clematiscomtessedebouchardfloroseland

clematiscomtessedebouchardfolroseland

ajugareptansvariegata2a3a

Flower. Photo from Roseland House

Click on photo from Thorncroft Clematis

Foliage. Photo from Roseland House

Form

Click on photo from Completely Clematis

Plant Name

Clematis 'Comtesse de Bouchard'

Late Large-Flowered Group

(Syn.
Clematis 'Comtesse de Bouchaud',
Clematis 'Comtesse du Bouchaud',
Clematis 'Comtesse de Bauchaud' )

"Named after the wife of a Count who had a garden at Chasselay on the Rhone in France." from Clematis on the Web.

Grow in a Pot

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis, pergola or in a big pot.

Soil

Humus-rich Sand with Chalk

Sun Aspect

Full Sun with Any Aspect

Soil Moisture

Dry

Plant Type

Deciduous Climber

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

72-96 x 36 (180-240 x 90)

Foliage

Dark Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit

"Pink flowers with cream or pale yellow anthers. Strongly grooved along the midribs. July-September " from Clematis on the Web.

Comment

Clematis of the Month for February 2000 and is one of the best-known and most accessible of all the large-flowered hybrids.

"The variety has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. As early as 1912, William Robinson in his book 'The Virgin's Bower' lists this cultivar as "trusted to give lovely effects if culture and position be all [it] deserves." " from Clematis on the Web.

"This plant has been in cultivation for nearly 100 years, and it’s easy to see why: it is extraordinarily floriferous, tough and vigorous. Flowers are medium-size, well-formed, 4"- 6" diameter, mauvy-pink with contrasting yellow stamens. Easily the most popular pink clematis." from Completely Clematis.

Normally the foliage should be in the Sun while the roots are kept cool in the shade and moist.

"All Clematis need a deep rich loam and they like lime. On thin soils, calcareous types included, they are a failure. Heavy clay is excellent if it is broken up and mixed with weathered ashes and leafmould. Dig the soil deeply and add plenty of old, well-rotted cow manure. The best time for planting is September and October, the preparation of the soil being done in the spring. The following March cut them back drastically to a bud within 6 inches (15 cms) of the base. This initial treatment of all types of Clematis encourages strong, healthy growth. Similarly, pinching out the tips of too vigorous shoots encourages them to branch and flower, but it should not be done later than June." from Climbing Plants and Some Wall Shrubs by Douglas Bartrum (Published by The Garden Book Club in 1968).

Plant the top of the rootball about 3" (3 inches = 7.5 cms) below the soil surface to reduce risk of clematis wilt, and water well.

Climbing Cultivation Group:-

Group 3 Late Season, large-flowered Clematis. This group includes cultivars that bear large flowers from summer to early autumn, cultivars that bear small flowers from summer to late autumn, and herbaceous midsummer to late autumn-blooming species and cultivars. Hard Prune - Cut back all the previous year's stems to a pair of strong buds, 0.5 feet (0.5 feet = 6 inches = 15 cms) above soil level before growth begins in early spring. Flowers from Summer to early Autumn. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Available from Thorncroft Clematis and Roseland House Garden & Nursery in the UK with Completely Clematis in America.

Photographs by Roseland House Garden & Nursery.

clematiscomtessedebouchardflosroseland

ajugareptansvariegata2a4a

ajugareptansvariegata2a5a

Flowers. Photo from Roseland House

Leaf

Juvenile Foliage

ajugareptansvariegata2a6a

ajugareptansvariegata2a7b

ajugareptansvariegata2a7a1

Flower Bud Closed

Flower Bud Open

Seed/Fruit

CLEMATIS CLIMBER GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for Clematis Climber Plant Description pages

Introduction


CLIMBER FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
Orange
(o)Other Colours
(o)Pink
(o)Red
(o)White
(o)Yellow

CLIMBER FORM
(o)Climbing

CLIMBER FRUIT COLOUR
(o)Fruit

BED WITH CLIMBER PICTURES
(o)Garden

Climber Height from Text Border for the 3 height sectors on a house wall or high wall

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) for the Base Plants

Green=36-120 inches (90-300 cms)
for the
Prime Site Plants

Red = 120+ inches (300+ cms) for the Higher Reaches Plants

CLIMBER FOLIAGE COLOUR
Black
Blue
Brown
(o)Bronze
(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
Grey
(o)Purple
Red
Silver
(o)Variegated White
(o)Variegated Yellow
White
(o)Yellow
(o)Autumn Colour
(o)4 Season Colour

 

CLIMBER INDEX -
Climbers for House Wall and other supports like garden walls, pergolas, tripods, shrubs, trees:-
Ramblers and Scramblers.

Wall Shrubs.

Base of Wall
Plants
.

Climbers for all support areas except House Walls:-
Self-Clinging Climbers.

Twiners.

Annuals.

Tender Plants.

 

 

See in the table in the middle of this page for further details about
The Base,
The Prime Site and
The Higher Reaches - the 3 planting sectors on a house wall or high wall.

Climber Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil


WHAT TYPE AND WHERE IN THE
3 SECTOR VERTICAL PLANT SYSTEM CLIMBER INDEX -

Further details of each use are available in:-
Climber Ramblers and Scramblers Index.

Climber Wall Shrub Index.

Climber Annuals Index.


Climber Base of Wall Plants Index.


Climber Self-Clinging Index.


Climber Tender Plants Index.


Climber Twiners Index.

colormonthclimber9a1a1a

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).
Click on thumbnail to change page to the Climber Description Page of the Climber named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Climber Description Page details where that climber is available from.

Climber Name

Flower Colour

Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Climber Type and
Foliage Thumbnail

Comments

Aconitum
hemsleyanum

Soft Violet-Purple
 

aconitumcflohemsleyanumroseland1

August, September,
October

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Twiner
aconitumcfoljuvhemsleyanumroseland1
 

Flowers better if its roots are restricted. Poisonous if ingested. This plant is resistant to deer.

Actinidia deliciosa
 

Creamy-White to Buff-Yellow

Photo link

July, August

 

360 x 120 (900 x 300)

Twiner
actinidiafoltdeliciosa1

 

Male / female Fuzzy Kiwifruit flowers occur on different plants and both sexes have to be planted closely for fruit set.

Akebia quinata

 

Deep Red-Purple
 

akebiacfloquinataroseland1

March, April, May
 

120 x 120 (300 x 300) in 5 years (360 inches - 900 cms - high eventually).

Twiner
akebiacfolquinataroseland1
 

Dark green above, blue-green below, tinged purple in winter. Pruning Group 11, after its spicily frag-rant flowers.

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata
 

Greenish-White

 

Photo link

ampelopsisfrusbrevipedunculataroseland1

Seeds

June, July, August
 

180 x 144 (450 x 360)

Twiner
ampelopsisfolbrevipedunculataroseland1
 

It is a major invasive plant species in parts of the Eastern United States spread by birds consuming the seeds.

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata
'Elegans'

 

Greenish-White
 

Photo link

June, July, August

84 x 84
(210 x 210)

Twiner
ampelopsiscfolbrevipedunculataelegansroseland1

A neat and attractive climber useful for small gardens and pots. Any soil in sun or part shade

Anredera cordifolia
 

White
 

anrederacflocordifoliaroseland1

August, September
 

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Twiner
anrederacfolcordifoliaroseland1

The roots and leaves are edible - See Eat The Weeds. Hardy in the South of England, so train over a support on a wall or fence.

Araujia sericifera

White and Pink

araujiacflosericiferaroseland1

Flower

araujiacfrusericiferaroseland1

Seed

June, July, August

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Twiner
araujiacfolsericiferaroseland1

"This species is considered to be poisonous to livestock (e.g. cattle), domestic animals (e.g. poultry and dogs) and humans." from Weeds of Australia by Queensland Government.

Berberidopsis
corallina

 

Dark Coral-Red

berberidopisfloscorallinaroseland1

July, August,
September
 

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Twiner
berberidopiscfol2corallinaroseland1
 

Plants need support and look good scrambling over trellis or netting on a shady wall. I think it can withstand frost down to about -3C or -4C but no lower.

Billardiera longiflora
 

Pale Green
 

billardieracflolongifloraroseland1

July, August
 

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Twiner
billardieracfol2longifloraroseland1

The blueberry is suited to warm sites or a conservatory. It is useful for areas where space is restricted.

Billardiera longiflora
'Cherry Berry'

 

Lime-Green
 

Photo Link

billardierafrulongofloracherrybrandy1

Berries

July
 

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Twiner
billardierafollongofloracherrybrandy1

Grown on a house wall for its small evergreen leaves and for the ornamental berries, that are produced in the autumn and last long into the winter.

Bomarea caldasii

 

Red, Orange, Yellow
 

bomareacforcaldasiiroseland1

May, June, July,
August, September
 

180 x 72 (450 x 180)

Twiner
bomareacfolcaldasiiroseland1

In frost-prone areas, grow in a cool greenhouse; elsewhere, use to clothe a pergola, arbour or house wall.

Bomarea hirtella
 

Salmon, Yellow, Green
and Black
 

bomareafloshirtella1

June, July, August

 

96 x 72
(240 x 180)

Twiner
bomareafol1hirtella1
 

The flowers in their cluster open sequentially so the entire plant is in flower for a long time. Red berries follow in autumn just before the entire plant dies down for the winter.

Bomarea salsilla
 

Red
 

bomareacforsalsillaroseland1a

June, July, August
 

96 x 72
(240 x 180)

Twiner
bomareacfolsalsillaroseland1

Once it has flowered, it will go dormant below ground and reappear the following season

Bougainvillea Roseland
 

White with
Red Floral Bracts

bougainvilleacfloroseland1

July, August
 

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Scrambler
bougainvilleacfolroseland1

Tips on growing Bougainvilleas in the UK from Cleeve Nursery.

Campsis radicans

 

Orange-Red

 

campsiscfloradicansroseland1

August, September,
October

 

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Rambler
campsiscfol1radicansroseland1

Pruning Group 12 in late winter. It may take 2 or 3 seasons to estab-lish the main framework; tie in the shoots onto a Trellis or Wire frame support system of a wall or chainlink fence.

Campsis radicans 'Flamenco'
 

Bright Red with
Orange Centre
 

campsiscwheelfloradicansflamenco1

August, September
 

360 x 120 (900 x 300)

Rambler
campsisfoltradicansflamenco1

Good against a non-house wall or up a support as a stand alone specimen. The stems self cling to walls as they produce arial roots that grip to surfaces.

Campsis radicans
'Flava'

 

Yellow
 

Photo Link

August, September
 

360 x 120 (900 x 300)

Rambler
campsisfoltradicansflava1

Use on fences, arbors, trellises, walls. Also may be grown along the ground to camouflage rock piles or old tree stumps. Good vine for hot, dry sites.

Campsis x tagliabuana 'Madame Galen'
 

Salmon-Red
 

campsisflostabliabuanamadamegalen1

August, September
 

360 x 120 (900 x 300)

Rambler
campsisfol1tabliabuanamadamegalen1
 

Support with Trellis or Wire frame onto a garden wall or fence. Can be grown through a tree.

Cissus striata
 

Green
 

cissuscflostriataroseland1

June, July, August
 

360 x 300 (900 x 750)

Conservatory Twiner
cissuscfol2striataroseland1

Pruning Group 11, in spring. Half-hardy - climber can withstand temperatures down to 0 degrees Centigrade. An excellent plant for a north facing wall

Clematis
Normally the foliage should be in the Sun while the roots are kept cool in the shade and moist.

"All Clematis need a deep rich loam and they like lime. On thin soils, calcareous types included, they are a failure. Heavy clay is excellent if it is broken up and mixed with weathered ashes and leafmould. Dig the soil deeply and add plenty of old, well-rotted cow manure. The best time for planting is September and October, the preparation of the soil being done in the spring. The following March cut them back drastically to a bud within 6 inches (15 cms) of the base. This initial treatment of all types of Clematis encourages strong, healthy growth. Similarly, pinching out the tips of too vigorous shoots encourages them to branch and flower, but it should not be done later than June." from Climbing Plants and Some Wall Shrubs by Douglas Bartrum (Published by The Garden Book Club in 1968).

Plant the top of the rootball about 3" (3 inches = 7.5 cms) below the soil surface to reduce risk of clematis wilt, and water well.

 

Climbing Cultivation Group:-

  • Group 1 Early-flowering clematis. No Pruning - Prune after flowering to shorten stems to allotted space. This encourages new growth to flower in the following winter and early spring. Suitable for South, East or West facing on climbing trellis or wire support with well-drained soil.
  • Group 2 Early to Mid-Season, large-flowered Clematis. Light Prune - Remove dead and damaged stems before growth begins in early spring and trim all remaining stems back to where strong buds are visible. These buds provide a framework of second-year shoots which, in turn, produce sideshoots that flower in late spring and early summer. The flowers may then be removed. Young shoots bear more flowers in mid and late summer at their tips. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.
  • Group 3 Late Season, large-flowered Clematis. This group includes cultivars that bear large flowers from summer to early autumn, cultivars that bear small flowers from summer to late autumn, and herbaceous midsummer to late autumn-blooming species and cultivars. Hard Prune - Cut back all the previous year's stems to a pair of strong buds, 0.5 feet (0.5 feet = 6 inches = 15 cms) above soil level before growth begins in early spring. Flowers from Summer to early Autumn. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

The International Clematis Society was formed in 1984 by Raymond Evison. The membership now covers 27 countries, providing the world-wide interest and appeal for this fascinating genus. Members come from many different cultures - from China and Japan, from Poland, Latvia and Estonia, from Germany, Great Britain and Sweden, from Australia, USA and Canada, making the Society truly international.

In December 2015 the following mail-order nurseries sold some of these Clematis:-

Clematis armandii
 

Group 1

 

White
 

clematisarmandiicfloroseland1a

March, April, May
 

204-276 x 192
(510-690 x 480)

Twiner
clematisarmandiicfolroseland1

Note that some forms of armandii may be toxic to animals, especially dogs. Requires shelter from cold winds.

Clematis cirrhosa
Balearica

 

Group 1
 

White with
Red spotting
 

clematisbalearicacfloroseland1a

December, January, February, March
 

120-144 x 60 (300-360 x 150)

Twiner
clematisbalearicacfolroseland1
 

Evergreen foliage which turns to bronze or purple in the winter months. Flowers with Lemon-scented fragrance.

Clematis crispa
 

Group 3
 

Violet-Blue
 

clematiscrispacfloroseland1

May, June, July,
August, September

60-120 x 36 (150-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematiscrispacfolroseland1

Grow marsh clematis through shrubs, on trellises or in damp areas by ponds or streams

Clematis x
diversifolia
'Eriostemon'

 

Group 3
 

Purple-Blue

 

clematiseriostemoncfloroseland1a

June, July,
August,
September

60-84 x 36 (150-210 x 90)

Herbaceous
Climber
clematiseriostemoncfolroseland1
 

Very good for growing through more delicate shrubs as it is easy to remove the prunings without damaging the host.

Clematis
flammula

 

Group 3
 

White
 

clematisflotflammula1a

July, August, September,
October
 

240 x 36 (600 x 90)

Twiner
clematisfoltflammula1

Plant near a patio or deck and enjoy its fresh fragrance!The lower parts of the stem are bare, so a lavender in front of it would be suitable to hide this bareness.

Clematis florida
'Sieboldii'


Group 3

White with
Purple stamens
 

clematiscflofloridasieboldii1a

June, July, August,
September
 

84 x 36
(210 x 90)

Twiner
clematiscfolfloridasieboldii1

A mature plant of it climbs into a tree and sends down long streams of its unique paired flowers.

Clematis
macropetala

Group 1

Blue
 

clematismacropetalacflot1a1

April, May
 

72-120 x 36-72 (180-300 x 90-180)

Twiner
Photo Link

The Rosa 'Marechal Niel' (yellow) is mostly grown on walls. It is a fine companion for some of the deep purple-flowered Clematis. The plants do best on walls facing west.

Clematis
Early Large-Flowered

Clematis 'Asao'

Group 2

Pink
 

clematisasaocfloroseland1a1

May, June,
September
 

84-120 x 36 (210-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisasaocfolroseland1

The foiage often takes on a bronzy color. After first flowering with its strong sweet scent; it can be cut back, fed and watered to get a good second show.

Clematis
'Barbara Dibley'


Group 2

Red or
Purple-Violet

clematisbarbaradibleycfloroseland1a1

May, June, July,
August, September

78-120 x 36 (195-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisbarbaradibleycfolroseland1

Named after the raiser's secretary in 1949 and it belongs to the Clematis patens (patens means spreading: the epithet refers to the wide-spreading sepals of the flower) Group

Clematis
'Bees Jubilee'


Group 2

Mauve-Pink
 

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland1a1

May, June,
September
 

96-120 x 36 (240-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisbeesjubileecfolroseland1

Bees Jubilee is a compact plant that is suited for containers. It makes an excellent cut flower and the seedheads are beautiful too!

Clematis
'Belle of Woking'


Group 2

Silvery-Mauve
 

clematisbelleofwokingcfloroseland1a1

May, June,
September
 

72-96 x 36 (180-240 x 90)

Twiner
clematisbelleofwokingcfolroseland1

Needs plenty of support for the heavy flowers but will grow in sun or shade. Light prune in the winter, stems can be reduced after first flowering at which time feed and water to get a good second show.

Clematis
'Duchesse of Edinburgh'


Group 2

White
sometimes
tinged Green
 

clematisduchesseofedinburghcfloroseland1a1

May, June,
September
 

60-144 x (150-360 x )

Twiner
clematisduchesseofedinburghcfolroseland1

Fully double 5" flowers are produced on this compact vine in early and late summer. Suitable for containers. Early flowers may be touched with green.

Clematis
'Elsa Spath'


Group 2

Lavender Blue
 

clematiselsapathcfloroseland1a1

May, June,
September
 

84-156 x 36 (210-390 x 90)

Twiner
clematiselsapathcfolroseland1

It booms profusely and is very vigorous. Clematis of the Month for May 2004. The variety has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Clematis
'Mrs Cholmondeley'


Group 2

Light
Lavender-Blue
 

clematisflotmrscholmondeley1a

May, June, July, August,
September,
October
 

96-120 x 36 (240-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisfoltmrscholmondeley1

This Clematis of the Month is a dependable grower to 8'-10' (2.5-3m). It is ready to bloom early even if it has been heavily cut back, and able to keep the flowers coming over many weeks.

Clematis
'Nelly Moser'


Group 2

Mauve
 

clematiscflotnellymoser1a1

May, June,
September
 

72-120 x 12-36 (180-300 x 30-90)

Twiner
clematisfol1nellymoser1

Planted in the shade, the blossoms last for weeks instead of days. When growing it against a north-facing wall or fence, paint the surface a light color to reflect sunlight back to the plant.

Clematis 'Niobe'

Group 2

Rich Deep Red
 

clematisflotniobe2a1

May, June, July, August,
September

96-120 x 36 (240-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisfoltniobe1

Awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit in 1993. Niobe is a heavy bloomer from late spring to late summer.

Clematis 'Piilu'

Group 2

The name means "little duckling"

Light Purplish-Pink
with a dark
purplish-red bar

clematisflotpiilu1a

May, June,
August,
September,
October

60-84 x 60 (150-210 x 150)

Twiner
clematisfoltpiilu1

Blooms top to bottom of plant. Early season blooms are double and later are single. Flowers heavily even on young plants. It is extremely winter hardy, to Zone 2 they say.

Clematis
integrifolia

Clematis
'Aljonushka'

Group 3

'Alionushka' is an affectionate form of a Russian girl's name.

Pink
 

clematisaljonushkacfflo1a1

June, July,
August,
September,
(October)
 

60-84
(150 x 210)

Herbaceous
Non-Climber
clematisaljonushkacffol1

Awarded an RHS Award of Merit in 1995 and a British Clematis Society Certificate of Merit in 1998. Vigorous non-climber that bears handsome midsized bells over a long period.

Clematis
'Aphrodite'

 

Group 3

Pale Blue marked with Blue-Purple veins
 

clematisaphroditecfflo1a1

July, August,
September
 

60 x
(150 x )

Non-Climber
clematisaphroditecffol1

Grow through low shrubs but not in Pots. The tight group of stamens have white filaments and blue anthers making it look like it was dipped in blue paint!

Clematis
'Arabella'

 

Group 3

Purple-blue
lightens
with age
 

clematisarabellacfflo1a1

June, July,
August,
September,
October
 

60-84 x (150-210 x )

Herbaceous
Non-Climber
clematisarabellacffor1
 

Grow in a Pot and in beds of bush roses, through open shrubs, small deciduous trees or obelisks. Clematis of the Month for August 2003 which details its companion plants.

Clematis
'Blue Boy'

 

Group 3

Violet-Blue
 

clematisblueboycfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

96 x 36
(240 x 90)

Twiner
clematisblueboycfolroseland1

A heavy bloomer and sturdy grower, developed by Frank L. Skinner of Canada. Tough and resilient.

Clematis
'Durandii'

 

Group 3

Violet-Blue fade to
paler Blue
 

clematisdurandiicfloroseland1a1

June, July,
August,
September

36-120 x 36 (90-300 x 90)

Herbaceous
Climber
...
clematisdurandiicfolroseland1

It is tough and reliable; scramb-ling through low shrubs and herbaceous plantings. An excellent long lasting cut flower.

Clematis
Late Large-Flowered

Clematis
'Ascotiensis'

 

Group 3

Deep Blue fades
to Mid-Blue
 

clematisascotiensiscffloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x 36 (300-420 x 90)

Twiner
clematisascotiensiscffolroseland1

It has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Try growing it with a white or yellow rose!

Clematis
'Bagatelle'

 

Group 3

Mauve

 

clematisdorothywaltoncfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisdorothywaltoncfolroseland1

Bronze-flushed juvenile foliage becomes Light Green

Clematis
'Blue Angel'

 

Group 3

Pale Blue with
ruffled edges
 

clematisblueangelcfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x

Twiner
clematisblueangelcfolroseland1

Bred by Father Stefan Franczak of Poland, i: it is a hardy, sturdy grower, tolerant of a wide variety of conditions, as well as being a prolific bloomer.

Clematis
'Cardinal
Wyszynski'

Group 2
 

Crimson red,
pinkish-grey on the outside
 

clematiscardinalwysynskicfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

108 x 36 (270 x 90)

Twiner
clematiscardinalwysynskicfolroseland1

Grow with Shrubs and Roses or in Pots. Clematis of the Month for September 2000.

Clematis
'Charlie Brown'

 

Group 3

Pale Pink edged in
deeper Pink
 

clematischarliebrowncfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

78-96 x (195-240 x )

Twiner
clematischarliebrowncfolroseland1

Very free flowering. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Comtesse de Bouchard'

 

Group 3

Pink, strongly
grooved along the midribs
 

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

72-96 x 36 (180-240 x 90)

Twiner
clematiscomtessedebouchardcfolroseland1

Clematis of the Month is extraordinarily floriferous, tough and vigorous. Easily the most popular pink clematis.

Clematis
'Eetika'

 

Group 3

Red-Pink with
deeper
Red veining
 

clematiseetikacfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

36-120 x (90-300 x )

Twiner
clematiseetikacfolroseland1

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis, pergola or in a large pot.

Clematis
'Ernest
Markham'

 

Group 3

Red-Purple
 

clematisernestmarkhamcfloroseland1a1

June, July,
August,
September,
October
 

120-180 x 12-36 (300-450 x 30-90)

Twiner
clematisernestmarkhamcfolroseland1

Suitable for pots if hard pruned, otherwise grow on Trellis. Ernest Markham - William Robinson's Head Gardener at Gravetye Manor in Sussex - was the author of books on clematis.

Clematis
'Jackmanii'

 

Group 3

Deep Purple with
paler veins
 

clematiscflo1jackmaniigarnonswilliams1a

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x 36 (300-420 x 90)

Twiner
clematisfoljackmaniigarnonswilliams1

rosanewdawncflorogerltd1

Rosa 'New Dawn'

The rich purple, 5 inch flowers appear in profusion in early summer and can keep coming all summer long! This is great on a trellis or grown in combination with New Dawn Climbing Rose.

Clematis
'Ville de Lyon'

Group 3

Bright Red to
Purple-Red

clematiscflovilledelyon1a

July, August,
September

96-204 x 36 (240-510 x 90)

Twiner
clematiscfolvilledelyon1a

Best grown through an evergreen shrub, as lower foliage becomes scorched by late summer. Requires Group 3 pruning.

Clematis montana - Montana means growing in mountainous places. Clematis montana varieties must be planted to climb a high tree or over a long veranda or a wall. They are not suitable for drastic 'shaping'.

Clematis montana
 

Group 1

White
 

clematismontanacflofoord1a

April, May,
June, July
 

360 x 96 (900 x 240)

Twiner
clematismontanacfol9foord1

The Great Indian Clematis is fragrant. Very vigorous climber.

Clematis montana grandiflora 'Alba'

Group 1

White
 

clematismontanagrandifloraalbaflot2a1

May, June
 

252 x 252 (630 x 630)

Twiner
clematisfoltmontanagrandifloraalba1

White Clematis is scented and a very vigorous climber, which is ideal for covering fences, garden walls and pergolas.

Clematis montana
'Broughton Star'

 

Group 1

Pink double
 

clematisbroughtonstarcfloroseland1a1

May, June
 

240-360 x (600-900 x )

Twiner
clematisbroughtonstarcfolroseland1

These climbers can cover an Arbour, the pink Clematis growing up one side and the purple-leaved Vine Vitis flexuosa parvifolia up the other.

Clematis montana
'Elizabeth'

 

Group 1

Pink and paler Pink
in the middle
 

clematiselizabethcfloroseland1a1

May, June
 

276-396 x 120
(660-990 x 300)

Twiner with
large, Purple-flushed, Mid-Green Foliage

Vanilla-scented pale pink flowers in abundance in spring with some repeats in late summer. Rich dark foliage compliments the flowers and looks great all summer.

Clematis montana var fasciculiflora

Group 1

Bell-shaped Cream
 

clematisfasiculiflorafloroseland1a1

February,
March

168-204 x (420-510 x )

Evergreen
Subshrub
clematisfasiculifloracfolroseland1
Evergreen bronze leaves have a central silver stripe.

Flowers are carried in bunches (that's what the name means - flowers in bunches!) in March, they are sweetly scented. It has a habit of renewing it's leaves while flowering.

Clematis tangutica

Clematis tangutica
 

Group 3

Yellow

 

clematiscflo2tangutica1a

July, August, September,
October
 

168-204 x 96 (420-510 x 240)

Twiner
clematistanguticafolt9a
 

Excellent for training on a low wall - up one side and down the other. Or grow on a bush like Buddleia davidii, whose mauve flowers are at their best when the silky seed-heads of the Clematis begin to form.

Clematis tangutica 'Grace'
 

Group 3

Creamy-White
 

clematisgracecflohawthornes1a1

July, August, September

120-156 x (300-390 x )

Twiner
clematisgracecfolhawthornes1

Small, creamy white, outward facing flowers with red-purple stamens.

Clematis
viticella

Clematis
'Abundance'

 

Group 3

Reddish-Pink
 

clematisviticellaabundancecfflo1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-156 x 36 (300-390 x 90)

Twiner
clematisabundancefolt9a

Very free-flowering. Wonderful colour and a prolific bloomer, easy and reliable.

Clematis
'Alba Luxurians'

 

Group 3

White with Green-tipped tepals
 

clematiscfloalbaluxuriansgarnonswilliams1a

July, August,
September
 

96-120 x 36-72 (240-300 x 90-180)

Twiner
clematisalbaluxurianscffol1

Vigorous and free-flowering. The variety has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Clematis AVANT
-GARDE
'Evipo033'

 

Group 3

Red with pale pink
staminodes
 

clematisviticellaavantgardeflot9a1

July, August, September,
October
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematisviticellaavantgardefolt9a

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Bal Maiden
'
 

Group 3

Pink with darker
Pink veins
 

clematisbalmaidencfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-144 x 36 (300-360 x 90)

Twiner
Light Green foliage

A 'Bal Maiden' was a female surface worker (usually a widow) in Cornish tin mines. Grow through small shrubs but not in pots.

Clematis
'Betty Corning'

 

Group 3

Pinky-Blue or
Lilac edged and veined in darker
Blue-Mauve
 

clematisbettycorningcfloroseland1a1

July,
August,
September
 

96-120 x 36 (240-300 x 90)

Twiner
clematisbettycorningcfolroseland1

"If I could only have one clematis in my garden this would unhesitatingly be my choice."

Clematis
'Black Prince'

 

Group 3

Dark Purple
fades to
Reddish-Purple
 

clematisblackprincecfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisblackprincecfolroseland1

These rich dark purple slightly nodding flowers are ideal for a free standing trellis, but they will also look striking blooming from a light colored shrub or conifer.

Clematis
'Blue Belle'

 

Group 3

Deep Blue-Violet fades to
Plum-Purple
 

clematisbluebellecfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisbluebellecfolroseland1

Full Sun with Any Aspect. Hard prune in spring, it will reach 3M.

Clematis
'Brocade'

 

Group 3

Brick-Red
shading to Pink
 

clematisbrocadecflohawthornes1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisbrocadeforroseland1

Full Sun or Part Shade, so grow through a medium height evergreen shrub.

Clematis
'Burford Princess'

 

Group 3

Lilac-Purple with Creamy-White bar
 

clematisburfordprincesscfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisburfordprincesscfolroseland1

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Carmencita'

 

Group 3

Carmine to
Dark Red
 

clematiscarmencitacfloroseland1a

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematiscarmencitacfolroseland1

Named 'Carmencita' because this clematis reminded Magnus Johnson of "dark-eyed Spanish beauties". Excellent on a stone wall or on an obelisk.

Clematis
'Chacewater'

 

Group 3

White with a
broad pale
Violet margin
 

clematischacewatercfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematischacewatercfolroseland1

Named after the Cornish village where Mr Pridham has his nursery. Proving a good doer the shiny leaves are very mildew resistant.

Clematis
'Chatsworth'

 

Group 3

Pearly-Blue with
darker
Blue bar

 

clematischatsworthcfloroseland1a

June, July,
August,
September,
October

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
Foliage Photo Link

A vigorous grower, it is best suited to growing up a sturdy obelisk in a large herbaceous border, or being trained to grow through a tree or shrub.

Clematis
'Cornish Spirit'


 

Group 3

Rose-Purple
pale to white
at the base
 

clematiscornishspiritcfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematiscornishspiritcfolroseland1

t is very free flowering and will grow in any aspect.Raised at Roseland House in 2006 and named in 2007 as a result of a naming competition run by Cornish Blind association and a percentage of the sale price is donated to them.

Clematis
'Danae
'
 

Group 3

Violet-Blue with
broad White bar
 

clematisdanaecfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematisdanaecfolroseland1

Named after the raiser.. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Elvan'

 

Group 3

Purple-Blue with Creamy-White bar
 

clematiselvancfloroseland1a

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematiselvanfolhawthornes1

Full Sun with Any Aspect. Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Emilia Plater'

 

Group 3

Blue-Violet with
darker veins
 

clematisemalliaplattercfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematisemalliaplattercfolroseland1

Named after a Polish heroine, this hybrid is a robust and prolific bloomer, and is a great companion for roses or to grow through shrubs for mid-summer color.

Clematis
'Entel'

 

Group 3

Pinkish-Violet
with wavy-edged tepals
 

clematisentelcfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

84-120 x (210-300 x )

Twiner
clematisentelcfolroseland1

One of six cultivars taking their names from an Estonian nursery rhyme :-
"Entel, Tentel, Trikatrei,
Uhtsi, Kaaru, Kommerei".

Clematis
'Etoile Rose'

 

Group 3

Bell-shaped
Silvery-Pink to
Deep Pink
 

clematisetoilerosecfloroseland1a1

July, August, September,
October
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematisetoilerosecfolroseland1

Flowers heavily right through the summer. It can be grown on a trellis, combined with roses or allowed to climb through shrubs. Easy and prolific. It can get mildew, do plant in a well-ventilated site.

Clematis
'Etoile Violette'


Clematis 'Violet Star',
Clematis 'Fantasy'

Group 3

Deep Purple
 

clematisetoileviolettecfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-180 x 60 (300-450 x 150)

Twiner
clematisetoileviolettecfolroseland1

If the top third is removed straight after flowering a second flush will occur with flowers well into autumn. It's difficult to sing the praises of Clematis 'Etoile Violette' too highly.

Clematis
'Hagelby White'


 

Group 3

White
 

clematishagelbywhitecflohawthornes1a1

June, July,
August,
September
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematishagelbywhitecfolhawthornes1

Discovered in Hagelby Park, Stockholm, and introduced in 1998 to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Swedish Clematis Society. It was named after the village where Carl Linne had his summer house.

Clematis
'Jenny Caddick'

 

Group 3

Reddish-Mauve
 

clematisjennycaddickcflohawthornes1a1

July, August,
September
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematisjennycaddickcfolhawthornes1

Grow it through a Goldheart Ivy which looks good in late summer.

Clematis
'Joan Baker'

 

Group 3

Rosy-Mauve
 

clematisjoanbakercflohawthornes1a1

June, July,
August
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematisjoanbakercfolhawthornes1

Bred by Bill Baker of Tidmarsh, Herne, England and named after his wife. Hardy and moderately vigorous.

Clematis
'Ingrid
Biedenkopf'

 

Group 3

Blue-Mauve
 

clematisingridbiedenkopfcflohawthornes1a1

June, July,
August,
September
 

84-120 x (210-300 x )

Twiner
clematisingridbiedenkopfcfolhawthornes1

Found in the garden of Ute Kruse, Luneberg, Germany. Named after the wife of Herr Biedenkopf, premier statesman of Saxony.

Clematis
'Luxuriant Blue
'
'Caerulea Luxurians' is unacceptable under international naming guidelines and so the raiser, in 2007, agreed to its registration as 'Luxuriant Blue'.

Group 3

White or
Mauve-Blue with
Blue veins
 

clematiscaerulealuxurianscfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-168 x (300-420 x )

Twiner
clematiscaerulealuxurianscfolroseland1

It has four to six white petals that are diamond shaped with a hint of blue and purple at the tips. The flowers on long stems have green tips and a wide bell shape that flattens out as they open.

Clematis 'Madame
Julia Correvon'

 

Group 3

Wine-Red
 

clematismadamejuliacorrevoncflohawthornes1a1

July, August,
September
 

96-120 x (240-300 x )

Twiner
clematiscfolmadamejuliacorrevonkavanagh1

Extremely long flowering season if kept well fed and watered. 1 of the best and most popular reds.

Clematis 'Mikelite'
 

Group 3

Dark Purple-Red
 

clematismikelitecflohawthornes1a1

July, August,
September
 

72-96 x (180-240 x )

Twiner
 

Foliage Photo Link

Mikelite is a Lithuanian girl's name. This color looks particularly nice with white - try pairing it with Climbing Iceberg Rose.

Clematis
'Morning
Heaven'

 

Group 3

Light Blue with
pale
Red Stripe
 

clematismorningheavencflohawthornes1a1

June, July,
August,
September
 

120-156 x (300-390 x )

Twiner
clematismorningheavencfolhawthornes1

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clematis
'Pendragon'

 

Group 3

Reddish-Purple
 

clematispendragoncflohawthornes1a1

July, August,
September
 

120 x
(300 x )

Twiner
clematispendragonfol1hawthornes1

Clematis Pendragon was named for King Arthur's family from the medieval legends. It sports dusky reddish purple flowers by the hundreds on a mature specimen.

Clematis 'Rosea'
 

Group 3

Rose-Pink
 

clematisroseaviticellagroupcflohawthornes1a1

June, July,
August,
September
 

72-156 x (180-390 x )

Twiner
 

Foliage Photo Link

Flowers are abundantly borne in summer and are fragrant. Mine leans against a Pieris japonica whose juvenile red foliage highlights the pink of the integrifolia.

Clematis subsp. campaniflora
 

Group 3

White tinged Blue
or Violet
 

clematiscampanifloracfloroseland1a1

July, August,
September
 

120-288 x (300-520 x )

Twiner
clematiscampanifloracfolroseland1

A native of Portugal and Western Spain, it has the most dainty little bluey-white nodding bell-shaped flowers. This 'wild' clematis is worthy of space in our gardens.

Clematis
'Venosa Violacea'

 

Group 3

Purple veined White
 

clematisflotvenosaviolacea1a

July, August,
September
 

84-168 x 36 (210-420 x 90)

Twiner
clematisvenosaviolaceafolhawthornes1

Very eye-catching. The variety has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Clematis 'Zephyr'
 

Group 3

Soft Pink
 

clematiszephyrcflohawthornes1a

June, July,
August

120-156 x (300-390 x )

Twiner
clematiszephyrcfolhawthornes1

Grow to clothe a wall, arbour, trellis or pergola.

Clytostoma
callistegioides

Two-lipped
Lilac-Pink

clystomacflo1callistegioidesroseland1

June, July, August

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Conservatory
Twiner

clystomacfol1callistegioidesroseland1

This vigorous vine is prized for its trumpet-shaped flowers, which last over a long season, and its glossy, dark, evergreen leaves. Climbs trellises and arbors by tendrils, though needs support for walls.

Dicentra scandens
 

White or Yellow,
sometimes purple-
or pink-tipped
 

dicentracflosscandensroseland1

June,
July,
August

 

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Herbaceous
Rambler
dicentracfolscandensroseland1

A brilliant rampant, climber which grows faster than any plant I know, to cover arches, tepees and walls before you can say Jack Robinson.

Dregea sinensis
 

Fragrant, Creamy-
White

dregeacflosinensisroseland1

June, July,
August

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Evergreen Twining
dregeacfoltsinensisroseland1

Good on south and west walls but in milder areas may be grown on fences and sheds. min temperature -10c.

Eccremocarpus
scaber

 

Orange-Red
 

eccromocarpuscflo2scaberroseland1

May, June, July,
August, September
 

120-180 x 120
(300-450 x 300)

Conservatory
Twiner
eccromocarpuscfolscaberroseland1

Outside for warmer areas, tie young shoots to sheltered South-Facing House-Wall Vine-eye and Wire or Trellis support system up to 6 feet.

Eccremocarpus scaber
f. carmineus
 

Carmine-Red
 

eccromocarpuscfloscaberfcarmineusroseland1a1a

April, May, June,
July, August,
September
 

120-180 x 120
(300-450 x 300)

Conservatory
Twiner
 

Foliage Photo Link

Eccremocarpus scaber was introduced to the UK from Chile in 1824. Naturally orange flowered, many different coloured forms now exist.

Ercilla volubilis
 

Green or pale Purplish-Pink flower spikes

ercillacflovolubilisroseland1

February, March
 

240-360 x 240
(600-900 x 600)

Evergreen Self-Clinger
(Aerial Root)
ercillacfoltvolubilisroseland1

Tie in to a support until the adhesive roots become established and can support the mature plant. Use on Chainlink Fence or 1 inch square timber of trellis as support, but not advisable on external house walls.

Fremontodendron 'California Glory'

Deep Yellow
 

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory1

May, June
 

240 x 144 (600 x 360)

Rambling Shrub
fremontodendronfoltcalifornianglory1

Pruning Group 13 when trained on a wall.

Gelsemium
sempervirens

 

Fragrant, bright,
pale to
deep Yellow
 

gelsemiumcflossempervirensroseland1

April, May,
June, July
 

120-240 x 180
(300-600 x 450)

Evergreen
Twining
Tuberous
gelsemiumcfoltsempervirensroseland1

Pruning Group 12, after flowering. In frost-prone areas (minimum 0 degrees Centigrade) grow in a warm greenhouse or conservatory.

Gloriosa
superba
'Rothschildiana'

Bright red,
yellow near the bases and margins

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland1

July,
August,
September

72 x 12
(180 x 30)

Perennial
Scrambling
gloriosacfolstemsuperbaroseland1

Plant tubers 4 inches deep in a pot with mixture of John Innes No. 2 and added grit in the early spring inside the building with access to full sunlight. Put pot with its plant support system outside from late May to middle of September.

Hedera canariensis 'Gloire de Marengo'
 

Yellowish-Green
 

Flowers followed by fruits which are a very valuable winter food source for birds.

October,
November
 

144 x 96 (360 x 240)

Self-Clinger
hederafolmaturecanariensisgloiredemarengo1

Light Silvery-Green, variegated creamy White. Pruning Group 11. Suitable for sheltered wall, but not on a house wall as the climber can block guttering.

Hedera canariensis 'Ravensholst'
 

Yellowish-Green
 

Use on sheltered wall, but not on a house wall as the climber can block guttering.

October,
November
 

180 x 60 (450 x 150)

Self-Clinger
hederafoldcanariensisravensholst1

The American Ivy Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the genus Hedera through education and promotion.

Hedera helix
'Buttercup'

 

Yellowish-Green
flowers are followed by fruits which are a very valuable winter food source for birds.

Use on sheltered South-facing wall, but not on a house wall as the climber can block guttering.

October,
November
 

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Self-Clinger
hederafolthelixbuttercup1

Foliage is Pale Green in Shade, bright Yellow in full sun.

Hedera helix
'Glacier'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

Can also be used as ground cover or as a house-plant.

October,
November
 

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Self-Clinger
hederafolthelixglacier1

Foliage is Grey-Green variegated with Silver-Grey and Cream

Hedera helix
'Goldchild'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

Ideal as a houseplant or on a low wall.

October,
November
 

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Self-Clinger
hederafolthelixgoldchild1

Foliage is Grey-Green with broad Yellow margins.

Hedera helix
'Goldheart'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

Excellent wall ivy, but not on a house wall as the climber can block guttering.

October,
November
 

300 x 180 (750 x450)

Self-Clinger
hederafolthelixgoldheart1

Goldheart Ivy foliage is Dark Green, each with a central splash of bright Yellow. Tends to lose its variegation if grown as ground cover.

Hedera helix
'Green Ripple'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

A tough, reliable and vigorous climber ideal for growing in sun or shade up a wall or fence.

October,
November
 

72 x 60
(180 x 150)

Self-Clinger
hederafol3helixgreenripple1

An evergreen, self-supporting ivy with bold dark green leaves, the edges of which are beautifully rippled.

Hedera helix
'Hibernica'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

Useful and vigorous ground cover Ivy.

October,
November
 

360 x 180 (900 x 450)

Self-Clinger
hederafolthelixhibernica1

Irish Ivy foliage is Dark Green.

Hedera helix
'Ivalace
'
 

Yellowish-Green
 

Excellent all-round ivy for a low wall, as ground cover or as a houseplant.

October,
November
 

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Self-Clinger
hederafoldhelixivalace1

Lustrous Dark Green foliage with wavy, curled and crimped margins.

Hedera helix
'Little Diamond'

 

Yellowish-Green
 

This compact and slow-growing climber can be used as a houseplant or in a rock garden.

October,
November
 

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Self-Clinger
hederafoldhelixlittlediamond1

Grey-Green foliage, variegated creamy-White

Hydrangea
petiolaris

White
 

hydrangeafoltpetiolaris1

July, August
 

600 x 240 (1500 x 600)

Self-Clinger
hydrangeaflotpetiolaris1

Dark Green foliage turning Yellow in Autumn. Pruning Group 11 after flowering.

IJ

Jasminum
beesianum

 

Pinkish-Red
 

jasminumflotbeesianum1

May, June
 

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Twiner

Foliage Photo Link

Thin overcrowded growth after flowering. Grow over a garden but not a house wall.

Jasminum officinale 'Aureovariegatum'

White
 

Flower Photo Link

June, July, August, September

480 x 180 (1200 x 450)

Twiner
jasminumfoltofficinaleaureovariegatum1

Very striking grown through a deep green yew hedge or over a garden but not a house wall.

KL

Lonicera japonica
'Halliana'

 

White that ages
to Yellow
 

loniceraflotnewjaponicahalliana1

June, July, August,
September
 

360 x 180 (900 x 450)

Twiner
lonicerafoltjaponicahalliana1

Japanese Honeysuckle is ideal for covering a pergola, arch or boundary wall, or scrambling through robust shrubs and trees.

Lonicera
periclymenum

White to Yellow, often Red-flushed

loniceraflotpericlymenum1

July, August
 

264 x indefinite (660 x indefinite)

Twiner
lonicerafoltpericlymenum1

A tall Holly (like Green Pillar) has been used as a host tree to the charming rose Rosa bracteata (the "Macartney Rose"), which has white, scented flowers, 3 inches wide; and the common Honeysuckle of our hedgerows, Lonicera periclymenum, with yellowish-white and pink tubular flowers; both planted on the north side of the tree, in shade, and allowed to clamber up into the sun.

M

N

O

Parthenocissus
tricuspidata 'Veitchii'

 

Green
 

Flower Photo Link

July
 

840 x indefinite (2100 x indefinite)

Self-Clinger
parthenocissusfolt2tricuspidataveitchii1a

Grow through a large tree or use to cover a wall or fence. Bright Green in Spring and Summer turning dark red-purple in the autumn.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia
 

Green
 

Flower Photo Link

July
 

600 x indefinite (1500 x indefinite)

Self-Clinger

parthenocissusfolt1quinquefolia1

Mid Green in Spring and Summer turning brilliant red in the autumn. Mature specimens also provide an important habitat for insects and small birds.

Passiflora caerulea
 

White, sometimes Pink-tinged, with Purple, Blue and White-zoned coronas

passifloraflotcaerulea1

July, August,
September
 

360 x 120 (900 x 300)

Twinerpassiflorafoltcaerulea1

Passio is spanish for passion and floris is flower. It is one of the finest climbers for a pot.

Q

R

Senecio
mikanioides

 

Orange/Yellow
 

seneciocflosmikanioidesroseland1

December, January,
February
 

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Conservatory
Twiner
seneciocfoltmikanioidesroseland1

A fast growing vine, with long trailing stems that stretch over 20 feet from the roots, and smother other plant life.

Solanum crispum
 

Lilac to Purple-Blue
 

solanumflotcrispum1

June
 

240 x 60 (600 x 150)

Scrambler
solanumfoltcrispum1

Tie in stems of Chilean Potato Tree to horizontal wires or trellis. In early spring remove a third of the oldest stems to ground level.

Solanum
jasminoides

 

Blue-White
 

solanumflotjasminoides1

July, August,
September, October
 

240 x 120 (600 x 300)

Scrambler
solanumfoltjasminoides1

Train onto a South-facing wall

Solanum jasminoides
'Album'

White
 

solanumflotjasminoidesalbum1

July, August,
September, October

240 x 120 (600 x 300)

Scrambler
centaurea montana foliage

Being Half-hardy to zero degrees centigrade indicates that it should be planted in June and removed after the first frosts in October.

Trachelospermum asiaticum
 

Creamy-White ages to Yellow
 

trachelospermumflosasiaticum1

July, August
 

240 x 120 (600 x 300)

Twiner
trachelospermumfoltasiaticum1

Frost Hardy to -5 degrees Cent-igrade, so put on South-facing wall.

Trachelospermum jasminoides
 

White
 

trachelospermumflotjasminoides1

July, August
 

336 x 144 (840 x 360)

Twiner
trachelospermumfoltjasminoides2a

Glossy Dark Green turn Bronze-Red in Winter. Frost Hardy to -5 degrees Centigrade, so put on South-facing wall.

Tropaeolum
tricolorum

Orange to Yellow
 

tropaeolumflottricolorum1a

February, March,
April

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Twiner
tropaeolumfolttricolorum1

Dormant during the summer, starts growth in early autumn, and water sparingly in autumn and winter.

U

VW

Vitis 'Brant'

Green

See Vitis 'Rondo' in full flower

July

264 x 72 (660 x 180)

Rambler
vitisfoltbrant1

Grow over a trellis, pergola, fence or South, East or West-facing house wall

Vitis coignetiae

Green

---

July

600 x 312 (1500 x 780)

Rambler
vitisfoltcoignetiae1

Performing best in full sun, it's ideal for covering an unsightly fence or wall or for scrambling through an established tree.

Wisteria floribunda
'Alba

 

White
 

Flower Photo Link

May, June
 

336 x indefinite (840 x indefinite)

Twiner
wisteriafoltfloribundaalba1

Japanese Wisteria can be trained onto a house wall, into a tree and over an arch or pergola.

Wisteria sinensis
 

Mauve to
Purplish-Lilac
 

wisteriaflotsinensis1

May, June
 

336 x indefinite (840 x indefinite)

Twiner
wisteriafoltsinensis1

Chinese Wisteria can be trained onto a house wall, into a tree and over an arch or pergola.

Wisteria sinensis 'Alba'

White

wisteriaflotsinensisalba1

May, June

336 x indefinite (840 x indefinite)

Twiner

It can be trained onto a house wall, into a tree and over an arch or pergola.

XYZ

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2009.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Amended Index table on each page by adding thumbnails of flower and foliage November 2015.
Updated to blue, size 10, verdana, bold throughout and added the 2 last tables on the right in April 2024.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

The links were valid when created, but websites close and others change from insecure http to more secure https - this makes the http link invalid.

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

Copied from

Ivydene Gardens Clematis Climber Plant Gallery:
Introduction

 

There are further details on the Climber Page and the Pruning Page of the Plants Section.

Clematis belong to the Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae) but unlike that flower have no true petals. The spreading petal-like organs - often showy and beautifully coloured - are actually sepals: usually 4, but up to 8 in number. Botanists have divided the genus into 2 groups, viz:-
 

 

Growing Clematis Vines describes the different varieties of clematis cultivars and explains how to propagate, plant, prune and care for them.

The British Clematis Society exists to promote the cultivation and preservation of clematis. Use their site to find out where you can see clematis or perhaps use its advice to help you get the most from your garden plants.

A single species or one of the large-flowered varieties may be trained up wires fixed against the wall of the house; the semi-shady side is best. The supports must be thin, slender, wire-like, because Clematis are leaf-stalk tendril climbers. They cannot grasp thick branches. When the leaf-stalks make contact with a twig, they begin to curve round it like a ring. This movement is caused by the stimulus the stalks get, and they always curve towards the side which has touched or been pressed by the twig. Due to this requirement for thinness of support system, it might be easier for the Clematis to climb up Chain-link fencing rather than 1" square timber in 12" squares trellis.

History of Clematis includes the name 'clematis', which is derived from the Greek word klema, meaning vine branch or vine-like.

These gallery photographs were provided by Hawthornes, Roseland House & Nursery and some by Christine Foord (they were photographed by Christine and Ron Foord).

 

Fragrant Flowers:-
Clematis armandii
Clematis crispa
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Asao'
Clematis flammula
Clematis montana 'Elizabeth'
Clematis montana var fasciculiflora
Clematis montana grandiflora 'Alba'
Clematis montana var montana
Clematis viticella 'Betty Corning'
Clematis viticella 'Pendragon'

 

The Viticella group have been especially designed to suit the new-comer to growing clematis. They normally grow very well with a modicum of assistance and are virtually pest and disease free. 
The original specie comes from Southern Europe and is a variable purple in colour, the flowers are wide hanging bells produced in profusion. This character has been retained by all the hybrids. All grow to about 4 metres and can be hard pruned over the winter as is normally recommended . You may - if you wish - leave the stems longer especially if grown into a shrub. Try cutting the stems to different lengths which will increase the flowering height. None are fussy about aspect and flower about July or August for many weeks.

The Viticellas Group, A to Z:-
'Abundance'
'Alba Luxurians'
AVANT-GARDE 'Evipo033'
'Bal Maiden'
'Betty Corning'
'Black Prince'
'Blue Belle'
'Brocade'
'Burford Princess'
'Caerulea Luxurians', 'Luxuriant Blue'
viticella subsp. campaniflora
'Carmencita'
'Chacewater'
'Chatsworth'
'Cornish Spirit'
'Danae'
'Elvan'
'Emilia Platter'
'Entel'
'Etoile Rose'
'Etoile Violette'
'Hagelby White'
'Ingrid Biedenkopf'
'Jenny Caddick'
'Joan Baker'
'Mikelite'
'Madame Julia Correvon'
'Morning Heaven'
'Pendragon'
'Rosea' (Viticella Group)
'Venosa Violacea'
'Zephyr'
 

Details of the Horticultural classification system (this link no longer works in April 2024) for Clematis is in The International Clematis Register and Checklist 2002 Third Supplement for:-

Small-Flowered Division - Flowers 2-12 cm (1-5 inches) across:-

  • Armandii Group
  • Atragene Group
  • Cirrhosa Group
  • Flammula
  • Forsteri Group
  • Hericleifolia Group
  • Integrifolia Group
  • Montana Group
  • Tangutica Group
  • Texensis Group
  • Viorna Group
  • Vitalba Group
  • Viticella Group

and the Large-Flowered Division - Flowers 10-22 (4-9 inches) cms across, usually flat:-

  • Early Large-Flowered Group comprises of the former Patens Group and the Fortunei Group.
  • Late Large-Flowered Group comprises of the former Lanuginosa Group and the Jackmanii Group.
     

 

Clematis which can be grown in a Pot:-
Clematis cirrhosa Balearica
Clematis x diversifolia 'Eriostemon'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Asao'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Bees Jubilee'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Elsa Spath'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Nelly Moser'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Niobe'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Piilu'
Clematis florida var sieboldiana
Clematis integrifolia 'Aljonushka'
Clematis integrifolia 'Arabella'
Clematis integrifolia 'Durandii'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Cardinal Wyszynski'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Comtesse de Bouchard'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Eetika'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Ernest Markham'
Clematis macropetala
Clematis viticella AVANT-GARDE 'Evipo033'
Clematis viticella 'Betty Corning'
Clematis viticella 'Etoile Rose'

 

Clematis with Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-
Clematis cirrhosa Balearica
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Bees Jubilee'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Elsa Spath'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Mrs Cholmondeley'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Nelly Moser'
Clematis Early Large-Flowered 'Niobe'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Ernest Markham'
Clematis florida var sieboldiana
Clematis integrifolia 'Aljonushka'
Clematis integrifolia 'Durandii'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Ascotiensis'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Comtesse de Bouchard'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Ernest Markham'
Clematis Late Large-Flowered 'Jackmanii'
Clematis montana 'Broughton Star'
Clematis montana 'Elizabeth'
Clematis viticella 'Alba Luxurians'
Clematis viticella 'Betty Corning'
Clematis viticella 'Etoile Violette'
Clematis viticella 'Madame Julia Correvon'
Clematis viticella 'Venosa Violacea'

 

Evergreen Clematis:-
Clematis armandii
Clematis cirrhosa Balearica
Clematis montana var fasciculiflora

 

Herbaceous Clematis:-
Clematis x diversifolia 'Eriostemon'
Clematis integrifolia 'Aljonushka'
Clematis integrifolia 'Arabella'
Clematis integrifolia 'Durandii'

 

Non-Climbing Clematis:-
Clematis integrifolia 'Aljonushka'
Clematis integrifolia 'Aphrodite'
Clematis integrifolia 'Arabella'
Clematis integrifolia 'Durandii'

 

Clematis with Good Cut-Flower:-
Clematis crispa

 

Clematis which are toxic to animals:-
Clematis armandii are toxic to dogs

 

Clematis for small spaces by Raymond J. Evison:-

The 150 clematis featured in this book are hand-picked for their longer flowering periods, large flowers and resistance to diseases. Internationally renowned clematis breeder Raymond Evison recommends the best clematis for particular situations, such as containers, mixed borders, patios, deck gardens, hanging baskets, and balconies. Clematis associate well with a variety of other plants and the author lists suitable companion plants and explains how to achieve a compatible mix of color, shape, and other characteristics.

or

An illustrated encyclopedia of clematis by Mary Toomey, Everett Leeds, British Clematis Society:-

"With more than 800 Clematis species and cultivated varieties from which to choose, gardeners and growers have been inundated with options. Even more frustrating for some has been the absence of a single comprehensive reference with which to identify the numerous cultivars. This new volume, written by distinguished clematis experts and backed by the authority of the British Clematis Society, is the first picture encyclopedia on the genus to encompass the garden-worthy species and hybrids.
This book is in two sections: the first is devoted to the care and cultivation of clematis, while the second provides an A — Z directory of more than 550 plants, from the acclaimed large-flowered forms to the less-familiar shrubby, subshrubby, and herbaceous forms that are beginning to be available. Using everyday language, the authors provide plant descriptions that include information on synonyms, origin, plant habit and height, flowers, pruning group, flowering period, cultural requirements, recommended uses in the garden, and hardiness zones. The text is accompanied by more than 650 magnificent color photos, making this encyclopedia an indispensable reference and guide."

 

"The time when most new clematis were introduced was more than a hundred years ago. This was in the period 1860-1880. It started with Jackman's crossing of C. lanuginosa with C. viticella to produce C. 'Jackmanii'. The size of the flower and profusion of the plant was a sensation. Nurseries set about producing clematis all over Europe. 

Then disaster struck. For centuries the fungus of clematis had been waiting for a decent meal. Suddenly there was clematis everywhere. The fungus set about them. There was devastation all over Europe. The nurseries abandoned clematis.

By now clematis has made a dramatic recovery. This is due to better nursery hygiene, fungicides and better understanding of clematis wilt. This rarely kills a plant. Once this is understood the damaged stem can be cut off. The roots are alive and soon produce new stems. As the stems mature they turn brown and are immune to wilt. " from How New Clematis are Born (this link no longer works in April 2024).

Perhaps it is best to plant the clematis with a foot (300mm) of soil above its compost top to the existing ground level (to allow for growth of extra root structure, so that if clematis wilt attacks the plant, it then has plenty of below ground reserves to create a new plant above ground), and at least 2 feet away from a wall (to get away from the dryness in the soil at the bottom of a wall) with a bamboo cane angled towards the support structure on that wall (to aid its method of attaching itself to support structures).

 

"The Rogerson Clematis Collection was formed over a long period with an eye to preserving historic clematis as well as the newest. The collection includes plants that are unique or exceptionally rare. At approximately 500 taxa and just under 900 individual plants, it is one of the largest assemblage of clematis in the Western Hemisphere. Approximately 30% of the taxa in the collection are not currently available in the “trade.”

Although a growing number of clematis are now easier to obtain by the general gardening public, and accurate information about them is increasingly available, the clematis in the Rogerson Collection are of singular value because they constitute a unique whole. The collection has a balance not found in private gardens nor in institutions of botanical learning because it embraces both the species and their cultivars and the more widely known race of large-flowered hybrids.

“The specialist garden has always been of primary importance in preservation, from the standpoint of taxonomic and historical reference, in addition to basis conservation. The benefit we receive, as generalized horticulturists, from those who have committed their energies to a single genus is staggering.” Daniel J. Hinkley

The collection is located at Luscher Farm in West Linn, Oregon (see map below), and is under the care of the Friends of the Rogerson Clematis Collection (FRCC). The mission of FRCC is to promote and advance the joy of growing the genus clematis through education and the preservation of the Rogerson Clematis Collection." from the Rogerson Clematis Collection in America.

 

 

3 Sector Vertical Plant System from Infill3 Gallery

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. Published by Penguin Books Ltd. in 1990. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 is providing more climbers to add to the ones from Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) which describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

Warning - Just as it is a mistake to try to keep a tiger in a dog's kennel, it can be a disaster to plant a rampant grower in a site that it will very quickly outgrow. Strong climbers, especially self-supporting ones (Ivy, Ampelopsis, Parthenocissus and Vitis), can quickly get to the eaves, where they may sabotage gutters, and if allowed to get onto the roof, distort or even dislodge tiling. Climbing roses must be supported by humans tying them to structures since the roses cannot do it themselves (keep the top of the structures 36 inches (90 cms) below the eaves so that annual pruning can reduce the risk of the odd stem reaching the guttering!! See Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages 1, 2, 3, 4 ).

There are 3 sectors on a house wall or high wall:-

  • 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) in height - The Base. This gives the most sheltered conditions in the garden, with soil and air temperatures above those of the surrounding area. This area will suffer less buffeting from wind. Soil care will be ensuring a high humus content - to enrich the nutrient value and help to create reservoirs of moisture. Light intensity will depend on the aspect of the wall (North-facing will get very little sunlight) with the surrounding buildings and plants, including trees.
    The following pages in InFill3 gallery cover
    The Base:
  • 36-120 inches (90-300 cms) in height - The Prime Site. As the plant moves upwards to about 6 feet, conditions change: plants still benefit from the reflected heat and stored heat of walls warmed by the sun but have more light and air. Many climbers will have established a trunk below and now begin to spread themselves. This middle section is visually important, because it is at eye level and just below that that we should display those items to which we want to draw most attention. Most of the shrubs that are suitable for growing against walls are between 3 and 10 feet in height.
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Prime Site:
  • Above 120 inches (300+ cms) in height - The Higher Reaches. This is only likely to occur on house walls and other tall buildings with climbers and trained trees/shrubs covering all the way up to 36 inches from the guttering at roof level ( to prevent ingress to the internal roof space or blockage of the guttering).
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Higher Reaches:

The climbers in this gallery have been placed into one of these 3 heights with the Text Box Boundary in:-

  • Blue for 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)
  • Green for 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)
  • Red for above 10 feet.

This Gallery splits the climbers into their following ways of climbing:-

  • Ramblers/Scramblers - These climbers lean on other plants or need artificial supports to climb - Roses, Jasmine, Espalier-trained Fruit Tree/Fruit Ramblers. These are suitable for house or building walls where vine-eye and wire or 1 inch square timber trellis support structures can be erected up to 3 feet below the gutter for the climbers to be tied to with natural twine (not plastic or metal wire - stems grow sideways but plastic and metal contrict this, whereas natural twine will eventually rot or be broken by the expanding stem), or they can be trained on chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or arbours. Herbaceous Clematis has been added since the top growth dies off completely in the Autumn and Non-Climbing Clematis since it will require being tied to a support structure. In theInfill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3a House-Wall Ramblers
     
  • Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots - A series of roots are produced along the length of its stems. These attach themselves very strongly to the surfaces they find - Ivy (Hedera).
    Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads - Tendrils are produced along the young growing stems, opposite the leaves. The main tendril stem divides into a number of slender filaments, each of which has a scarcely perceivable pad at its tip.Once the tips have established contact, the tiny pad is much expanded and becomes a significant sucker, which fits so strongly to the surface that if the stem is pulled away the suckers are left behind- Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia).
    Self-Clingers: Twining - Many climbers find support simply by twining their stems around any object they find - Wisteria and Honeysuckle.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem - Some climbers make do with sensitive leaf stalks which wrap themselves around objects for support - Clematis. Others establish themselves with thorns, hooks, spines and prickles.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils - A group of climbers climb by producing a series of tendrils. These are touch sensitive and will curl round any small object they come into contact with and thus enable the plant to climb securely on itself or other plants or manmade support structures - Chinese Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus henryana), Sweet Pea and the Pea Family (Leguminosae).
    All these Self-Clingers are suitable for garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges, but not for House-Walls. In the Infill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3b The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Climbing Twiners 1, 2 Page or
    3c The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Self-Clinging Climbers Page.
     

Climber 3 Sector Vertical Plant System Use Pages:-

 

Further details of each are available in Climber Gallery
Climber Ramblers and Scramblers for House Wall and other supports like garden walls, pergolas, tripods, shrubs, trees,
Climber Wall Shrub Index for House Wall and other areas of the garden,
Climber Annuals Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Base of Wall Plants for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Self-Clinging Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Tender Plants Index for all support areas except House Walls, or
Climber Twiners Index for all support areas except House Walls
.


These are split into the following in the Comparison Pages (since the pages use a fixed template format, then if the Title of the Page has a White Background and its a Twiner you are looking for, the photos will be at the bottom of the page with blanks before it. A Page Title with a Green Background indicates an empty page)
:-

  • Ramblers/Scramblers for the Ramblers/Scramblers
  • Self-Clinging Climbers for the Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots and Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads.
  • Twiners for the Self-Clingers: Twining, Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem and Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils.

This plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of climber flowers in the following colours per month:-

 

If you click on a thumbnail the window changes to one with 9 larger images (Flower, Foliage and Form - for Flower, Foliage and Form pages) and the following plant description:-

  • Plant Name
  • Common Name
  • Soil
  • Sun Aspect
  • Soil Moisture
  • Plant Type
  • Height x Spread in inches (cms)
  • Foliage
  • Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit.
  • Comments - Form Type, Pruning Group, Native UK Plant. There are further details on pruning of climbers in the Pruning Page of the Plants Section.
     

 

Gardeners in the UK tend to weed their flower beds and are satisfied when it is weedless; with bare soil between the plants. Then,
they expect those plants to be grateful and thrive.

Unfortunately, there needs to be something for those plants to eat through the medium of being either dissolved or carried in water through tunnels created by worms to their roots. The water is usually rain, but sometimes the owners spray a lage amount of water as irrigation instead and still expect these plants to grow.
This is like having a child in a sweet shop and expecting it to grow. So, what does the child eat or drink when all those sweets have been eaten and not replaced?

The following steps might elucidate you,
so that you understand what to do to get a humus-rich soil as required for each Clematis:-

 

Step 1 - From How Soil is created with organic matter page:-

"Rock fragments alone lack the ability to supply adequate quantities of water and nutrients. However, certain bacteria, fungi and plant species have evolved to live in these conditions and are called ‘primary colonizers’. Lichen can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Lichens are a mutually beneficial association between algae and fungi. The algae obtain carbon and in some cases nitrogen from the atmosphere using a combination of photosynthesis and nitrogen-fixation. Once their own carbon and nitrogen requirements have been met, surplus nutrients are then passed to the fungi. The fungi attack the rock with organic acids. This releases minerals for the algae. When these organisms die, their tissues become combined with the mineral material, so forming the first organic-matter additions to the soil. As the amount of soil organic matter increases it becomes possible for other plants ( which extract their nitrogen from soil, rather than atmospheric sources) to colonize the site."

 

Step 2 - From Why is Organic matter important to soil? page

"Soil Type (sand, chalk or clay) and whether it is alkaline or acidic (chalky or limefree) soil also affects the choice of plants as well as the choice of how to improve their health and vigour.
Why is Organic matter important to Soil?
Soil formation starts when mineral material from rocks and organic matter from plants and animals are combined together.
Rock fragments without organic matter are unable to support plant growth. This combination of mineral and organic matter makes up about 50% of the soil volume: the remaining 50% is pore space, filled with either air or water depending on how wet the soil is.
Rocks like limestone and chalk are composed of prehistoric marine creatures. However, most rocks are composed of the element silicon, which is usually combined with oxygen to form silica and silicates."

 

Step 3 - From In Soil formation - What is Soil Texture page
 

Soil Texture

The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to as its texture as shown in the diagram below.

The gaps between the soil particles are called ‘soil pores’. These soil pores are used to provide the plants with water, air and nutrients dissolved in the water. The soil pores for sand (like the big gaps in a jumbled pile of bricks) are large and clay (like the small gaps in a loose pile of cement) pores are small.

 

Addition of Humus, Sand and Stone to improve the structure of Clay Soil

The Soil - The most important element to consider, when starting a planting plan, is the soil. Soil provides anchorage for plant roots and holds the water/nutrients that are necessary for maintaining life. It is made up of the following elements:-

  • ROCK PARTICLES - All soils except peat are mineral soils formed from rock particles. They have been ground out of the rocks on the planet's surface by the relentless action of rain, wind and frost. The size and shape of the particles vary according to the parent rock and the weather action, so that different types of soil are formed: clay, silt, sand and chalk. Each type of soil has different qualities of aeration, drainage and nutrient holding capacity.
  • HUMUS - The product of decayed and decaying plants and animals; humus or 'organic matter' is the magic ingredient which gives fertility to the soil. Humus improves the structure of the soil, making it dark brown and crumbly. It holds moisture without impeding drainage and is home to a wide range of bacteria and other micro-organisms that help the gardener by breaking down organic matter to release nutrients. Earthworms thrive in humus-rich soils, and their movement through the soil aids drainage and aeration. The proportion of humus to mineral particles varies in different soils. It can be added to poor soil in the form of well rotted manure, compost or leaf mould.
     
    • Step 3a -How is Humus Made? from Ivydene Gardens Soil Topic
      Organic component
      Organic residues are altered to new material called ‘humus’ in a humification process - see the diagram below:-.

how-is-humus-made_diagram

 

Step 3a continued
"Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.

When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants.

The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil.

Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus. 

Some experts think humus makes soil more fertile. Others say humus helps prevent disease in plants and food crops.

When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants.

Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil." from National Geographic.

 

Many gardeners in Britain, including those in the Royal Horticultural Society, tend to weed their beds, rake the ground level and leave that top soil fully exposed to the sun and wind. That means the humus content in the soil gradually disappears and your plants are not healthy, so along comes the chemical fertilizer (Growmore for the beds and Lawn fertilizer for the grass) and on it goes. The plants take up as much of this fertilizer as they want at that time before the fertilizer dissolved in water disappears down to the subsoil out of reach of the roots of that plant.

Instead of destroying natures system in the garden, why not put the weeds and prunings on the lawn and mow them using a rotary mower. Then, with the collected vegetable/fruit peelings, the egg shells, used tea bags and coffee grounds from the kitchen applied on your flower beds before covering that kitchen waste with the grass/weed/prunings mowings to a depth of 1 inch (2.5 cms) to provide food to enter natures recycling system. If weeds are put on the lawn from your weeding the day before you mow them, they have a chance to dry out and die off.

 

Step 3 continued

  • WATER - Entering the soil by precipitation (rain and snowfall), by absorption upwards from the water table underground and by seepage from rivers, lakes and ponds. Water is lost from the soil through natural drainage, through evaporation and through plants taking it up through their roots. Plants need access to water for the food-making process of photosynthesis.
  • AIR - Plants breathe through their roots, using the air trapped between the particles of rock and humus. Without air, soil becomes waterlogged suffocating most plant roots. The living organisms in the soil, on which plants depend, also need air.

ACID and ALKALINE SOIL - Soil with a high lime or chalk content is alkaline. When lime is not present, it is neutral or acid. Peat is acid. Acidity and alkalinity is measured in terms of the soil's pH level.

Neutral or nearly neutral (6.5-7.5) soils are ideal for most plants. At this pH level, nutrients are readily available. Some plants prefer alkaline soil and a few will only thrive in acid soils

 

The Soil Textural Triangle

soil12

Types of Soil

  • CLAY SOIL - Slow to dry out after rain. A lump squeezed in the hand feels dense, sticky and pliable like the clay used in pottery. Clay soils are known as 'heavy' soils. Clay can be acid, neutral or alkaline.

    (Clay soils contain 50% of stiff unctuous clay)
     
  • SANDY SOIL - Dries out quickly. Disintegrates when handled. Sandy soils are 'light'. Nutrients and lime are washed away, so sandy soils tend to be acid.

    (Sandy soils contain upwards of 20 %, or thereabouts, of silica; that is, of the crumbling debris of granite or sandstone rock)
     
  • PEATY SOIL - Holds water like a sponge. Usually acid and not very fertile.

    (Peaty soils or vegetable mould, the richest of all garden soils, contains from 5-12% of humus; that is, decomposed vegetable and animal matter)
     
  • CHALKY SOIL - Drains rapidly washing nutrients away. Very alkaline; the white parent rock is often close to the surface.

    (Calcareous soils contain upwards of 20% of lime in their composition)
     
  • LIMESTONE SOIL - Drains rapidly. Numerous stones are present, from tiny ones to large rocks. Alkaline pH, but less so than chalk.

    (Marly soil is the debris of limestone rock, decomposed and reduced to a paste. It contains from 5-20% of carbonate of lime - calcium carbonate.)
     
  • PERFECT GARDEN SOIL - The best all-purpose soil is known as loam, It is a balanced mixture of clay and sand with plenty of humus and is nearly neutral (The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how quartz grains - sand - are joined together by clay, organic matter and bacteria). Soils are usually described in terms of their relationship to this ideal, for instance sandy loam, clay loam, silty loam.

    (Loamy soil is soil in which the proportion of clay varies from 20-25%; sand, and various kinds of alluvium, making up the remainder.)

    Some recommendations below on how to improve your soil texture - I spent some months working on 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it. I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
     

Information in brackets in the 'Types of Soil' above comes from
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited. ASIN: B000WG5WKK

 

The climate in the South of England is temperate, with up to 20" of rainfall and a minimum temperature of 20-30 degrees Fahrenheit, and so require draught tolerant frost hardy plants.

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me:-

soil14

and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

 

Step 4 - From How is Clay created Page
Mineral component
Stones/gravel is greater than 2mm in diameter. The mineral component of a soil can be fractionated into 3 particle-size classes:

  • Sand (Coarse Sand 2-0.02mm,
    Fine Sand 0.2-0.06mm),
    Silt (0.06-0.002mm) and
    Clay (below 0.002mm).

Sand and silt particles are largely unaltered by chemical weathering. They are chemically the same as the mineral material in the parent rock.
Clay-sized particles have already undergone one phase of chemical weathering to go from a ‘primary mineral’ to a ‘secondary mineral’. In the clay size range there are different materials (silicon, iron, aluminium, magnesium, potassium and calcium), but we will concentrate on the aluminosilicate clay minerals. All clay minerals are composed of sheets of interlocking silica that alternate with sheets of aluminium oxide.

simplified-version-of-clay-mineral-formation_diagram

 

Step 5 - Soil Structure

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’.

These are formed when the soil is subjected to shrinking and swelling, plant-root penetration or freezing. All these processes tend to break the soil into discrete units. Aggregates are said to be stable when they are able to resist pressures caused by processes such as compaction and sudden wetting. Rapid wetting is a process in breaking up unstable aggregates, because when dry aggregates are suddenly exposed to water, pores near the surface of the aggregate become filled with water, trapping air inside the aggregate; the resulting pressure can sometimes be enough to break the aggregate apart, and this is called ‘slaking’. Aggregates are divided into microaggregates (less than 250 millionths of a metre) and macroaggregates (greater than 250 millionths of a metre).

Before microaggregates can form, microscopic clay minerals need to be grouped together in small stacks called ‘domains’. When clays are bonded together in this way, they are termed ‘flocculated’.

The most important factor influencing flocculation is the presence of ions with more than 1 charge. When clay minerals are covered with singly charged ions they disperse and become deflocculated (i.e. they will absorb a great deal of water without it draining).

 

However, not all ions carry only 1 charge.

For example, calcium (Ca2+) in lime or chalk, Magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminium (Al3+) are 3 very common ions in soils. Ions with multiple charges allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates.
Lime (Calcium), Magnesia (Magnesium) and Alumina (Aluminium) are 3 of the 11 chemicals with ions in the soil and are further detailed below followed by their affect on their lack or not; in Sandy, Calcareous and Clay soils.

The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.

soil15

 

Step 6 - If the problem is a very Sandy Soil, then change the 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand in the above mixture for 2 cubic metres of Clay. Put the clay in the mixer first with 0.5 cubic metre of water to dissolve the clay. Then once the clay is liquefied, add the remaining ingredients except the peat and mix whilst still still keeping it liquid. Then add the peat and mix it in before filling the required transportation sacks. Transport these sacks as quickly as possible to their destination and mulch the ground with a 6 inch depth (15 cms) of this damp material. The ground should transform into a good loam within 4 months, providing that is not walked or driven on during that time.

item1c1a1 item31a1a1a2 item18a1a1a2 item5b1a1a2 item52a1a1a1a1 item53a1a1a1a item51a1a1a1a item50a1a1a1a item47a1a1a1a item46a1a1a1a item43a1a1a1a item39a1a1a1a item37a1a1a1a item36a1a1a1a item33a1a1a1a item32a1a1a1a item31a1a1a1a item29a1a1a1a item27a1a1a1a item23a1a1a1a item19a1a1a1a item18a1a1a1a item15a1a1a1a item12a1a1a1a item9a1a1a1a item7a1a1a1a item3a1a1a1a item2a1a1a1a item1c1a1 item31a1a1a2 item18a1a1a2 item5b1a1a2 item52a1a1a1a1 item53a1a1a1a item51a1a1a1a item50a1a1a1a item47a1a1a1a item46a1a1a1a item43a1a1a1a item39a1a1a1a item37a1a1a1a item36a1a1a1a item33a1a1a1a item32a1a1a1a item31a1a1a1a item29a1a1a1a item27a1a1a1a item23a1a1a1a item19a1a1a1a item18a1a1a1a item15a1a1a1a item12a1a1a1a item9a1a1a1a item7a1a1a1a item3a1a1a1a item2a1a1a1a item5b item5b item6d item6d item7a1 item7a1 item92c item92c item8a item8a item10a item10a item9a item9a item5a1 item5a1 item6a1 item6a1 item10b1 item10b1 item37a item1b2 item1b2 item11a item11a item4c1 item4c1 item12a item12a item92a1 item92a1 item13a item13a item14a item14a item15a item15a item21a item21a item16a item16a item44b item44b item14b1 item14b1 item4d1b1 item4d1b1 item18a item18a item4e1 item4e1 item17a item17a item20a item20a item19a item19a item22b item22b item23a item23a item24a item24a item25a item25a item20b1 item20b1 item26a item26a item27a item27a item46b item46b item28a item28a item1a1a1 item1a1a1 item1a item1a item29a item29a item30a item30a item16b1 item16b1 item21b1 item21b1 item48a1 item48a1 item22a1 item22a1 item125a1 item125a1 item25c1 item25c1 item7a2a1 item7a2a1 item34b2 item34b2 item26d1 item26d1 item4f1a item4f1a item29b1 item29b1 item35b2 item35b2 item31c1 item31c1 item12e1a item12e1a item32b1 item32b1 item95a2 item95a2 item33a1 item33a1 item12d1a item12d1a item34b1a item34b1a item80a2 item80a2 item35b1a item35b1a item36c2 item36c2 item1e1 item1e1 item7a1b1 item7a1b1 item36c1a item36c1a item37a1a item37a1a item37c1 item37c1 item66a2 item66a2 item38a1 item38a1 item20d1a item20d1a item3c1 item3c1 item24b1a item24b1a item4g1 item4g1 item5c1a item5c1a item39a item39a item15b1a item15b1a item40a item40a item12b1a item12b1a item41b1 item41b1 item12c1a item12c1a item42a1 item42a1 item19b1a item19b1a item43a item43a item102a1 item102a1 item44a1 item44a1 item26b1a item26b1a item45a item45a item36a1a item36a1a item46a1 item46a1 item89a2 item89a2 item47a1 item47a1 item76a2 item76a2 item48b item48b item26c1a item26c1a item49a item50b item50b item31a1b1 item31a1b1 item50a1 item50a1 item62a2 item62a2 item51a item51a item96a2 item96a2 item52a item52a item41c1 item41c1 item53a item53a item42b1 item42b1 item1c1a item1c1a item1f1 item1f1 item112a1a item112a1a item5d1 item5d1 item18c1a item18c1a item54a item54a item41a1a item41a1a item55a item55a item32a1a item32a1a item56a1 item56a1 item13b1a item13b1a item57a1 item57a1 item139a1 item139a1 item1d1a item1d1a item58a item58a item33b2 item33b2 item59a item59a item34a1a item34a1a item60a item60a item101a2 item101a2 item61a item61a item65a2 item65a2 item62a1a item62a1a item103a1 item103a1 item63a item63a item170a1 item170a1 item64a item64a item14c1 item14c1 item35a1a item35a1a item65a1a item65a1a item20c1a item20c1a item66a1a item66a1a item36b1a item36b1a item67a item67a item9b1a item9b1a item68a item68a item141a1 item141a1 item70a item70a item18b1a item18b1a item71a item71a item37b1a item37b1a item72a item72a item112a2 item112a2 item73a item73a item75a2 item75a2 item74a item74a item25b1a item25b1a item75a1a item75a1a item27b1a item27b1a item76a1a item76a1a item167a1 item167a1 item77a item77a item98a2 item98a2 item78a item78a item31a1 item31a1 item31b1b item31b1b item79a item79a item38b2 item38b2 item80a1a item80a1a item56b1 item56b1 item47b1 item47b1 item81a item81a item32a2 item32a2 item82a item82a item57b1 item57b1 item83a item83a item4h1 item4h1 item84a item84a item4a1a1 item4a1a1 item85a item85a item4d1a2 item4d1a2 item86a item86a item4d1a1a item4d1a1a item6b1 item6b1 item4d2a1 item4d2a1 item4a2a item4a2a item7b1 item7b1 item4i1 item4i1 item87a item87a item4d2b item4d2b item8b1 item8b1 item31d1 item31d1 item88a item88a item1g1 item1g1 item89a1a item89a1a item1h1 item1h1 item3d1 item3d1 item1i1 item1i1 item3e1 item3e1 item90a item90a item91a item91a item92b1 item92b1 item4j1 item4j1 item31e1 item31e1 item1j1 item1j1 item4d3a item4d3a item4k1 item4k1 item31b1a1 item31b1a1 item93a item93a item32c1 item32c1 item94a item94a item3f1a item3f1a item4l1 item4l1 item33b1a item33b1a item95a1a item95a1a item3a item3a item3b1 item3b1 item31b2a item31b2a item96a1a item96a1a item34c1 item34c1 item97a item97a item35c1 item35c1 item98a1a item98a1a item36d1 item36d1 item99a item99a item38b1a item38b1a item1b1a item1b1a item4a1 item4a1 item4b1 item4b1 item5e1 item5e1 item6c1 item6c1 item100a item100a item4d4a item4d4a item101a1a item101a1a item4a3a item4a3a