Ivydene Gardens Private Garden Maintenance:
Create a Plant Maintenance Plan

Glossary for Page

Pruning Removing dead or unwanted shoots or branches from a plant. Pruning can encourage more and vigorous growth in the plant.

 

Topiary The art of clipping and training trees and shrubs into various, usually intricate, geometric or free shapes.

 

Deciduous Of plants that shed leaves at the end of the growing season and renew them at the beginning of the next: semi-deciduous plants lose only some of their leaves at the end of the growing season.

 

Evergreen Of plants that retain their foliage for more than one growing season; semi-evergreen plants retain only a small proportion of their leaves for more than one season.

Maintenance Plan

autumnal maple pictureAfter either you have planted a new garden with its planting plan and list of existing and new plants, or you have just created the existing plant list you created from your existing garden 'soft plan', then you need to draw up a maintenance plan. The maintenance plan for each plant should be established within the first year of planting.

The maintenance plan should include the full name of the tree or plant, the type and extent of the pruning to be undertaken, the best season for pruning (on the Plant Pruning Page of the Plants Section), any necessary feeding or mulching and any deadheading of flowers required. If you do not know the name, then you may be able to identify it from the photographs in the A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants in the Plant Species section of the Library or from the Comparison Pages on the Plant Photographic Galleries.

However, when pruning and shaping any individual tree or shrub, do not forget that it is to integrate with those plants around it. Please do not ‘haircut’ your shrubs, unless you are into topiary. Pruning is not the same as a quick trim, and does a lot more than keeping a shrub in a particular shape.

 

Pruning Guide

Pruning needs an effective pair of secateurs and loppers to make clean cuts, and aims to renew the deciduous shrub growth above ground bit by bit, over three or four years.

Find the following data on the shrub plant you want to prune:

  • Flowering period? i.e. June to October
  • Evergreen or Deciduous
  • Attractive fruit or berries?

The first pruning cuts should always aim at removing dead, damaged and diseased shoots, starting from the base of the plant.

Then remove any crossing branches and recreate a balanced natural shape (If the natural shape is horizontal branches, then remove the vertical branch that is crossing it).

If possible, remove a quarter of the oldest main branches/trunks of deciduous shrubs each year to create a 1, 2, 3 and 4 year old main branch system.

Having done this you are now ready to execute the instructions given in the following Group to which the plant belongs.

 

Group 1

Spring-flowering, deciduous and evergreen shrubs (flower up to June) i.e. Forsythia, Ribes, Cytisus, Rambling and Climbing Roses, some Clematis, Mahonia, Rhododendron and Erica x darleyensis.

  • Prune immediately after the flowers have faded.
  • Shorten the stems which have carried flowers.
  • Most evergreens are best left unpruned, so limit it to periodic thinning.

Group 2

Summer-flowering deciduous and evergreen shrubs (flower from June onwards) i.e. Potentilla, Weigelia, Roses (except Ramblers and Climbers), some Hypericum, Cistus, Calluna, Erica cinerea, Erica tetralix, Erica vagans, Rosmarinus and Thymus.

  • Prune in February—March, just before new growth commences.
  • Cut back some of the older shoots that carry little in the way of new growth to encourage vigour. Cut to an outward facing bud, and cut at an angle to let the rain drain off.
  • Trim back some of the remaining shoots.
  • Most evergreens are again in this group, so only periodic thinning.

Group 3

Spring or summer-flowering shrubs that bear berries or attractive fruits (deciduous or evergreen).

  • Plant these shrubs at an adequate spacing to prevent the need for excessive pruning, but some renewal will be needed to maintain flower bearing wood. It is generally best done immediately after flowering by thinning out weak or overcrowded shoots.
  • Do not leave pruning until major ‘surgery’ is required. Little and often is best.
  • Prune most deciduous trees during the winter, except the Prunus family ( Cherry, Greengage or Plum) which are pruned after their fruit has been picked to prevent Silver Leaf Curl.

More detailed information may be obtained from "The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers" by George E. Brown in the Gardening section of the Library.

 

Key Messages

 

  • Mulch with grass mowings, prunings from plants and compost from vegetable/tea/coffee kitchen waste together with herbaceous material onto the plant beds to feed the plants and condition the soil.
  • Irrigate regularly new plantings for a minimum of the first two years.
  • Do not ‘haircut’ your shrubs, but use the above pruning procedure to extend their life and keep them vibrant.
  • Use green twine, not wire or plastic ties, to tie plants if you do not want to strangle your plants.

gardenmaintenancecreate1

A rose hedge can be created by untangling the rose and tying it to the next one reasonably horizontally. You may like to exceed creating 12 feet of rose hedge a day!!

gardenmaintenancecreate2

Maintenance Humour

After every flight, pilots fill out a gripe sheet which tells mechanics about problems with the aircraft:-

Pilot: Dead bugs on windshield.

Engineers: Live bugs on back-order.

 

Pilot: Evidence of leak on right main landing gear.

Engineers: Evidence removed. 
 

Pilot: DME volume unbelievably loud.

Engineers: DME volume set to more believable level.

 

Pilot: Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick.

Engineers: That's what friction locks are for.

 

Pilot: IFF inoperative in OFF mode.

Engineers: IFF always inoperative in OFF mode.

 

Pilot: Suspected crack in windshield.

Engineers: Suspect you're right.

 

Pilot: Number 3 engine missing.

Engineers: Engine found on right wing after brief search.

 

Pilot: Aircraft handles funny.

Engineers: Aircraft warned to straighten up, fly right, and be serious.

 

Pilot: Target radar hums.

Engineers: Reprogrammed target radar with lyrics.

 

Pilot: Mouse in cockpit.

Engineers: Cat installed.

 

Pilot: Noise coming from under instrument panel. Sounds like a midget pounding on something with a hammer.

Engineers: Took hammer away from midget

watermelonandtap1

 

Now onwards to weed, prune and mulch your plants,

 

 

 

squirrelresting

before having a well-earned rest!!
(from National Geographic's best photos for 2010)

 

A minor point to remember is the following penalties from Tree Preservation Orders: A guide to the Law and Good Practice:-

"Penalties

9.13 Anyone who cuts down, uproots, tops, lops, wilfully destroys or wilfully damages a tree in a conservation area without giving a section 211 notice (or otherwise in contravention of section 211) is guilty of an offence. The same penalties as those for contravening a TPO apply (see Chapter 10 of this Guide). For example, anyone who cuts down a tree in a conservation area without giving a section 211 notice is liable, if convicted in the Magistrates' Court, to a fine of up to £20,000. Anyone who carries out work in a way that is not likely to destroy the tree is liable to a fine in the Magistrates' Court of up to £2,500.

Replacement Of Trees: Enforcement

9.14 If a tree in a conservation area is removed, uprooted or destroyed in contravention of section 211 the landowner is placed under a duty to plant another tree of an appropriate size and species at the same place as soon as he or she reasonably can. 116 The same duty applies if a tree is removed because it is dead, dying or dangerous or because it is causing a nuisance.117 The duty attaches to subsequent owners of the land, although the LPA have powers to dispense with the duty.118 The LPA may enforce the duty by serving a tree replacement notice under section 207 of the Act (see Chapter 11 of this Guide).

109 See regulation 10.

110 Anyone proposing to cut down a tree in a conservation area on the grounds that it is dead, dying or has become dangerous is advised to give the LPA five days' notice before carrying out the work, except in an emergency.

111 Diameter as measured at 1.5m above ground level. In the case of multi-stemmed trees, the exemption applies only if the diameters of all the stems are less than 75 millimetres or 100 millimetres, as the case may be."

If as the owner you do nothing, there is no problem despite the fact that the main yew tree at St Margerets would rot internally; fall apart and die off. If you prune one leaf off the tree then you can be fined £2500 - if you have not got the neccessary permission from your local authority.

I was handed a sheet stating best practice for trees from the the local Tree Officer from the local council on 20 May 2011. Contained in the first section of that sheet of best practice I read that carpet may be laid round the tree to conserve moisture. The yew tree is at the top of a mound of waste subsoil put there from grave-digging. Most of modern carpet backing is plastic and therefore if that was done, the rain would fall on the carpet and run off it beyond the drip line of the tree, thus dehydrating the ground under it - and thus kill it. Putting the carpet there would also stop the Carbon Cycle and the Nitrogen Cycle and so the tree would die of aphyxiation. Then under enforcement, you would pay £20,000 for killing the tree and have to replace it. Then you can repeat the cycle.....

Do remember to get permission in writing from your local authority tree officer before doing ANYTHING in your conservation area garden each time you want to maintain your garden and a statement that the authority would pay to correct the situation if you followed its permission requirements / best practice; which then damaged anything in your garden.

Before you buy a property in a conservation area, do make sure that under the Replacement of Trees: Enforcement, that you would NOT be liable to replace a tree that was removed by a previous owner without permission - in writing.

In other words, do not buy:-

  • a property in a Conservation Area,
  • one that is a Listed Building or
  • one that has a Tree Preservation Order on a tree inside or just outside your property, since you may find that despite the damage that will be done to your property, that the local council will refuse permission for anything to be done about it.
  • If there is a plant with a trunk greater than 4 inches (10cms) in diameter 40 inches (100cms) above ground, you may well need the same permission to do anything on that plant, so avoid any houses with trees in their gardens or within the ground distance length from a house wall of the neighbouring garden's tree which is the height of that tree - see What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay?

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

 

 

 

1. Colour Wheel of All Flowers

colourwheelclickexported2a1a1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primary Colours:-
Red.
Yellow.
Blue.

Secondary Colours:-
Orange.
Green.
Violet.

Tertiary Colours:-
Red Orange.
Yellow Orange.
Yellow Green.
Blue Green.
Blue Violet.
Red Violet.

 

 

 

 

2. Bulb Colour Wheel

7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1

 

 

 

 

3. Bee-pollinated plants in Colour Wheel of 12 Flower Colours Per Month

bloomsmonth2a1a

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour

 

 

 

 

4. Rock Garden (Alpines) suitable for Small Gardens in 53 Colours

colourwheelexported1a1a1a

FLOWERING IN MONTH
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

 

 

 

 

5. Bloom in Month with 12 Flower Colours per Month

 

Click on a Page Number in a cell below containing your required Flower Petal Colour of a Month to
compare thumbnails of different flowers with that same flower colour in that month.

Click on capital letter of the Alphabet in a cell below to compare extra plants of that colour in that month.

 

Unusual Flower Petals are either
Multi-coloured, Bicolours,
Variegated,
Blends or a different colour to the others.

 

Month

Blue Flower Petals

Brown Flower Petals

Cream Flower Petals

Green Flower Petals

Mauve Flower Petals

Orange Flower Petals

Pink Flower Petals

Purple Flower Petals

Red Flower Petals

Unu-sual Flower Petals

White Flower Petals

Yellow Flower Petals

January

1

1 empty

1 empty
A

1 empty

1
A

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1
A

1
A

February

1

1 empty

1
A

1

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

1
A

March

1

1 empty

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

April

1
A

1

1

1

1

1

1
A

1

1

1

1 2
A

1
A

May

1
A

1
A

1

1

1

1

1
A

1

1

1

1 2
A

1
A

June

1

1
A

1

1

1

1

1 2 3

1

1 2

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2 A

July

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3 4

1

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2 3 A

August

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3 4

1

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 A

1 2 3

1 2

September

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3

1

1

1 A

1

1

October

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

1

November

1

1

1

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

December

1

1 empty

1
A

1 empty

1

1 empty

1

1

1

1

1 A

1 A

 

Private Garden Maintenance Pages

So, you want to improve your Garden Maintenance?
First, produce a Site Plan with the
Hard Landscape Plan drawing, followed by the
Soft Landscape Plan and moveable items drawings. Then,
create a Plant Maintenance/Pruning Plan before weeding / pruning / mulching. *
Private Garden Maintenance Site Map
 


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)
 

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery -
See the 1. Colour Wheel in the middle.

2. Choose a bulb from 1 of the 7 Flower Colours of the 720 bulbs in the Bulb Plant Gallery -
see the 2. Colour Wheel in the middle.

3. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic -
See also the 3. Colour Wheel in the middle.

4. Rock Garden (Alpines) suitable for Small Gardens in 53 Colours -
See the 4. Rock Garden (Alpines) suitable for Small Gardens in 53 Colours in the middle.

5. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery -
See the 5. Bloom in Month with 12 Flower Colours per Month in the middle.

6. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

7. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

8. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

or

 

9. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.

 

• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.

 

• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.

 

• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.

 

• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.

 

• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.

 

• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.

 

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a2

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a2

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a2

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a2

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

item2a1a1 item54a1a1a1 item53a1a1a1 item52b1a1a1 item51a1a1a1 item50a1a1a1 item49a1a1a1 item48a1a1a1 item47a1a1a1 item46a1a1a1 item45a1a1a1 item44a1a1a1 item43a1a1a1 item42a1a1a1 item41a1a1a1 item40a1a1a1 item39a1a1a1 item37a1a1a1 item36a1a1a1 item35a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1 item33a1a1a1 item32a1a1a1 item31a1a1a1 item29a1a1a1 item28a1a1a1 item27a1a1a1 item26a1a1a1 item25a1a1a1 item24a1a1a1 item23a1a1a1 item22a1a1a1 item20a1a1a1 item19a1a1a1 item18a1a1a1 item17a1a1a1 item16a1a1a1 item15a1a1a1 item14a1a1a1 item11a1a1a1 item10a1a1a1 item9a1a1a1 item8a1a1a1b item7a1a1a1 item4a1a1a1 item3a1a1a1 item2a1a1b1 item54a1a1a1 item53a1a1a1 item52b1a1a1 item51a1a1a1 item50a1a1a1 item49a1a1a1 item48a1a1a1 item47a1a1a1 item46a1a1a1 item45a1a1a1 item44a1a1a1 item43a1a1a1 item42a1a1a1 item41a1a1a1 item40a1a1a1 item39a1a1a1 item37a1a1a1 item36a1a1a1 item35a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1 item33a1a1a1 item32a1a1a1 item31a1a1a1 item29a1a1a1 item28a1a1a1 item27a1a1a1 item26a1a1a1 item25a1a1a1 item24a1a1a1 item23a1a1a1 item22a1a1a1 item20a1a1a1 item19a1a1a1 item18a1a1a1 item17a1a1a1 item16a1a1a1 item15a1a1a1 item14a1a1a1 item11a1a1a1 item10a1a1a1 item9a1a1a1 item8a1a1a1b item7a1a1a1 item4a1a1a1 item3a1a1a1 item2a1a1b1 item53a1a1a1a1a item52a1a1a1a1a1 item51a1a1a1a1a item48a1a1a1a1a item47a1a1a1a1a item44a1a1a1a1a item43a1a1a1a1a item40a1a1a1a1a item39a1a1a1a1a item38a1a1a1a1a item33a1a1a1a1a item32a1a1a1a1a item31a1a1a1a1a item27a1a1a1a1a item24a1a1a1a1a item23a1a1a1a1a item16a1a1a1a1a item15a1a1a1a1a item13a1a1a1a1a item12a1a1a1a1a item10a1a1a1a1a item9a1a1a1a1a item8a1a1a1a1a item7a1a1a1a1a1 item5b1a1a1a1a item4a1a1a1a1a item3a1a1a1a1a item2a1a1a1a1a1a item53a1a1a1a1a item52a1a1a1a1a1 item51a1a1a1a1a item48a1a1a1a1a item47a1a1a1a1a item44a1a1a1a1a item43a1a1a1a1a item40a1a1a1a1a item39a1a1a1a1a item38a1a1a1a1a item33a1a1a1a1a item32a1a1a1a1a item31a1a1a1a1a item27a1a1a1a1a item24a1a1a1a1a item23a1a1a1a1a item16a1a1a1a1a item15a1a1a1a1a item13a1a1a1a1a item12a1a1a1a1a item10a1a1a1a1a item9a1a1a1a1a item8a1a1a1a1a item7a1a1a1a1a1 item5b1a1a1a1a item4a1a1a1a1a item3a1a1a1a1a item2a1a1a1a1a1a item32b1a1 item29b1a1 item27b1a1 item25b1a1 item23b1a1 item22b1a1 item21b1a1 item51a1b1a1 item43a1b1a1 item39a1b1a1 item14a1b1a1 item12a1b1a1 item11a1b1a1 item9a1b1a1 item7a1b1a1 item3a1b1a1 item2a1b1a1 item32b1a1 item29b1a1 item27b1a1 item25b1a1 item23b1a1 item22b1a1 item21b1a1 item51a1b1a1 item43a1b1a1 item39a1b1a1 item14a1b1a1 item12a1b1a1 item11a1b1a1 item9a1b1a1 item7a1b1a1 item3a1b1a1 item2a1b1a1 item53a1a2a1 item52a1a2a item51a1a2a1 item45a1a2a1 item37a1a2a1 item36a1a2a1 item35a1a2a1 item34a1a2a1 item32a1a2a1 item31a1a2a1 item29a1a2a1 item28a1a2a1 item27a1a2a1 item25a1a2a1 item24a1a2a1 item23a1a2a1 item22a1a2a1 item18a1a2a1 item14a1a2a1 item11a1a2a1 item8a1a2a1 item7a1a2a1 item4a1a2a1 item3a1a2a1 item2a2a1a item53a1a2a1 item52a1a2a item51a1a2a1 item45a1a2a1 item37a1a2a1 item36a1a2a1 item35a1a2a1 item34a1a2a1 item32a1a2a1 item31a1a2a1 item29a1a2a1 item28a1a2a1 item27a1a2a1 item25a1a2a1 item24a1a2a1 item23a1a2a1 item22a1a2a1 item18a1a2a1 item14a1a2a1 item11a1a2a1 item8a1a2a1 item7a1a2a1 item4a1a2a1 item3a1a2a1 item2a2a1a