017/18 England each person used 141 litres of water per day on average.
Although per capita consumption has fallen since 1999, however in recent years progress has flatlined. On average metered customers use around 33 litres less water than unmetered customers. Currently just over half of households in England pay for the water they use by metered charging.

On leakage, the government has fully supported Ofwat's challenge to water companies to reduce leakage by at least 15% by 2025. Water cmpanies are proposing an average leakage reduction of 16% by 2025. The water industry has also committed to reducing leakage by 50% by 2050 at the latest. This would reduce overall leakage to 10% of supply. Southern Water leaked 88 Million Litres per day in 2017-18 and aims to reduce leakage by 15% by 2025. Southern Water has committed to a target of 100 litres per person per day by 2040. Companies in an area designated as an area of serious water stress must consider universal metering, whereby they are able to charge all customers by metered volume, as part of their planning process" (so presumably if a property uses more 100 litres per person per day by 2040, then the extra water will cost more; to persuade them to use less).
"2015 - Update to the building standards: The goverment set an additional higher standard for domestic water usage in building regulations, in addition to the existing minimum standard of 125 litres per person per day. The higher standard set at 110 litres per person per day. Where there is a clear local need, local planning authorities can set out local plan policies requiring new dwellings to meet the tighter building regulations optional requirement of 110 litres per person per day. In 2017 the Environment Agency estimated that about 80/324 (25%) of local authorities have adopted the tighter standard for water use. The majority of these are in the south east. This means that people that live in newly built homes should typically use about 30 litres less water per day than those in existing housing stock" (
Southern Water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers (as detailed above). That being the case, where is the water for the people in the new houses that are being built in the Medway area? perhaps charges to the existing customers will reduce their usage so that what they no longer use can be used by the new people?).

"The building regulations for water efficiency are instrinsically linked to reducing per capita consumption." This means that you allow less water per person, you can then supply more people with water, so you can build more houses and keep up the cycle by further reducing the amount of water each person in the drought ridden area can use per day.
"Currently around 25% of all leakage is from customers' supply pipes. Supply pipes are the pipes that carry water from company pipework into a property. Supply pipes run from the boundary of the property (where there may be a company stop-tap) up until the first water fitting or stop-tap inside the property. The maintenance and upkeep of these pipes, including leak detection, is currently the responsibility of homeowners. Customer supply pipe leakage is included in the overall leakage calculation." How do customers find out if there is a leak in their supply pipe?

"2018- National policy statement for water resources infrastructure. The national policy statement presents the evidence base and identifies how new strategic infrastructure contributes towards meeting government objectives. New water resources will also be needed meaning that new large infrastructure such as reservoirs or water transfers will be part of the solution. Southern Water are building a new reservoir in Havant - will that supply the extra water required for all the new houses being built in the South East?



A land warfare conference heard that at Russian rates of fire the UK MILTARY WOULD RUN OUT OF ARTILLERY SHELLS IN JUST 2 DAYS.

Written by Edward Lucas on the Comment Page of The Times of July 4 2022 -
"Every soldier's nightmare is looming for Britain's armed forces in the event of a war with Russia. The details are rightly secret (though probably not to the Russians). But the big picture is bleak and clear: Britain lacks the kit for its main military task. Ben Hodges, a retired general who commanded US forces in Europe, told MPs that the British Army got through "every bit of important ammunition" in about 8 days during last year's Warfire exercise. A land warfare onference last week heard that at Russian rates of fire we would run out of artillery hells in just 2 days.
Geography heightens the danger. The most likely war British soldiers face now is in Estonia, a 24-hour, 1,500-mile journey. Our ability to mov large quantities of equipment and supplies across such distance is untested even in peacetime. When our conventional munitions run out, only the overstretched Americans, or nuclear weapons, stand between us and defeat. If Russia can survive the first week, it wins.
Our plight stems from shocking complacency. Britain last conducted a large armoured exercise, in Oman in 2001. The problems it revealed in reliability of equipment and the availability of spare parts, fuel and other supplies have in many cases worsened.
In November, Boris Johnson, with stunningly misplaced confidence, told MPs that the era of big tank battles in Europe was over.
Vladimir Putin did not get that memo. His approach may not be modern. But it is effective. In Syria, he flattened the regime's opponents with relentless bombardment. Now he is doing the same in eastern Ukraine. If Russia thinks Nato's deterrence is flimsy, the Baltic states may be next: not at once, but dangerously soon.
Ukrainian casualties - 18,000 killed or wounded - are larger than our fast-shrinking army's entire infantry. True, are armed forces are far better equipped: Britain has some of the best weapons platforms in the world. But even the most advance tank, warplane or naval vessel is no use if it is missing vital spare parts, has run out of fuel, lacks crew members - or nothing to shoot with.
Helping Ukraine makes political and strategic sense: our freedom and security are at stake there. But it runs down skinny stockpiles further. And it heightens the need for hard, speedy choices about rebuilding our own capabilities before the Kremlin turns elsewhere.
Money alone will not help us move from just-in-time to just-in-case. Production lines are at full stretch. Bottlenecks abound. Lead times are long. Some sub-components come from China.

London close to running out of water, singer says.

Article written by John Reynolds on News for The Times Monday July 4 2022 -
"London is becoming "perilously close to running out of drinking water", Feargal Sharkey, the singer turned pollution campaigner, has warned.
Sharkey, 63, also a former music industry executive, says that the next big issue on the agenda is water shortages, with supplies in London and the south east coming under extreme pressure from a growing population and over-abstraction from chalk aquifers. (London repeatedly gets some water from its River Thames - which as reported at the top of this section with its wet background - is polluted with raw sewage).
London, he said, faces becoming one of the world's most water-stressed cities. A 2017 report by the London Resilience Forum and Thames Water cautioned that drought as a "real and present threat to the capital".
The National Audit Office has also warned that "if more concerted action is not taken now, parts of the south and south east of England will run out of water within the next 20 years.".
Sharkey has had meetings with executives from the water firms, where he is "greeted with groups of people just staring very hard at their notepads, desperately trying not to make eye contact"."

If Russia waits a little while, then the native population of 25 million will have left parts of the south and south east of England when it runs out water within the next 20 years (Since Southern Water published a graph showing for 2 months during 2017, that they had over-abstracted water from the aquifers in Medway's chalk hills, Medway has continued to build thousands of flats and houses. Is this why Southern Water has not published another graph indicating that it is now over-abstracting from those chalk aquifers every month. The percentage of rain that falls on Medway that goes into the ground and then the chalk hills, is reducing due to the new buildings and the paving over of front gardens of new and old homes in Medway. This means that we are likely to run out of any water from any aquifers very soon.).





Welcome - Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

About Chris
Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my

Mission Purpose * - Mission Statement,

Contact Chris
Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,

About Ivydene Horticultural Services - Work Details,

Website Design History - Website Design History and

Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.

Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map



Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.


Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.
Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality -
See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019



Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since NAPIT requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the
concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
...F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
...L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
...R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........Flower Shape
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.