Ivydene Gardens Home: About Ivydene Horticultural Services

Chris Garnons-Williams of IVYDENE HORTICULTURAL SERVICES designs, constructs and maintains private gardens. He can also teach you how to garden or advise you what to do in your own garden.

Due to under-work and ill-health in March 2013, management have decided to retire:-
On 17 March 2013, I attended Medway Hospital whilst coughing up blood from my lungs. Tests were carried out and I left the following day with medication for:-

  • a) atrial fibrillation,
  • b) impaired left ventricular function,
  • c) lower respiratory tract infection to add to
  • d) prolactin-secreting macroadenoma of the pituary diagnosed in April 2001.
     

A businessman stated that his company was responsible for the IT system that Noah used in getting the animals onto his ark in a 1 minute speech at a Business Network International breakfast meeting. I responded the following week, that Ivydene Horticultural Services had provided these instructions to the animals from Genesis Chapters 8 and 9 using his IT System:-

  • I
    Voice
    Yahveh’s
    Decision.
    Emigrate.
    Noah
    Embarks
  • .
  • Houseboat
    Only
    Rather
    Than
    Issue
    Couples
    Umbrellas.
    Lengthy
    Time
    Under
    Rain
    Always
    Leaves
  • .
  • Stomach
    Empty.
    Rejoice.
    Vine
    Is
    Certain
    Every
    Sabbath ( of the seventh month, when the ark shall come to rest on the mountains of Ararat ).

Unfortunately, it came to pass that the Welsh (my forebears) banned alcohol on the Sabbath, so I have had to change the message sent by his IT System to the following:-


  • I am the only employee.
    Vegetable, Fruit, Flower and Shrub garden work.
    Year-round regular construction and/or maintenance.
    Design whole gardens, single beds or drives using CAD.
    Existing clients living abroad, UK garden work
    executed.
    New ponds/patios/decks/retaining walls built &
    maintained.
    Electrical/Drainage/Water garden systems erected.
  • .
  • HDRA, Brogdale, RHS, Society of Garden Designers member.
    Only tend to use my machinery. Stock delivered
    on-site.
    Replace fences, drains, mains-water pipes and roofs.
    Training to me from above organisations.
    Irrigation systems created using Leaky-Pipe.
    Chicken/Other livestock maintenance has been done.
    Underneath new drives/paths install Type I Mot
    Roadstone Foundation
    Lawn cutting, scarifying, tining and edge construction.
    Tree and other plants selection and planting.
    Under-planting of trees/shrubs with groundcover & bulbs.
    Regular workday per 1,2,3 or 4 week period per
    client.
    Assistance by client, their friends and family reduces labour cost.
    Library of 700 garden books & 60,000 plant photos.
  • .
  • Sheds erected, repaired, painted and/or designed.
    Enjoy creating ground-cover plant database.
    Research into your garden problems for answers.
    Vine-eye/wire climbing plant support systems.
    Inform/teach clients about gardening.
    Climbing plant installation and maintenance.
    Enable dataflow by www.ivydenegardens.co.uk.
    Shrub and Tree pruning, shredding and mulching.

for current use with the following Labour rate for working in Kent, England:-

  • design,
  • construction,
  • maintenance,
  • teaching you how to garden in your own garden or
  • advising you about your garden in your own garden

at £12 an hour or £96 an 8 hour day. Minimum Labour Charge of £30.

£0.30 a mile from my home to you and back to my home travel charge per period worked at your property.

50% markup on goods/services to pay for my expertise in its selection, fitness for purpose and quantity required.

If the cost of the work to be done exceeds £35, then the following letter will be completed with you during the first Site visit:-

Ivydene Horticultural Services,
1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages,
Moor Street,
Rainham,
Kent. ME8 8QE

Job Number: IVY.........

Dear …….........................................................

Thank you for asking me to provide and estimate/undertake work in your garden. I confirm that you require ....................................................
...............................................................
...............................................................
...............................................................
..............................................................
at ...........................................................
..............................................................
................................................

 At this site visit, we have agreed that I will start this work on……………............................................. The charges will be £12 per hour (minimum charge £30) for labour only, including time taken for planning, surveying the site or collecting materials. All materials, including fuel for
machinery will be extra to this. My travel cost at £0.30 per mile to and from my business address will be
£............ per work visit.

 By virtue of the Cancellation of Contracts made in a
Consumer’s Home or Place of Work Regulations 2008, I am required to inform you that you have the right to cancel the agreement we have made within 7 days. You must do this in writing. My email address is chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk. 

If you wish work to be started within 7 days from today,
I must have confirmation in writing from you that you waive your rights under the above regulations.
Date of Client’s Signature waiving his/her rights under the above regulations .......................................

EITHER

1. Cancellation of Work
Please contact me either by leaving a message by telephone to 01634 389677 or an email before .................................................................,
quoting the job number at the top of this letter and
confirming that you wish to cancel the work.

OR 

2. Confirmation of Work
Please contact me either by leaving a message by telephone to 01634 389677 or an email after ......................................................, quoting the job number at the top of this letter and confirming that you wish me to proceed with the work. I will then make any necessary preparations, including further planning or the purchase of materials, which you will be liable to pay for, whether or not the job is completed.

I look forward to working with you.

Yours sincerely,

Site Visit - Chris Garnons-Williams signature ...........................
Site Visit - Clients’ signature ...................................................
Site Visit - Date of Signatures ..................................................

If I have only received confirmation by telephone, then until the following is signed, no work will be carried out:-
Client’s Signature confirming that you wish me to proceed
with the work ..............................................
Date of Client’s Signature before starting the work .......................................................

If the work requires Design (See Figure 1 of Case Study 3, for minimal design requirements and Figures 1 and 4 of Case Study 4 for major design requirements including Case Study 4 - planting designs) then the next Site Visit after the 7 days cancellation notice has expired will discuss that requirement and a site survey will be carried out before an Overall Design Plan is produced for a later Site Visit. Payment will be required for the Site Survey, the time taken to create the Overall Design and the Overall Design Plan. Once the Overall Design is approved, then further detailed plans and costings of Materials/Labour Time from those plans will be done. Each costing will be agreed before work on site is started.

Otherwise if no Design is required, the Materials/Skip or other External Costs will be agreed before work on site is started.

Notes:-

1. You may say that you want to use someone who has the training, experience and knowledge to maintain your garden, but that is not always what is actioned in whom you choose:-

A lady phoned me and pointed out that she had employed a gardener who she had to tell which plant was a weed and which a plant that she wanted to keep; and that she wanted someone who knew how to maintain her garden. I suggested that she looked at this website to show her that I knew something about gardening. I never heard from her again.
If you see a dentist, you expect them to know more about their business than you do and that is what you use them for but you do not seem to want to use the experience and knowledge of a gardener trained to National Certificate in Horticulture Level and over 18 years experience in practising organic gardening methodology in client gardens.

 

2. If you agree to employ me, then I normally state when I am going to come and start. If it is raining when I arrive, then I see you and state that I do not normally start work in the rain, so we make an arrangement for when I next come, before I leave the site.

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Ivydene
Horticultural
Services

As an Organic Gardener, I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I can also advise and teach you in your own garden.


chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk
 

 

greatsundeweatingafly1a

Great Sundew eating a Fly

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.

"

More Details

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

apoacher1

Closed Bud

apoacher2

Opening Bud

apoacher3

Juvenile Flower

apoacher4

Older Juvenile Flower

apoacher5

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

apoacher6

Mature Flower

apoacher7

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

apoacher8

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

OTHER
TABLE 4

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira:
Photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira
taken in February 2022.


Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the
original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools,
or at home.

 

 

John Harlow took this photo of London from Stockbury in Kent showing the permanent air pollution cloud over London on 17 January 2023 at 12:37 (It was taken on an iPhone 11 Pro and it will not be displayed until all the succeeding large photos in this table have been shown).

 

  • Their research found that in 2019, toxic air contributed to the premature deaths of around 4,000 Londoners. This includes deaths from all causes, including respiratory, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Like smoking, air pollution is seen as a contributory factor, so is rarely listed on death certificates. The current ULEZ in central and inner London is projected to help avoid one million air pollution-related hospital admissions and save the NHS and social care sector £5bn by 2050. 
  • The Ultra Low Emission Zone is aimed to help clear London's air - and it has been expanded across all London boroughs on 29 August 2023.
  • I wonder if that will make much difference to this view of the blue pollution haze with its brown smog above it?

 

IMG1989

 

reduced size of above photo

reducedstockburyviewofpollutionoverlondon

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

IMG0001

Item is
IMG 0001.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack1garnonswilliams

At least 40% of the horizontal area of this tree trunk has rotted, before this tree was
cut down in February 2022. The rot has occurred of most of the heartwood together
with all the central nervous system in this rotted trunk section. This hole in the trunk leading to
this rotted area has been there for many years as you can see from the tree growth rings,
where this was pushed in breaking through the bark and the softwood to the heartwood inside.
A minor safety issue for a government employed civil engineer is
that you can see that

the rotting process has been visible to the naked eye of the inside
of this trunk FOR MANY YEARS,

and yet nobody has done anything during that time except wait
for it to fall, kill people and then bemoan the fact that they did not
know why this has occurred - see article in my page
Continuation of Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal,
Maderia,
which shows why this tree fell, and killed people who
happenned to be in its fall down.
The population of Madeira love to play Russian Roulette every time
they pass a tree, and the tourists are unaware of that danger as
they pass the same trees ANYWHERE ON MADEIRA OR PORTUGAL.

The central nervous system of this tree which goes up the trunk and branches off to
potential branches and actual branches is used by the tree to manage itself -

  • if a series of caterpillars start to eat its leaves, then it come with an antitode
    as perhaps a bitter taste or poison and this tends to prevent these caterpillars
    in the future
  • if it gets windy, then the trunk and its main branches are strengthened by
    additional growth sideways to prevent them from breaking
  • if a branch or the top of the trunk is broken off, then one or more of the
    dormant branches will be activated to grow to recover the process and
    rebalance the tree, etc,etc,etc...

Unfortunately, when this central nervous system is destroyed, then there is no way that the
entire tree can manage itself and resolve problems. This tree has become a watershoot
and instead of the watershoot developing its own central nervous system, the one on this
tree has been destroyed at ground level and its nerves above the destruction will have
no place to send the signals. Because of this trunk becoming a watershoot without a
functioning central nervous system, then that could explain why the other same species
of tree in this road that had their main branches tipped during the last 2 years had allowed the tips
to absorb the dew (which absorbed the salt spray from the ocean) on the cut ends and thus
kill off the leaves turning them brown. The signals sent by the main branches had nowhere to
go; thus no response could be made by the tree against this attack. See IMG 0013 photo
text down below about salt in sand and its effect on trees.
See Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal,
Madera to understand why this makes this tree extremely dangerous to the local
population, who then decide to climb all over it and attach lights to it 2 or 3 times a year,
then climb up and take the light system off and tear off fresh new branches in the process.

Every time any tree has a branch cut off or the branch damaged by wind, etc, then due
to the complete non-maintenace program by humans, the wound will rot and the tree
will rot away and fall down. This can also occur when new trees are planted and they
have crossing branches, then the branches will either split apart from the trunk or rub
against each other and expose the heartwood and then the rot will set in again. See
Crossing Branches in trees in Funchal, Madeira page.

 

"This is the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow
College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a
Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case
of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical
strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air
and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The
cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as
possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly
a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which
may alight on the cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it
is quite easily forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is
involved. All cuts over 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young
specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period
without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests -
in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they
are reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these
preparations, however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing
has been completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary
to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications,
although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural
to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the
surface of a large wound as it dries out. These need to be filled in as they open and the
surface covered with further applications of a wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be
the most up to date version
), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I
switched to Black External Masonry Paint (this Bedec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently
seems to be a very good one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.

Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-
"Cavities
These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that
degenerative processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into
the parent branch or trunk by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues
the whole snag becomes rotten and may hold considerable moisture which encourages
further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete healing and the resultant callus forms
a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots away completely. When this
happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,and this encourages
further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......

q9cavitiesgarnonswilliams1

Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in
time, if allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be
making light of the situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and
decay is often more extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay
is usually most rapid in the softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting
below the cavity is of course natural, for water often collects in the hollow, either as a
result of rain or because of the seepage of sap from neighbouring living tissues. Once
moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a progressive increase in the
activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very rapidly if there are
other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join up with
each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to
leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent
to the area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the
hollow trunk is left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a
drastic shortening of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and
the health of the tree deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers.

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-
"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is
to a certain extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated
by the terminal bud. This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near
the base often do not develop but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for
many years, perhaps throughout the life of the tree. However, should a break or a
pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these lower buds may develop and grow out.
It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace with the developing stem over the
years, ready to break out should the need arise."" from Monitoring of trees in Funchal Page 1.

 


Madeira seems to adopt the system - as you can verify by looking at some of the other
over 400 photos that I have inserted into this website - of either ignoring the rotting process
altogether - or by placing a metal grid over the hole to prevent rubbish being thrown into it -
and then later on a cigarette of a lit match sets the rubbish alight and burns the inside of the trunk.

I have reported that the government of Madeira managed to get one of the the 6 tree
experts from Portugal to come and report on these trees in the pavement. Identity tags
were fixed to the trees from that September and I saw them in January the following year.
I did not see any evidence that anything had been done to save those trees. Now in February
2022, I see this tree stump and now understand what the taxi-drivers outside the Forum
told me - these trees are inspected and then passed as safe presumably by the use of a machine
to measure the density of the trunk. So if the density is insufficient, then the tree is cut down.
This is ignoring the visible evidence of the rot within the trunk which can be seen and totally
ignoring the actual state of the tree. The heartwood of a tree is what keeps it standing up and
if the majority of that is destroyed, then the tree is likely to fall. This and many others in the
pavements have been allowed to rot for many years. In the table on the left, you can see the
bijou residence for a worker in the Forum where a great deal of the centre of this tree trunk's
heartwood and all its central nervous system in that section has rotted away - and it has been
allowed to rot further during the last 2 years and is currently included in a refurbushed pavement.
As tourists we are extremely grateful to the government of Funchal in providing trees that can
fall down at any time along any road in Madeira due to the complete misunderstanding in
Madeira for pedestrian safety and total lack of tree maintenance for the health of the tree.
Lighting engineers climbing these trees and putting electrical lighting systems on them -
or off them - damage the trees when fixing them to the tree and the cables between those trees.

Perhaps if this 1 tree expert from the 6 tree experts in Portugal used TreeRadar; that
he could see the true health of every one of the more than 4000 trees that he had
investigated between arriving in September and me looking at the tree idendity discs in
the following January. "Much like an MRI solves a critical medical need for very
high-resolution, non-invasive imaging of the body, the Tree Radar Unit (TRU™) radar
imaging system creates the same type of high-resolution, non-invasive image of the
internal structure of a tree and its root mass." from TreeRadar. This would show him
that not only is the tree trunk rotten, but that its roots are too thin as well - as
shown in IMG 0004 below.
These thin roots cannot be the laterals - Horizontally growing side shoots (laterals)
form at an early age and soon become largely responsible for structural support.
Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming
the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are
usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more
in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches)
distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage
they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend
to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper',
lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable
further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch).
They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although
most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be
2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.
They are probably 'Feeder' roots - Roots branching from the upper side of laterals
grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated,
to form fans or mats of thousands of fine (<2mm diameter) non-woody 'absorbing'
or 'feeder' roots.
Feeder roots are not strong enough to support its own tree and these trees did not have any
water, oxygen or access to the air above for root food (compost, manure, or chemical
fertiliser) and waste gases.

Photos in the Evergreen Trees Gallery Site Map Page show what I did to save a very old yew
tree in my local churchyard more than 10 years ago. That tree is healthier and is currently
growing well during 2022 - it's crown is many metres in diameter.
Any tree can be saved - a hollow tree in a client's garden could be pushed over by
me. Instead, I carried out the same procedure of expanding foam and bottles to fill the
hole in the trunk as for the yew tree above. A year later that tree was firmer and did not
move as much as it did when I had pushed it a year previously. In other words, the
growth ring had occured and a previous growth ring had been lignified in turning it into
heartwood without that year's growth being rotted away.

 

IMG0003

Item is
IMG 0003.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack2garnonswilliams

It is great to see how close the traffic came to this tree.

IMG0004

Item is
IMG 004.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack3garnonswilliams

Further along this stretch of pavement, this is the stump or stumps of the same height
and type of trees that are as shown on the left of the photo. The road is being restricted in width
and the extra space is going to have a 2 way bicycle lane inserted. I asked the workers doing
the work why the trees were being cut down and was directed to talk to the management team
having a discussion nearby. One of the team was a civil engineer and she pointed out that the
trees were damaging the concrete retaining wall in the background.

You may note that there is part of the trunk, which is mosly rotten, with a very narrow part on
the left at the bottom of this trunk where the heartwood has not yet rotted.
To the right of that rotten trunk, you can visualze some very thin roots, which would not hold
up a tree of this size.
Below these roots you can see a branch attached to a different part of the trunk, which is also
rotting.
As tourists, we are grateful to the Funchal government for letting us either walk alongside these
rotten trees or be driven past them in buses or taxis anywhere on the island.

IMG0006

Item is
IMG 0006.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

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A view - from that dump of cut down tree in the previous photo - towards The Forum.
There used to be tall old trees in this ripped up pavement.
You may well find the photos taken of the trees that were in this section in previous years
in the other pages of this Home topic and
within these others like pages 26 and 27:-

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Photos 6 and 7 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 show a tree in a pavement
with 70% of its heartwood rotted away from the earth to the base of the Forked Leader
of the trunk as it splits to form another trunk going up. See Forked Leader in Photo 4
in Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page to see why this
section of the trunk had been cut away before; but never had its wound dressed
to prevent this rotting process. It does not warm the cockles of my heart to see the attitude
of the population of Madeira in creating this Russian Roulette situation, which could
kill many people as this tree falls, especially if it falls on a moving bus or a loaded lorry
that then moves off the road and through the concrete retaining wall on the left.
 

IMG0009

Item is
IMG 0009.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack5garnonswilliams

Completed new pavement and viewing back to the standing tree on the left in photo
IMG 0004.JPG above.

IMG0013

Item is
IMG 0013.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack6garnonswilliams

Black sand being laid as the base for the new concrete pavers as the top surface of the pavement.
Madeira does have black sand on Seixal Beach where the sea runs over it.
I wonder if the sand has been washed before being laid; since salt is not appreciated by tree roots.
Being Beach Sand, it is moved around a lot by the sea, and is called a soft black sand,
which probably means that is has become like builders sand which is spherical and like ball-bearings.
This means that combined with water that it tends to wash away, whereas sharp sand being
jagged - like pyramids - is not washed away when wet. It tends to go together and form a more
solid surface. Standing on wet builders sand, you tend to sink to the bottom of the sand.
Standing on wet sharp sand does support you with little slumping and this why it used in
this situation - See Drive Foundations page.

"The trees' roots also end up absorbing the salt. In cases like this, it takes a longer time for the salt
to accumulate in the trees' bodies, but it can still result in killing a tree with salt. When they enter
the plant through the roots, the sodium ions in the salt will block magnesium and potassium,
which the plants use to create chlorophyll. According to the Muskoka Watershed Council,
around 5.5 million tons of salt get released into the environment each year in Canada alone."
from How to Spread Salt on the Ground to kill small Trees by Home Guides.
That could explain why many of these trees between the Forum and the Lido have now got brown leaves
over the last 2 years. Has the black sand been used in the new section of bicycle lane between the 2 or
is it simply the tipping of many of the branches that has allowed the salt in; which is within the
seawater being blown in from the beach? Why does Madeira not like plants?
 

IMG0014

Item is
IMG 0014.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack7garnonswilliams

In the table on the left, you can see the bijou residence for a worker in the Forum
where a great deal of the centre of this tree trunk has rotted - and it has been allowed to
rot further during the last 2 years and is currently included in a refurbushed pavement.

The central nervous system of this tree besides the majority of the heartwood has rotted
away years ago and still the government are quite happy to allow many tons of tree to be
above this.
"E: Heartwood is the central, supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or
lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers
bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. A
piece 12” long and 1” by 2” in cross section set vertically can support a weight of
twenty tons!
D: Sapwood is the tree's pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood.
As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to
heartwood." from Anatomy of a tree by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
When most of the Heartwood has rotted away IN ANY PORTION OF A TRUNK OR BRANCH, THEN
YOU ARE GOING TO RELY ON THE SAPWOOD, WHICH DOES NOT HAVE THE STRENGTH OF
HEARTWOOD BECAUSE WHERE THE LIGNIN GOES IN; IS WHERE THE WATER GOES UP AND
DOWN. IT IS STRANGE BUT WATER IS NOT ALL THAT STRONG. PERHAPS IF YOU HAVE A 12" (30 CM)
LONG BY 1 INCH (2.5CM) X 2 INCH (5 CM) CROSSECTION OF HEARTWOOD LEFT; THEN YOU
CAN SUPPORT A VERTICAL WEIGHT OF 20 TONNES, BUT NOT WHEN THAT IS BEING MOVED
FROM SIDE FOR THE TRUNK OR UP AND DOWN FOR A BRANCH BY THE WIND.
You can see a yellow bus by the zebra crossing and new bus stop - I am certain that the waiting
passengers will have no problem with this tree falling onto them.
 

IMG0020

Item is
IMG 0020.JPG
taken in February 2022 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

cycletrack8garnonswilliams

Looking back to the zebra crossing where the tree in Photo IMG 0014 is located, these
trees have been left in the pavement and hopefully the black sand above their roots has
been washed to remove the sea salt.The new lane on the right of the bus stop is probably
the 2 lane bicycle track.

It is interesting to note that these trees used to reduce the wind tunnel effect between the
8 story hotels, flats and shopping centre - Bring roller skates and a strong umbrella and you
will be able to use windpower instead of a taxi or bus in one direction to town.

I must learn to appreciate the view from my time-share of 32 stories of painted concrete
buildings and the new Savoy residence (see part of their building site towards the top of photo
IMG 0003 above) being built above the top of my timeshare, where they are excavating the
45 degree slope of volcanic rock to build on a horizontal surface of greater than 300 metres in
length, so that they can view me on my balconies on the top floor of this Pestana Hotel.

It is a pleasant idea to move from one building site of concrete and brick such as Medway into
another of just using concrete for a holiday.

Remember to bring earplugs, if you do not wish to sleep with the double glazing windows and doors
closed between 1:00 and 4:00 on Saturday and Sunday Morning as the local worker population
return home from the bars, nightclubs or retaurants after celebrating their week's work while
conversing loudly- new added attraction this year in 2022.
 

 

"Madeira Name Meaning - Portuguese: metonymic occupational name for a carpenter, from madeira
‘wood’, ‘timber’ (Late Latin materia, from classical Latin materies ‘material’, ‘substance’). local name
from the island of Madeira, which was named with Portuguese madeira ‘timber’ because of the
timber that grew there." from Madeira Family History.

 

Looking at the photos of these trees in Madeira, I have seen almost every possible way that the people
in Madeira manage to kill them rather than maintain them - does no one in Madeira get tree
maintenance, planting instruction and Urban Vegetation Management education?
Does no safety civil engineer in Madeira understand what happens when you build
multi-storey high buildings either side of a road, that you get a wind tunnel effect and that it
could be restrained by these trees that you are killing and cutting down?

We the tourists are very grateful to be blown about by this wind.

 


Just thought that I might read the following from:-

  • A. Tree roots Leaflet No. 6 Published by the Arboricultural Association in 1991:-
    "There is a popular misconception that the roots of a large tree growing under typical British conditions
    will penetrate to a depth of several metres. People refer to these as "tap roots" or "anchor roots".
    Under most conditions of soil and climate in Britain this picture is far from the truth. Tree roots need
    to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen from the soil. These are usually most readily available near to
    the surface, and carbon dioxide produced by the roots disperses more readily there. As a
    consequence, most roots are normally found in the upper 600mm (24 inches) or less.
    On poorly drained clay soils in areas with a moderate or high rainfall all the roots of a large tree may be
    in the upper 300mm (1 foot = 12 inches) or less.
    Roots will sometimes penetrate to a depth of 400 or 500cms, particularly in drier parts of Britain, but
    that is the exception rather than the rule; and even there, the majority of roots are likely to be in the
    upper 600mm.
    All roots contribute to the moisture supply and stability of the tree, and there is no meaningful
    distinction between what are often called "feeder roots" and "support roots". The uptake of
    moisture and nutrients takes place mainly through very fine hairlike roots at the ends of the
    smallest woody roots. Many of these fine roots may die in the autumn and grow again in the
    next spring. These could be called "feeder roots", but would not include any roots more
    than 1mm diameter.
    Typical tree on typical soil, in Britain (An indication of root spread of a typical tree, where root
    development is unimpeded by ditches, walls or other obstructions.):-
    • Height of tree about 2000cms
    • Main rooting depth about 60cm
    • Maximum rooting depth about 100-200cm
    • Branch spread about 900cm
    • Main root spread about 1200cm outer limit of root system about 2000cms, or more
  • Narrow or fastigiate forms may have a smaller branch spread, but can have a similar root
    spread. The size of the root system is related to the amount of foliage which the tree supports,
    not just to the height or branch spread.
    "Tap roots" are a feature of some tree seedlings, such as oak, which tend to send down a single
    main root; but as trees grow, the main direction of root growth is in a lateral direction, and the
    "tap root" does not continue to develop to such a great extent as the upper parts of the tree. A
    mature oak tree will not therefore be a scaled-up version of an oak seedling, but will hav a differently
    shaped root system.
    The roots of most (but not all) trees sub-divide rapidly, so that most of the roots are relatively
    thin except within 200 or 300 cms of the main stem. It can often be possible to cut through the
    complete root system 300cms from the tree without seeing any roots more than 25mm (1 inch) thick.
    The extent of the root system will vary with the soil, climate, tree species, and other factors, but
    will normally extend further than the branches.
    Ploughing, trenching, raising or lowering the soil level, or digging even the top 200mm (8 inches)
    of soil may destroy a major proportion of the root system of a tree." In other words when service
    repair, renewal or a new service installation is done, then further damage is done to the tree roots.

     
  • B. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 36 97 TRL Tree Roots and Underground Pipes by
    G. Brennan, D Patch and F R W Stevens Published in January 1997 ISSN No. 1362-5128:-
    "...Underground services are laid in trenches cut through the soil and then backfilled. ... If a pipe is
    cooler than the surrounding soil, moisture will condense around it creating conditions conducive to
    root growth. When pipes are excavated, a mass of fine roots may be found forming a sheath round
    the pipe, and this may lead engineers to blame tree roots for causing direct damage to the
    service. ... Roots do not break pipes or force their way into pipes to gain access to water and nutrients.
    Apart from the problems associated with clay or mortar packing, why do pipes and their joints fail? On
    highly shrinkable clay soils tree roots may contribute to soil drying, and where as a result a clay
    shrinks pipes may then move. But more important are the design and quality of the pipe materials, the
    standards of workmanship and supervision during construction of the pipeline. In addition, later
    excavations adjacent to the line of the service can result in slumping of soil and distortion of the pipe.
    All of these could cause cracks in pipes or weakening of joints.
    If moisture escapes from a water-carrying underground pipe, a moisture gradient will develop in the
    soil. Tree roots in the vicinity of the pipe may flourish in the moist soil and penetrate the pipe at the
    seepage point. Roots will then proliferate within the pipe; eventually they may create a blockage.
    This is probably the most dramatic and troublesome form of tree root damage to a pipe - particularly
    if the pipe is carrying foul water. However, roots are most unlikely to grow into a pipe that is leaking
    under pressure (e.g. a water main)."
    The above might explain the 2 ways that trees in pavements get their water supply, but not how
    they get gas exchange for the oxygen or carbon dioxide, but may explain the small amount of
    nutrient gained from the surrounding of the storm drain with its detritus.

     
  • C. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 59 2012 The effects of Weed Competition on
    Tree Establishment by R.J. Davies and J.B.H. Gardiner Published in June 1989 - Revised with minor
    alterations May 2012:-
    "Many sites are grassed before tree planting to improve their appearance. All plants compete to some
    extent but grasses and clover are particularly competitive. ... The roots of weeds close to the tree also
    compete for moisture and nutrients and on grassy sites this is more important than competition for
    light. ... Mowing often increases the sward's transpiration, and thus the moisture stress suffered by the
    tree. See effect of grass on trees in section 9 of damage to trees in pavements of Funchal, Madeira in
    the second table on the left.
    Moisture and nutrient compeition are interrelated: weeds may compete directly for nutrients or by
    drying the soil render them unavailable to the tree. Trees suffering competition often appear nutrient
    deficient, wheras weed-free trees have larger greener leaves with higher nutrient concentrations. But
    fertilsing alone rarely relieves competition; it often invigorates weeds and the tree suffers.
    Effective weed control must free the tree roots from this competition:-"
    • "Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on
      higher ground in South-West England" from Wikipedia.
    • Followed by :-"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of
      soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season.
      You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better
      results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy
      soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into
      three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week
      because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
    • so at 1 inch a week that is 52 inches and at 2 inches a week that is 104 inches,
    • so you can see that turf round tree roots can absorb more than the annual rainfall in
      South-West England, leaving no water for the tree roots.

       
  • D. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 110 93 ext Water Tables and Trees by
    D R Helliwell Published in February 1993:-
    "Over much of lowland Britain, the annual precipitation (rain and snow) is in the order of 600mm.
    The canopy of a deciduous tree will intercept about 15%, which is evaporated directly back to the
    atmosphere, and cover of evergreen trees will intercept about 30%.
    The precipitation which reaches the ground may enter the surface layers, where it is held initially
    against the pull of gravity in the fine pores and spaces. Any additional water which falls onto the
    surface will enter the ground and move downwards, wetting successive layers. Precipitation falling
    on impervious surfaces is often channeled into drains, and so it may not contribute to the soil
    moisture system - as happens with the rain falling onto the tarmac, concrete or paver covering the
    roots of trees in covered pavements.
    A question is often asked is "If a large tree takes 200 gallons of water from the soil per day, how
    can it survive if it can not draw on the 'water table'?. The answer is that in most locations the soil
    in which the tree is rooted can store sufficient 'available moisture' to keep the tree alive during
    dry weather in most summers. Recharge of soil moisture around the roots is from precipitation.
    A large tree may have roots in an area of 300m2, to a depth of 1m or more. In that volume of soil
    there may be more that 45,000 litres (10,000 gallons) of 'available water' at the start of the growing
    season, which is enough to keep the tree fully supplied for at least 50 days at peak demand, even if
    no more rain falls in that period.
    A typical figure for annual uptake of water in Europe is around 330mm. Assuming that, in an average
    year the soil is at 'field capacity' at the start of the growing season, and taking a rainfall figure of
    600mm, less the amount which is intercepted, there should be sufficient moisture for tree growth if
    there is a moderate depth of retentive soil. There is no need to invoke the 'water table' as an
    explanation for the survival and successful growth of trees. Dieback or death of trees following
    particularly dry years may not be related to the depth of the 'water table'."
    Mature trees in pavements do not have any stored rainwater in the soil or any replenishment of it.

    Nobody involved in roads or public spaces like parks appears to know, care or maintain the plant
    requirements upon which they depend for the oxygen that keeps them alive, but keep on finding
    ways to damage that plant world.
    Solutions:-
  • 1."Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly planted trees
    The results of an experiment planted with sycamore, hawthorn and Italian alder transplants on the
    grassed verges of a newly constructed trunk road at Ripley, Derbyshire, illustrate that assertion.
    The treatments where no weed control and 54, 76 and 106cm diameter areas around the trees
    sprayed with paraquat once each summer for three years. The figure (page) shows survival growth
    after 3 years. The annual paraquat applications gave incomplete weed control; better control
    would probably have produced greater responses. The shapes of the graphs suggest that spots
    larger that 106cm diameter might have given greater responses. Many weeding experiments using
    broadleaved species on grassy sites over the length and breadth of England have produced similar
    survival and growth responses.
    Tree growth is related to the area weeded around the tree. A one metre diameter herbicide spot
    size is often appropriate for transplants, although larger areas usually give more growth. Larger
    planting stock should receive larger weed-free spots."
    Instead of chemical control, why not use plants as shown in section 9 in the second table on the left?
    "The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants.
    Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree
    roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser
    or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.
    The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,
    • since it is within an enclosed public space.
    • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass
      as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
    • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation
      of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
    • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
    • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then
      employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
    • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get
      fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down
      before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?"
  • 2. Provide 'Available Water' for trees in pavements
    Install a French Drain under the pavement to release the water into the surrounding soil and return
    the other end to the Aco drainage system to allow for overflow. Use a silt trap between this perforated
    pipe and the Aco Drainbox to prevent silt from blocking the French Drain. This should vastly reduce the
    volume of stormwater being output to the local rivers or the sea.
    Plant the new tree at least 50cms (18 inches) away from pavementedge to road.
  • 3. Provide gaseous exchange and nutrients for these trees in pavements.
    Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked
    in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then,
    collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it
    with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed
    that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the
    top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.
     

 

 

A '£134,000 disaster of 95% of 12,800 saplings planted to help tackle the climate crisis
have died because they were not watered in the summer drought' created by a
Gloucester Council that did not have a clue

"A twig waste of money as trees die in heatwave by Joel Taylor in the Metro of Friday, September 23, 2022.

Thousands of trees planted to help tackle the climate crisis have died because they were not watered
in the summer drought.

Some 12,800 saplings were dotted across Gloucester by the city's council, which promised a 'thriving
network of sustainably managed trees' when it announced the £130,000 scheme in February as part of
the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations.

But the council admitted in July that, due to the tough jobs market, it had struggled to employ a tree
officer, whose job would have involved checking on the saplings.

And Cllr Alastair Chambers said 95 per cent of the trees have now died due to lack of water during
the heatwave.

He added "This is such a waste of taxpayers' money. I am all for trees and a better environment so I
voted for the trees to be planted. Sadly, that didn't include park management of the trees. When I was
in Ukraine, even under a time of war, they had cleaner streets and parks.'

The council said the summer heatwave was unprecedented.

A spokesperson added:' It's disappointing this led to the loss of trees in the city and we will be looking
to do some replanting where resources allow with a more robust watering/care schedule.'

It had a budget of £16,000 for the trees and secured £118,000 in outside grants."

 

Let us look at the 3 photos in the article from GloucestershireLive. of these newly planted trees.

  • Photo 1 has a 72 inch(180cm) stake which is not a Machine Round tree Stake inserted
    into the ground inside, and 12 inch (30cm) diameter of Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium)
    800mm High
    to protect the dead whip inside. The whip is attached to the stake possibly
    with a Rainbow Semi Mature Tree Tie.
    This whip has been planted into ground covered in grass and so when you read the
    information in the row above on Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly
    planted trees
    you can understand why this whip never stood a chance, because the grass
    took up 2 inches depth of water a week if any fell and it took all the nutrients in the ground.

    A circle with diameter of 120cm (48 inches) of grass should have been removed and it
    placed round the edge of the circle upside down to rot with a 1200mm Diameter Cor-Ten
    Garden Ring inside the edge of the circle to stop the grass from re-entering the circle.
    Then the whip should have been planted as specified in Planting Bare Root Whips from
    Chew Valley Trees
    using a cane instead of the stake, a rabbit guard instead of the
    Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium) and 4 inch depth of mulch from Melcourt. Then sow clover
    as a green manure
    on the mulch to provide nitrogen to the whip roots as a legume and
    stop the wind and sun from drying out the ground within the Cor-ten Garden Ring.
    The outer circle of upside down turf stores the rainwater within it and the mulch prevents
    the sun and wind from drying out the ground where the whip has been planted. Spray
    4 gallons of water onto the mulched area to thoroughly soak the mulch and the ground
    beneath.
    It is better to plant these whips in the autumn, like October instead of February. It is
    likely in England for the period from October to March to have rain or snow on most days
    and during the late autumn/winter when the temperature falls below 5 Centigrade, then
    the whip will grow its roots instead of growing above ground level as it does for
    above 5 Centigrade. So it should not have a watering problem in the Autumn/Winter.
    Trees and Shrubs absorb rainwater in August to use in the production of Spring foliage
    the following year, so thoroughly soak the ground in August and again in April and allow
    the mulch to stop the trees from wilting during the summer.

    Melcourt some years ago did an experiment with fruit trees. Half a field they planted fruit
    trees and thoroughly soaked the ground in April. The other half of the field they also planted
    fruit trees, thoroughly soaked the ground and then covered the soil with a mulch in April.
    They then measured the soil moisture level each month, but did absolutely nothing else
    for these fruit trees. In August the fruit trees without a mulch were showing signs of
    distress, whereas the the fruit trees with a mulch were fine. The experiment was
    carried out during a very hot summer.


    A water ring is a mound of compacted soil that is built around the circumference of a planting
    hole once a shrub/tree has been installed. The water ring helps to direct water to the outer
    edges of a planting hole, encouraging new roots to grow outward, in search of moisture. The
    height of the mound of soil will vary from a couple of inches for 10 ltr potted shrubs, to almost
    a foot (30cm) for balled and burlapped trees, especially those planted on a slope. Mulching over the
    ring will help to further conserve moisture and prevent deterioration of the ring itself. Once a
    plant is established, the water ring may be leveled, but the mulch should continue beneath
    the plant during each spring and summer.
    Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch (2.5 cms) of moisture most
    plants prefer per week from March to October. The first two years after a plant is installed,
    regular watering is important. It is better to water once a week and water deeply using drip
    irrigation (thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches
    (15-18 cms)), than to water frequently for a few minutes. With container grown plants,
    apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes, or preferably put the
    pot inside a larger pot on pot legs to raise it 1 inch above the bottom of the outside pot with
    a wick from the bottom of the outer pot up through to the middle of the inner pot and
    replenish the 1 inch (2.5 cms) depth of water in the outside pot. The outside pot has a hole
    2 inches (5 cms) above its base to allow for drainage of excess irrigation water or rain. Water
    plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant
    stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior
    to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems. Do not wait to water until
    plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too
    much (when they reach the permanent wilting point). Mulches can significantly cool the root
    zone and conserve moisture.
    Waterlogged soil occurs when more water is added to soil than can drain out in a reasonable
    amount of time. This can be a severe problem where water tables are high or soils are
    compacted. Lack of air space in waterlogged soil makes it almost impossible for soil to drain.
    Few plants, except for bog plants, can tolerate these conditions. Drainage can be improved
    by creating a French Drain (18 inch x 12 inch - 45 x 30 cms - drain lined with Geotextile like
    Plantex or Weed Control Fabric filled with coarse gravel and the weed control fabric overlaid
    on the top before mulching the top with 3 inch depth of Bark) in the boggy area and extending
    this drain alongside an evergreen hedge. The hedge will abstract the water over the whole
    year. Over-watered plants have the same wilted leaves as under-watered plants. Fungi such
    as Phytophthora and Pythium affect vascular systems, which cause wilt.
    A small yew tree was planted on a slope in a lawn in our local churchyard for the millenium.
    After 8 years it had hardly grown, so I removed the lawn from about 24 inches from the trunk
    and upended the cut lawn to make a water ring round it on the slope below the tree. I then
    applied a mulch of compost to the exposed soil and now that yew tree is quite happily growing,
    since the water ring traps the rain as it goes past the tree trunk.
  • Photo 2 does not have any rabbit protection and it appears to have been pollarded. YOU DO
    NOT POLLARD WHIPS, and the side branches are too short, since perhaps they have also
    been pollarded.
  • Photo 3 has the same problems as the other 2.

     

Best Watering Practices for newly planted trees may help from the point of watering, but if the
ground has a sufficient mulch and it is soaked in April and August, then you may be okay.
Esagono Irrigation System might work for soaking the ground in April and August.
Amvista L9 Liquid Seaweed could be added to the water in the Easagono to provide the trace
elements to the green manure and the trees in either April or August. GreenWaste Management
Services Ltd
may also have a soluble product that could be used in either April or August to
supplement the Seaweed product.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........
Flower Shape
......
Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...
for Bedding
...
in Windowboxes
...
in Border
...
naturalized in Grass
...
in Bulb Frame
...
in Woodland Garden
...
in Rock Garden
...
in Bowls
...
in Alpine House
...
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...
Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......
Summer
...
Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......
January
......
February
......
March
......
April
......
May
......
June
......
July
......
August
......
September
......
October
......
November
......
December
...
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......
Dec-Jan
......
Feb-Mar
......
Apr-May
......
Jun-Aug
......
Sep-Oct
......
Nov-Dec
...
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........
Flower Shape
......
Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...
for Bedding
...
in Windowboxes
...
in Border
...
naturalized in Grass
...
in Bulb Frame
...
in Woodland Garden
...
in Rock Garden
...
in Bowls
...
in Alpine House
...
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...
Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......
Summer
...
Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......
January
......
February
......
March
......
April
......
May
......
June
......
July
......
August
......
September
......
October
......
November
......
December
...
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......
Dec-Jan
......
Feb-Mar
......
Apr-May
......
Jun-Aug
......
Sep-Oct
......
Nov-Dec
...
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

HOME PAGES - Use this website in Landscape mode on an iPAD instead of an iPHONE, when away from home.
Welcome *
About Chris Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,
Contact Chris Garnons-Williams - Contact Information (Never Fail Cake Recipe),
Website Design History - Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.
Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map - usually each of the educational not commercial 212 topics (none of these 212 linked websites sell or buy anything, nor do they take or give commission, and the only adverts are of products/services that I believe would benefit my visitors and are inserted by me) has its own Site Map, which is normally the first page of that Topic linked to from other topics.
Every page should have 3 separate tables - the Topics Table, the Data Table and the Pages/Index Table.
Each page has its own resources and is not data-base driven, so can be downloaded - downloading the whole website of 20.44 GB (3 Dec 2021) annually, with pages being between 1200 and over 6000 pixels wide and between 16k and over 33k long would provide you with an updating resource when either visiting a garden or planning your own. Usually 3 or 4 clicks gets you to any page in these 9763 pages in these folders from any other page.
Usually the top gallery of a plant type has all the flower images of that and the subsidiary galleries in 1 of 6 colours per month pages, with that flower thumbnail being in each month page that it flowers.
Clicking on the middle of that thumbnail will transfer you to that flower's page or row in data table within that page description; and
its link - the link may not work the day after it was created - to a mail-order nursery selling you that plant directly should be in the Comments row of that Plant Description Page.
The majority of the original images in this website are inserted, published in Freeway which produces a 72 pixel per inch Freeway image. This is exported to a File, and the image published by Freeway replaced by the re-imported Freeway image file as a pass-through image; before that is published again and the resulting folder website uploaded for visitors. The lower resolution speeds up the display of the 28,398 JPEG images - some of these images are re-used in different comparison pages of different galleries and therefore added to the resources of each of those galleries (6,508 images have garnons williams or garnons-williams as the ending of the filename and those can go in the public domain as of 5 June 2019, but all the remainder are
copyrighted by others and may not be re-used elsewhere without the permission of the copyright holder).
Camera photos of Coleus RHS Bedding Trial starts the process of displaying the complete 4000 x 3000 pixel original photos from Chris Garnons-Williams. Since each photo can be 3.5-6.0 Mb and there may be 11 of these on a page; each page may take a long time to download .

Page Menu may also have
an Index (
Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Besides informing you how to

 

FURTHER PAGE/INDEX TABLE OF PROBLEMS with each row detailing a problem in light blue background colour

The UK Labour or Conservative government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for over 40 years, without its population realising:-

  • See HISTORY OF THIS in row 2 of the next table on the right; followed by
  • SUMMARY OF ITS EFFECT in row 2 and
  • WITH HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE also in row 2,
  • to lead to THE UK IS SUFFERING ANARCHY in row 4.
     
  • Row 6 - If members of the UK public complain then Government's Public Order Act 2023 will put them in jail.

    If workers strike, then the Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill (passed by House of Commons and House of Lords 4 July 2023) will kick in so you could be fired by ignoring a "work notice" ordering you to work on strike days for you in health, education, fire and rescue, transport, border security and nuclear decommissioning and radioactive waste management.
     
  • Row 7 - Water companies in England have faced a barrage of criticism as data revealed raw sewage was discharged for more than 3.6m hours into rivers and seas last year (2023) in a 105% increase on the previous 12 months, including that 38,000,000 tons of waste going annually into the River Thames from London. Environment Agency confirms 54% increase in sewage spills to more than 4,000,000 hours of raw sewage thought to have been discharged into rivers and seas in 2023. This kills the fish, marine life, as well as people/ visitors/ students from the UK and overseas/ swimmers in the waterways and the beaches in the UK, and via the seas to surrounding European countries of 1,000,000's of tons of raw human and animal sewage, microplastics and glyphosate pollution.

    My Experience with raw sewage in the sea and the Camber Sand staff stating it was only the result of a dead sheep in order to get adults and children to swim and play in human sewage, but it was because their was actual dumping of raw sewage in the river each side of the camber sands - I went to CAMBER SANDS beach last week with my wife, her 2 brothers and 2 children of 1 of the brothers.
     
  • Rows 8 and 9 provide further details on the dehumanizing of the UK population.

    Amazing how you can con 65,000,000 UK citizens, who will vote for this con-merchant in 2024. -
    Con 1 - by setting up a system that tells you a ratio to lull you into thinking finances are okay, but does not tell you how much extra debt that they have created that year.
    Con 2 - Also create a series of government departments to give the impression of controlling the privatised water boards, but actually they let them dump raw sewage into rivers and the surrounding seas. Southern Water gets most sewage dumps into rivers between 7am and 10am as people get up in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. As it cannot treat its present population's human sewage waste, so any addition to the population such as students and immigrants coming into Kent in the UK in small boats across the Channel will simply add to these sewage spills.
    Con 3 - Using the Sewer Flow Diagram in the next table for Mains Water flow instead, you can see that if you increase the weirs to get water to separate new customers instead of to sewage treatment plants, then you will run out of water when there are too many for the capacity of that mains pipe laid in the 1800's.
    Con etc -
    Benefit slavery System,
    British Industry Supercharger,
    Genetic Technology (Precision Breeding) Bill ,
    Public Finance Initiative,
    England's schools to be given £370,000,000 less money after Department for Education admits bungling figures, etc

 

Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020 1, 2
after the pages below were produced in 2018 and 2019

Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018

PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.
Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
1
, 2, 3, 4.
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN ST. PETER PORT, GUERNSEY IN SEPTEMBER 2019

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people, to their Roots

 

Britain runs out of food during summer of 2024. If a worker is on State Benefits and is only allowed to work up 15 hours 59 minutes a week at minimum wage, then with these extra new border control food charges it will cost that person 12% of their gross wage each week and 12% extra if they are supporting their child; from 30 April 2024.

 

8 problems caused by building house on clay or
with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.
OTHER TABLE 5
is about warnings of the government in the UK turning its population into slaves.

 

TABLE SOS where the action of humans breathing produces carbon dioxide and the trees/plants/algae cannot process that; because we either cover the roots in concrete/tarmac or kill the algae in the sea from the phosphorus in the human produced sewage. So we are slowly asphixiating ourselves in the UK.
The level of oxygen refers to the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere or water. Oxygen is produced by photosynthesizing organisms that live in the ocean, in fresh water, and on land. These organisms include bacteria, algae and plants. Photosynthesizing algae in the ocean produce around 70% of oxygen in the atmosphere. The UK pollution going into the sea is killing the algae which provide 70% of oxygen for UK, France, Holland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
Row 7 in last table on the right in Black Background - Welcome to the UK (Urinating Knave) with details of UK government backed pollution of millions of tons per year into its rivers; which the sea transported across the Channel to Europe killing marine life and humans.
Pollution is biggest threat to Wildlife on our UK waterways.
Photo of permanent air pollution over London.

 

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These remaining items are of no interest to people outside the UK,
but will affect you,
if have property in the UK or
intend to reside in the UK for longer than 1 week.

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019

Neighbour cutting branches off our trees without Conservation Area permission and attempting to sink our house with 1000's of litres of their sewage by blocking the drain to our cesspit. For the following week, they continued to download their sewage after we had written to them stating that the cesspit was full and that the drain was blocked.

Gas explosion from incorrectly installed home boiler, with other customers refusing to correct the situation.
Other items in the Home Section which have nothing to do with gardening, but reading them might deter you from visiting Great Britain; or employing its workforce; or trusting its local or main government.

Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since NAPIT requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems.
Would you; after reading these pages? Manderson emails to us about re-wire.
We wrote the
concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
Pages 10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021, (the electricians testing 2 of the double power sockets installed in the kitchen in 1987 found that they were polarity reversed. This risks a short circuit, shock or fire. They corrected the problem immediately)
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended

Because we had paid part of the cost to Manderson Electrical Services Ltd using a credit card, then after we had contacted them and sent the report, the credit card company re-imbursed us. We then used that money towards a total removal of all wiring and total rewiring by the electrician who had produced the report.

 

The above was a pointless waste of time - we have now had the house completely rewired again without any recompense from the original contractor's lies, thiefery and extremely dangerous work with the government body Napit being no help at all. The unfortunate consequence of either buying a house or having anything done to it is that you the owner can and will be totally screwed by the majority of the British Workforce.
I have looked at a job of the third replacement of turf in a back garden of a new house. The back garden was clay and sloped down to the house - that house will have subsidence problems within 10 years. The only way that it might save itself is to rip up the lawn and plant shrubs that will absorb every drop of rain that falls on that garden -
you are not allowed to either drain into the storm drain of the house which is what takes the rain from the roof of the house/garage or
drain the rainwater from your garden to outside your property onto either public land or into somebody else's property.
I refused the job and told the owner to get onto the builders to rectify their error.
Since builders are repeating the same error on a massive scale in Ashford in Kent, the poor owners of new £500,000 houses are going to be upset.