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Area of Open Ground around Tree in pavements in Funchal, Madeira

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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
1
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN ST. PETER PORT, GUERNSEY IN SEPTEMBER 2019
Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019

"LIKE TREE ROOTS IN THE OPEN GROUND IN GARDENS, TREE ROOTS IN PAVEMENTS REQUIRE WATER, AIR, MINERAL AND ORGANIC MATTER WITH A POPULATION OF MICROSCOPIC ANIMALS OR PLANTS.
WE POUND THEIR ROOTS WITH 40 TON LORRIES, EXCLUDE ALL ACCESS TO WATER, AIR, AND ORGANIC MATTER WHICH THEN KILLS OFF THE SOIL ORGANISMS.
THE TREES SUFFER FURTHER DAMAGE AND WE DO NOTHING ABOUT IT, SO THE TREE ROTS AND FALLS DOWN
.
 

"Water is present as thin films covering the soil particles and is retained most readily by soils containing humus and clay. The moisture that plant roots can absorb is termed available water; that which the soil holds so that plants cannot absorb it, its termed unavailable water (since the concrete pavers above exclude water, after the roots have absorbed all the available water then there is only unavailable water left!!!!). Clay has a greater proportion than sand of unavailable water. More water is conserved in soils whose surface is loose than in those with compact hard surfaces - i.e those under roads and pavements. In the lowest levels of the soil lies the water-table where the soil is completely saturated with water, because it cannot drain away any further. Few plants grown on land can survive with their roots permanently in water.

Soil-air contains a larger composition of carbon dioxide and less oxygen than air above ground. All the underground parts of plants require oxygen (since the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac above exclude air, then once the roots have used up the oxygen there is none left).

Mineral matter is formed by the breaking up of the various rocks of which the earth is composed. Many of the mineral salts (carbonates, phosphates and sulphates), which roots absorb from the soil, are dissolved by the soil-water from the mineral particles (since the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac above exclude water, then the salts in the earth can no longer be dissolved).

Organic matter is composed of humus, which is the decaying remains of plants and animals. Where plants are growing in a natural state, their dead aerial remains are constantly being added to the surface of the soil and their dead roots and rhizomes to the soil below the surface (Photo 16 on Solution to tree problems page shows dead leaves on the ground which are pulled into the soil by earthworms, but the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac exclude access by the soil organisms for them to do their fast-food restaurant work). Humus is colloidal, absorbing water readily and swelling on doing so.

Soil organisms include moles, mice, earthworms, beetles, larvae, millipedea and centipedes. Earthworms drag down leaves and other plant remains; eat soil/humus and help to mix the soil and render it more fertile. The food of animals including humans consists of complex substances such as carbohydrates and proteins. Plants, although they require the same foods, differ from animals by making these substances for themselves from simpler substances such as water, carbon dioxide and various salts. Many elements are used in the making of a plant's body, and of those one essential element is nitrogen, which is necessary for the manufacture of proteins and other complex nitrogenous products. Although air consists largely of nitrogen, few plants can make use of the free gas as a source of food. It is in the form of soluble nitrates that plants use nitrogen, and it is from the soil that these are obtained. These soluble nitrates are dissolved and washed out of the soil. The nitrates of the soil are chiefly produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter such as humus and manure. Most plants are quite unable to use organic material directly, but only when it has undergone certain changes (if no organic material can get access to the following methods, then the 'de-nitrifying' bacteria' will get rid of the remaing nitrate in the soil and there will be nothing for the tree roots:-

  • Method 1. Various soil-organisms, chiefly bacteria, decompose organic matter with the final production of the gas ammonia; other bacteria build up this ammonia into nitrites; and a third group covert the nitrites into nitrates, which are a necessary plant food-material. The addition of manure or some other form of humus like seaweed to soils provide these bacteria with the material necessary for their activities, but it not until nitrates have been formed from it that manure serves as a plant food-material. Oxygen is essential for these bacteria. DECOMPOSING ORGANIC MATTER IS A 3 STAGE PROCESS BEFORE THE NITRATE PRODUCED CAN BE USED BY THE TREE ROOTS. DISSOLVING MANUFACTURED CHEMICAL FERTILISERS IN WATER AND APPLYING THAT WILL DESTROY THE GUNGE ROUND THE ROOTS, THUS THOSE ROOTS CAN BE ATTACKED BY DISEASE, VIRUSES AND PESTS. A SOLUTION OF CRUSHED SEAWEED AND COMPOSTED COW/ANIMAL MANURE WILL NOT DESTROY THAT GUNGE.
  • Method 2. The second method for production of nitrates is by independent nitrifying bacteria in the soil which build nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen and the
  • Method 3. by certain nitrifying bacteria associated with the nodules of Leguminous plants, which use atmospheric nitrogen to build up nitrogenous compounds, these become available to the plants themselves during their life and adding organic material, capable of decomposition, to the soil on their death.

A natural source of loss of nitrates from soil is caused by the action of 'de-nitrifying' bacteria, which, in the presence of organic matter and the absence of oxygen, decompose nitrates into free nitrogen." from Plant Ecology bu Hilda Drabble. Published 1937.

Solution
Replace top surface of pavement with CORE TRP SYSTEM and then put the amended shape of paver as detailed in the second row on the right instead of the old concrete pavers or the black/white marble blocks in concrete. This is a modification of the method suggested at the top of Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page." copied from Solution to tree problems page. with added comments in blue and very important comments in magenta.
 

WHY CANNOT THE HUMAN POPULATION PROVIDE OPEN GROUND ROUND TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD. IF THESE TREES GREW WELL, THEY WOULD PROVIDE MORE FOLIAGE TO PROVIDE MORE OXYGEN FOR US HUMANS TO BREATHE?????????????


Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4
 


Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
 


Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.


Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum roots raising pavement IMG_6007.JPG

See photo 5 in Damage to tree Roots in Madeira caused by people Page to show that the calculation for the root area exposed to the air for gaseous exchange, fertiliser and irrigation is considerably less than 0.1%. How this tree grew, I do not know.

Photo 2 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG_6005.JPG

Another hole in trunk caused by not dressing the cut stump of a branch that was there. How far down and across the heartwood in this tree does the rot occur?

Photo 3 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG_6006.JPG

This tree was pollarded and the watersprouts allowed to grow from the edges of their stumps and then the branches below them were cut off. Why could this tree have been pruned to leave branches to carry on rather than leave stumps?

Carefull removal of the concrete pavers and the CORE TRP SYSTEM installed with an irrigation system would make this tree much healthier. It is good to know that this tree did not fall on that couple walking past it, but it could to pedestrians walking past it later depending how much of the width of the trunk is rotted below that hole.

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Photo 4 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6013.JPG

Besides growing its lateral roots between the pavers the tree is actually growing over them as well. It has very little open ground round it.

Photo 5 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6014.JPG

and 1 of the lateral roots of the same tree has been deflected back by the kerb. The tree is now encroaching on the road.

Photo 6 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6013.JPG

Is the break between the 2 sections of trunk coloured black some damage to the trunk which is rotting?

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Photo 7 - tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG_5996.JPG

The open ground round this new tree is covered with grey shale which prevents the ground from being dried out. Besides that that area of ground also has an irrigation system in it so that this new tree can not only survive but continue to grow.
As far as I can see the small gaps between the concrete pavers in the pavement surrounding it have no concrete between them effectively sealing the pavement surface. This indicates that there could be a small gaseous exchange and leakage of rainwater in between them.

Besides the remainder of the pavement there is space to increase this open ground area to the kerb as the girth of the tree expands, without causing any problems to that new road.

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Photo 8a - expanded photo of tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG_5999.JPG

There is even enough irrigation in this section of new trees to keep grass green!! Photo 4 in Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page will explain why you should never put lawn grass round trees because the grass takes most if not all the rainfall or irrigation.

LOOK AT TREES 82 AND 81 IN PHOTOS 8, 8A AND 7 TO SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN DIAMETER OF TRUNK WHERE TREE 82 HAD GRASS GROWING ROUND IT AND 81 DID NOT.
TREE 81 HAS A CONSIDERABLY GREATER DIAMETER OF TRUNK BECAUSE IT RECEIVED THE BENEFIT OF THE IRRIGATION WHEREAS TREE 82 DID NOT. SINCE THESE WERE THE SAME VARIETY OF TREE PROBABLY PLANTED AT THE SAME TIME AND IRRIGATED FOR THE SAME TIME; THIS DEMONSTRATES VERY WELL WHY YOU SHOULD NEVER PLANT GRASS ROUND TREES.
IT IS EASIER TO STRIM THE GRASS ROUND THE TREE AS SHOWN IN PHOTO 1 IN HOTEL/PRIVATE GARDENS ALONGSIDE PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA PAGE BUT IT IS CONSIDERABLY WORSE FOR THE GROWTH OF THE TREE. IF YOU DESIRE GREEN FOLIAGE ROUND THE TREE, PLANT GREEN MANURE (LEGUMES) TO PROVIDE NITROGEN INSTEAD OF THIS GRASS.

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Photo 8 - tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG_5999.JPG

There is even enough irrigation in this section of new trees to keep grass green!! Photo 4 in Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page will explain why you should never put lawn grass round trees because the grass takes most if not all the rainfall or irrigation.

Photo 9 - tree 84 from pestana promenade to forum with shrub and raised pavement IMG_6001.JPG

and to grow a small shrub with a different new tree.

Photo 10 - tree 12 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6166.JPG

Metal edging with grey shale fill in.

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Photo 11 - tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6171.JPG

The rectangular metal surround for this tree appears to be too small to contain the lateral roots of this tree. The pavers are being lifted up 2 directions from the tree and the resulting gaps are being filled with grass.
The grey shale to the right of this tree has been depressed by pedestrians walking on it. Perhaps the Happy Worms in the next row would stop this. This grey shale may come from the beach further west on this southern shore of Madeira. Perhaps it was washed before being laid here so that the salt of the seawater would not affect the tree.

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If the Happy Worms were put on each side of the tree outside the open ground area devoted to a GREEN MANURE to feed the tree, this might persuade pedestrians not to step on the close roots of this tree.

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as shown at the bottom of the Death of tree trunks/branches in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people Page.

Photo 12 - tree 40 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6300.JPG

Concrete edged enclosure for this tree below the Taxi Rank at the Lido.

Photo 13 - tree 41 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6301.JPG

Same sort of concrete enclosure. I would assume that this the area given to this tree when it was originally planted. The result is that at least 1 if not 2 of the lateral roots have been forced to go round next to the trunk. The same thing happens in a plastic pot when the root growth is more than the pot size is suitable and the roots go round and round the pot. I made this mistake when I planted a Juniperus in my garden. It died 10 years later. When I took it out, I discovered that it's rootball was a solid lump with 3 green-twine-width roots to provide water and nutrients to the tree. This was because the roots had curled round the pot when it was growing and I did not untangle them and so they stayed in position and grew sideways to take all the available space between each other. A common mistake when people plant trees/shrubs.

Photo 14 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6302.JPG

To get more taxis in the rank, they use the pavement as well causing a lot of damage to the trees.

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Photo 15 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6302.JPG

Note the broken concrete of the enclosure, the damage to trunk by having bodywork of different vehicles squeezing past it plus the damage to the lateral roots by the tyres. I am sure that you would be most happy to put the foot of your 8 year old daughter under the back wheel of a taxi!!!

Photo 16 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6303.JPG

Another damaged tree.

Photo 17 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6303.JPG

Detail of part of the damage - the lateral root at the back on the left has had its bark sheared off while the lateral root in the foreground has been worn down. No thought about the local tree life, but park quick and get into conversation with the others!!!

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Photo 18 - tree 43 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6305.JPG

Another 2 damaged lateral roots

Photo 19 - tree 44 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6306.JPG

Multple damage to the lateral roots of this tree.

When women wear brass neck coils then they can elevate their heads as they age. I suspect that if these were removed, then the neck could no longer support the head.
It may well be the case that trees who have their constraints removed and room allowed for the roots to be irrigated, receive nutrients, gaseous exchange and grow, that their trunks will require bracing to prevent them falling over in a windy siuation, since the area of root that can act as a brace like the laterals and roots which feed and water the tree will have to expand their area by more than 99%. This takes time - 5 years. Do not park vehicles within 3 metres of a tree trunk, while they are doing this regeneration.

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Photo 20 - tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6354.JPG

I have written a section at the top of this page to which this poor tree is a prime example. The tree is surrounded by concrete pavers, concrete kerb and tarmac road. Any access to the ground below via the gaps between the pavers has been sealed by the roots of grass which absorb any rainwater or other water that drains between these cracks. The grass roots are now into the ground below in direct competition with the tree roots. What chance does the roots of this tree have?

If the pavers are replaced with the new design then weed-control geotextile fabric can be laid directly under the new pavers and this will eliminate roots of grass from entering the soil and hopefully no grass would then grow since it would insufficient cool roots to provide water over many months before it rains.

Photo 21 tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG_6355.JPG

 

Photo 22 - tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6356.JPG
Photo 23 - tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6358.JPG

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Photo 24 - tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view previous road section IMG_6403.JPG

Current design for replacement ground area enclosures outside new Savoy Hotel.

Photo 25 - tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view previous road section IMG_6403.JPG

The newly laid pavement is made using the traditional layout of black and white marble blocks. They used to be embedded in the earth but as you can now see this has been changed to concrete. The feeder roots under this new pavement of this mature tree are now going to be deprived of soil-water and soil-air, which when the existing organic matter has all been eaten by the soil organisms, then those same soil organisms will die out. The soil will return to its mineral content and these trees will fall down as 99.99% of their roots die off (see Root Spread on Death of tree roots in madeira caused by people page for further details).
Savoy Hotel will be very grateful as these mature trees in the front fall down. It might be useful if their clients wore paper hats to protect them from this falling timber.

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Photo 26 - tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG_6411.JPG

Previous style of concrete enclosure edging. The blak and white marble blocks set in the ground has been replaced by concrete to provide temporary access to the building works of the uncompleted Savoy Hotel. This concrete has the same effect as for the tree in Photo 25 with the addition of having concrete mixer lorries providing extra tonnage from their tyres to squash the existing roots under this thin layer of concrete.

Photo 27 - tree 73 from pestana mirimar view previous road section IMG_6415.JPG

See original black and white marble pavement replaced with temporary tarmac and white concrete, until that would be replaced with the black and white marble blocks bedded in concrete as shown in Photo 24. This replacement will probably occur fairly soon as the Savoy Hotel is due to be finished and opened in Spring 2019. The current trees you can see on the right hand side will be dead within 3 years under that regime and even sooner if no irrigation occurs.

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Photo 28 - tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch IMG_0012.JPG

This area of bare ground is in the pavement outside Pestana Mirimar Hotel - this is the only plant in this ground area. Goes to show how small an area of ground can be and the tree is fine. Green Manure covering this ground area would feed that tree.

Photo 29 - tree 113 from mirimar to funchal palm tree at mirimar IMG_0014.JPG

There is another tree behind this one but this healthy amount of top foliage is great especially when this open ground is on a slope, so if it rains heavily, then some of the rain will flow down to the pavement. The Green Manure would alleviate this problem, together with irrigation.

Photo 30 - tree 137 from funchal roundabout to cathedral shreddings round tree base IMG_0093.JPG

Photo 31 - tree 142 from funchal roundabout to cathedral larger gridded area IMG_0105.JPG

See comments about this steel grid torture system for trees in Irrigation and fertilising of trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira page.

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Photo 33 - tree 103 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6077.JPG taken on 29 January 2019.

A mature tree where 99.99% of its roots are now covered in tarmac or black marble/ white marble embedded in concrete.

Photo 34 - tree 104 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6078.JPG

As is the next one up the hill.

Photo 35 - tree 105 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6080.JPG

The ground round this third tree up the hill is not only walked on, but pedestrians use it to smoke and throw their butt ends onto the ground. Hopefully these but ends do not end up in the dry bark of this tree.
The tree roots would prefer it if not stepped on.

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Photo 36 - tree 106 from funchal to top of hill new tree with root at ground level IMG_6085.JPG

Because there is no protection, you can see the damage done to the roots of this tree by pedestrians and concrete which is now breaking up being laid over these roots as a toxic substance.

The haunching of the pavers encircling this new tree does not help either.

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Photo 37 - tree 110 from funchal to top of hill tree stump IMG_6095.JPG

You cannot tell from the stump what this tree died of. The damage to the bark could have been caused when the fell was felled.

This stump is splitting and so the heartwood is continuing to dry out. Why has this not been stump-ground out? or is this not the practice?
The importance of tree stump removal - 6 main reasons and also prevent honey fungus.

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This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and
Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses


with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....
Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

apoacher1

Closed Bud

apoacher2

Opening Bud

apoacher3

Juvenile Flower

apoacher4

Older Juvenile Flower

apoacher5

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

apoacher6

Mature Flower

apoacher7

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

apoacher8

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.